English Debate

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English Debate

  1. 1. ENGLISH DEBATE Ryche Dewata Sari ( 14 / XI IA 2 )
  2. 2. DEBATING IS : About developing communication skills About assembling and organizing effective arguments About persuading and entertaining audience About convincing adjudicator that your arguments are better than your opposition
  3. 3. DEBATING IS NOT: About personal abuse, irrational attacks or purely emotional attacks
  4. 4. BENEFIT OF DEBATING  Cultivates quick, multi dimensional, and logical thinking  Improves self confidence and speaking style  Enriches leadership qualities  Improves the ability to develop reasonable opinions  Improves anticipative way of thinking
  5. 5. GOOD DEBATER POSSESS  Ability to acquire knowledge and analyze current issues  Ability to generate creative ideas  Ability to think critically and logically  Ability to present the ideas clearly and systematically
  6. 6. DEBATING BASICS A debate is held between two teams of three members each Affirmative Vs Negative (Government) (Opposition) Speech Order ; 1) 1st affirmative 2) 1st negative 3) 2nd affirmative 4) 2nd negative 5) 3rd affirmative 6) 3rd negative 7) Negative reply 8) Affirmative reply
  7. 7. o Affirmative team (government) must defend and give constructive arguments to the motion. The affirmative has a right to define the motion and it must be reasonable definition. o Negative team (opposition) must oppose or give counter-case arguments to the motion.
  8. 8. IMPORTANT TERMS  Motion = topic being discussed in the debate  Members of this house = members of parliament  Adjudicator = judge (honorable adjudicators)  Rebuttal = opinion used to attack the opponent  Theme line = statement to prove a team‟s stand on the motion  Team split = arguments to support theme line  Case building = time to prepare the argument (25/30 min)  Verbal adjudication = resume from the adjudicator to decide the winner.  Margin = the score between your team with your opponent.
  9. 9. MOTION Motion also known topic of the debate, is full propositional statements that determines what a debate shall be about *It is not in the form of questions or phrases Example: a. This house believes that education should be for free b. This house believes that condoms should be distributed at school
  10. 10. ROLES OF THE SPEAKER 1st affirmative  Defines the motion of the debate  Presents the affirmative‟s theme line  Outline the affirmative‟s team split  Deliver substantial argument (1st affirmative part of the split)  Provides a brief summary/recap of the speech
  11. 11. 1ST NEGATIVE  Provides a response to the definition (accepts or challenges the definition)  Rebuts 1st affirmative  Presents the negative‟s theme line  Outlines the negative‟s team split  Delivers substantial arguments (1st negative‟s part of the split)  Provides a brief summary/recap of the speech
  12. 12. 2ND AFFIRMATIVE  Rebuts the 1st negative‟s major arguments  Briefly restates terms the affirmative‟s team case (reinforces the idea/ argument delivered by 1st speaker)  Delivers substantial arguments (2nd affirmative‟s split). Most of the 2nd affirmative‟s time should be dealing with new substantial material/arguments  Provides a brief summary/ recap of the speech
  13. 13. 2ND NEGATIVE  Rebuts the 2nd affirmative‟s argument (could also rebuts first two affirmative)  Briefly restates terms the negative‟s team case (reinforces the idea/argument delivered by 1st speaker)  Delivers substantial argument (2nd negative‟s split. Most of the 2nd negative‟s time should be dealing with new arguments)  Provides a brief summary/ recap of the speech
  14. 14. 3RD AFFIRMATIVE  Rebuts the points/arguments raised by the first two negative speaker. The 3rd affirmative is mainly entrusted with the duty of responding to the arguments of the negative that were not previously dealt with by the first two affirmative speaker. 3rd affirmative may also reinforce rebuttals that have been stated by teammates (could also possibly bring new split)  Rebuild team‟s case  Summarizes the issues of the debate (summary)
  15. 15. 3RD NEGATIVE  Rebuts the point raised by all three affirmative speaker. The 3rd negative speaker cannot bring a new matter/argument/ split (see also duties of 3rd affirmative which are quite similar to the duties of the 3rd negative here). New examples are not considered to be new matter/argument  Rebuilds team‟s case  Summarizes the issues of the debate (summary)
  16. 16. REPLY SPEECH Reply speakers give a recap of the debate and convincing biased adjudication. (reply speech is not rebuttal) Reply speakers duties:  Provide summary of overview of the debate/ what is the clash/ point of contention  Identify the issues raised by both sides (what our team has given and what the other side has given as well)  Provide a biased adjudication of the debate and also to convince the adjudicator that your team should win that debate.
  17. 17. REPLY SPEECH - May be delivered by 1st or 2nd speaker - Reply speech is not rebuttal - Reply speaker may not bring new matter
  18. 18. DEFINITION  The motion must be defined by affirmative team  A definition clarifies the motion  A definition gives a clear description of boundaries to the motion; limiting what the debate will be about into a focused discussion  It will try to avoid different interpretations from both teams of what actually being debated  It must be debatable  Explain the key-words in motion/topic  Definition should allow the negative team to
  19. 19. A GOOD DEFINITION SHOULD NOT BE  Truistic definition; it is „true‟ by nature  Tautological or circular definition; it is logically impossible to negate  Squirreling definition; doesn‟t have logical link to the motion  Time and place setting; it consists of specific knowledge FAIR DEFINITON IS A MUST
  20. 20. THEME LINE  It used to prove a team‟s stand on the motion, and answer the question “WHY” to the defined motion.  It is the underlying logic of a team‟s case  It is “Case In A Nutshell”  It is the main idea that links together the first, second, and third speaker  It can be in form of short sentence (single sentence) Ex : we agree with this motion because…………. (+) we don‟t agree with this motion because…. (-)
  21. 21. TEAM SPLIT - Debating is a team activity (one person/ speaker cannot take all arguments and become the sole defender of team‟s case) - It is a distribution of the arguments among the speaker (first and second speaker) - Each individual speech must prove the motion (try to avoid “Hung Case”) - Ex : Social 1st speaker Economy 2nd speaker Politics 2nd speaker
  22. 22. REBUTTAL Good rebuttal should be 1) Showing that the opposing argument is illogical 2) Showing that the opposing argument is based on an error of fact or a misinterpretation of fact/ evidence 3) Showing that the opposing argument does not have strong and enough data, fact, or evidence 4) Showing that the opposing argument is irrelevant to the proof of the topic/ motion 5) Showing that the opposing argument involves unacceptable implication and application
  23. 23. When we rebut we must show how and why the opposition arguments are invalid :  An argument may be wrong in fact or logic – if so, say how and why  An argument may contradict their team  An argument may be true but completely irrelevant It is not necessary to rebut every single point and fact raised by the opposition. It is not simply in the form of “questions”
  24. 24. ARGUMENT What adjudicators look for in good argument: 1) Relevance 2) Organization 3) Consistency and internal logic-i.e. don‟t contradict yourself or you teammates. 4) Clarity (remember, debating is about persuading your audience and adjudicator that you‟re right – so make sure they can understand what you‟re saying) 5) Effective use of evidence
  25. 25. GETTING THE ARGUMENTS RIGHT 1) Identify what you have to prove under the motion 2) Identify what helps you to prove it 3) Anticipate the questions/rebuttal 4) Block the opportunity for those 5) Present the arguments in good order
  26. 26. GOOD ARGUMENT SHOULD HAVE:  A = Assertion  R = Reason  E = Evidence/ Example  L = Link
  27. 27. ADJUDICATION 1) MATTER (the content) 40%: what you present/ say; ARGUMENT, EVIDENCE, EXAMPLES (could be from authentic materials) and REBUTTALS 2) MANNER (how you present/say) 40%; DELIVERY/ PUBLIC SPEAKING ABILITY: how effective and persuasive is the speaker‟s manner in delivering the argument
  28. 28. ELEMENTS OF MANNER  Gesture  Eye contact  Stance  Language  Vocal style; volume, clarity, intonation, and pronunciation  Use of notes; not to read a lot  Expression of sincerity  Fluency  Humor  No personal attack
  29. 29. METHOD (HOW YOU ORGANIZE WHAT YOU SAY) 20%  Structure and organization includes: - Structure of individual speech (time management, i.e. overtime/under time) - Structure of the team‟s case (fulfillment of the roles of the speakers) - Response to the dynamics of the debate
  30. 30. ADJUDICATORS BRIEFING REMEMBER! ⋆ Assess what is in a debate only ⋆ You don‟t think for the debaters ⋆ Don‟t use personal belief ⋆ Use your common sense ⋆ Take detail notes of the debate Adjudicator is an Average Reasonable Person
  31. 31. PHYLOSOPHY OF ADJUDICATING Decide who wins the debate Decide margin of the debate Decide team‟s score Provide decision with acceptable reason
  32. 32. SCORING METHOD;  Decide who the winner is (compare both teams and analyze each strength and weaknesses; advantages and disadvantages; how team‟s advantages benefit them)  Decide the margin  Assigning score to each team (giving score for each of the speaker according to the marking scale; try not to give extreme score)
  33. 33. MARKING SCALE Matter/Manner Method Meaning 27 13 Very poor 28-29 14 Below average-Poor 30 15 Average 31-32 16 Above average-very good 33 17 Excellent
  34. 34. MARKING SCALE; MARGIN Margin Meaning 1-4 A very close debate with only minor differences separating both teams 5-9 A relatively clear decision with one team having an obvious advantage 10-12 A very clear win
  35. 35. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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