R callaghan DT774 Energy and Retrofit Presentation
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R callaghan DT774 Energy and Retrofit Presentation

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End of year PG Cert presentation

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  • Notes for Slide 1:My name and background.Project within DT774 Energy Retrofit Module
  • Energy use in this context means the energy required for the space heating, ventilation, water heating and lighting of a dwelling.Energy used in dwellings may be supplied from the electricity grid, the combustion of natural gas, fossil fuels and biomass, renewable technologies. Energy use in dwellings can be measured in many ways; one is a BER assessment. It is a standardised indication of the energy performance of a dwelling. Another is through in-use measurement. This is by monitoring energy bills. In this presentation we will be focusing on the Dwelling Energy Assessment Procedure (DEAP) as a measure of dwelling energy performance.
  • There are many units that energy are expressed in. But kilowatt-hours (kWh) is the standard unit used in BER assessments.A kWh will run a CFL Bulb for 90 hours, a 3kW kettle for 20 minutes or a 20kW Gas boiler for 3 minutes. Distinguishing between primary and delivered energy is very important in this context. Delivered energy is the amount of energy expended at the point of use. Whereas Primary energy is the total amount of energy used including the energy requirements for the conversion of primary sources and the transferring of the energy to the dwelling.
  • This slide shows the total Irish Energy Use by Sector for 2011. As we can see transport accounts for 40% of the total energy use.Residential comes in at 25%. This shows the importance of creating a sustainable energy supply for dwellings.
  • There are many reasons why dwellings should be made more energy efficient.Society will benefit from reduced fuel poverty, increased national fuel security and greater health and welbeing.Financially we can achieve Lower operating costs, less wastage and counteract increasing oil & gas prices.It will also be good for the environment; reducing greenhouse gas emissions, airborne particles and pollution and there will be less need for mining, fracking or invasive oil drilling
  • There are some key Policy Drivers that set conservation targets for the building industry.Chief among these is the EU Climate and Energy Package which aims for a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; increasing renewable energy to 20% of the total and a 20% improvement in energy efficiency.The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive aims to introduce Nearly Zero Energy Buildings by 2020 in the private sector and by 2018 in the public sector.These EU Directives are filtered down through national policies and implemented by the use of Building Regulations such as Part L - Conservation of Fuel and Energy.Other Notes:EU Climate and Energy PackageAims for a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; incresing renewable energy to 20% of the total and a 20% improvement in energy efficiency.EPBD:NZEB for private sectors by 2020, public sectors by 2018EU Renewable Energy Supply – Electricity: 15% by 2010 and 30% by 2020NEEAP: 20% energy savings target in 2020.  Recognising that Government must lead by example, 33% reduction in public sector energy use
  • A progressive retrofit policy benefits both financial and energy expenditure.For example we benefit by retaining the Existing building structure, the Embodied energy and CO2 of existing building and by future-proofing our asset.Capital expenditure is likely to be reduced as there is likely to be Existing Infrastructure and Local Services in the immediate vicinity. Plus, there is the added advantage of there already being a community in place.
  • The Dwelling Energy Assessment Procedure (DEAP) is the official Irish method for calculating and assessing the energy required in dwellings. It may also be used to demonstrate compliance with the EPBD and elements of Part L.DEAP calculates the primary energy per square meter per annum for a dwelling and the BER grade is based on this.DEAP includes energy calculations for Space Heating,Domestic Hot Water, Lighting and any associated Fans and pumps.It does not count Non-fixed appliances and heaters,Energy used to construct building and produce building fabric or Actual in-use measurements.
  • During the design process DEAP can be used to measure the progress of the proposal to meet any energy performance targets set.At a preliminary stage various inputs to the DEAP calculator can be made. A preliminary result will then be obtained.If required a redesign of the proposal can be carried out and the cycle can start again.This can be done until the energy performance targets are met.
  • The Energy Performance Targets Set for the Flat Top Block project are:Full compliance with Irish Building Regulations as if it were a new building. ABER rating of A2 using the DEAP methodology.TheCriteria that indirectly affect the energy strategy are the Hygrothermal analysis and the condensation risk analysis of the building envelope,The main requirements set the standards to be achieved, whereas the indirect criteria affect items such as material selection and location of insulation layers.
  • This slide shows Energy Use in Average Dwelling in Existing Flat Top Block.It has a BER grade of E1 & Primary Energy of 316kWh/m²/y.The space heating demand makes up the main portion of the energy demand for the dwelling.The total primary energy demand for space heating is 14300 kWh/y. The water heating demand is 5600kWh/y.Lighting, make up the remainder of the energy use. Approximately 2000kWh/y.The total primary energy demand for this dwelling is 210002000kWh/y. Delivered Primary RenewablesSpace heating 13015 14316Water Heating 5164 5618Lighting 639 1548Fans and Pumps 175 424Total 18993 21906
  • The typical post retrofit unit achieves a BER grade of A2 & Primary Energy of 37kWh/m²/y.We can see that water heating has taken over from space heating as the main primary energy user.Water heating uses 1476kWh/y, whereas space heating uses only 332kWh/y.The total primary energy usage of the dwelling is 2747kWh/y.This is an 87% reduction over the pre-retrofit unit. Delivered Primary Renewables Previous PrimarySpace heating 515 332 183 14316Water Heating 2287 1476 811 5618Lighting 360 871 0 1548Fans and Pumps 28 68 0 424Total 3190 2747 994 21906 87% Reduction
  • The reason for the improvement becomes clear when we compare the heat loss between the existing and the retrofitted building.The ventilation heat loss is approximately the same. However the fabric heat loss through both the planar elements and the LTBs have each been reduced by over 90%.The total heat loss for the existing unit is 269W/K whereas the retrofitted unit has a heat loss of only 50W/K. Existing Retrofit Ventilation 36 32Fabric – Planar 202 16Fabric LTB 31 2Total 269 50 W/K
  • The Methods Employed to improve Energy Performance in Flat Top Block are:A group heating system with high efficiency, and Solar Thermal Panels and CHP incorporated.And as we have seen heat loss through the building envelope has been greatly reduced through; the improvement of u-values,Reduction linear thermal bridges and the increased air-tightness of the envelope.CHP has a negligible transmission loss rate. This reduces Primary energy used. At the moment the electricity network ratio is approximately 2.4 to 1 for energy produced to delivered energy. The aim is to reduce this to a factor of 1 all the time.These changes were made and analysed through DEAP step by step. Indications of where to improve were taken from the assessment tool and incorporated into the retrofit design
  • There are many Benefits of Renewable Energy Production. I will list some of these for you now.Environmentally - Renewables reduce the need to burn fossil fuels and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is a more sustainable energy system.There are financial benefits also. After the initial expenditure the energy costs from renewables are negligible in comparison to energy utility costs. However, the payback period from reduced utility bills varies for different technologies and projects.There are many varieties of renewable technologies available to choose from. This allows you to adapt the strategy to your site constraints.Some examples of renewable technology are: solar thermal, photovoltaic panels, micro-wind power, biomass combustion, heat pumps.
  • It is important to note that there are minimum requirements in Part L for the generation of renewable energy. It is 10 kWh/m²/y contributing to water and space heating or 4 kWh/m²/y to electrical energy.Your BER is greatly improved through the introduction of renewable energy. Within DEAP, the net energy produced by the technology is subtracted from delivered energy in the DEAP assessment. Thus the associated primary energy factor and CO2 emissions are reduced.The energy strategy used in my proposal is a Combined Heat and Power boiler and Solar thermal preheat to this. Flat plate solar panels have been shown above the balcony areas and dispersed around the main roof. These provide a substantial proportion of heat energy to the DHW and SH systems.While gas fired CHP is not considered to be a renewable energy source, the lack of transmission losses allow for much greater electrical efficiencies and lower CO2 emissions within the scheme. This is because at the moment the electricity network ratio for the national grid is approximately 2.4 to 1 for primaryenergy produced to delivered energy.
  • If we focus solely on energy use when selecting a heating system for the building then we may not specify a heating system that is the most efficient in terms of CO2 emissions.Different fuels and energy sources have varying CO2 emission factors. For example mains gas has a CO2 emission factor of 0.203 kg/kWh,whereas electricity has a CO2 emission factor of 0.524 kg/kWh.TGD Part L prescribes the Maximum Permitted Carbon Performance Coefficient for dwellings as 0.46.Thus the selection of a fuel with a high CO2 emission factormayto non-compliance with TGD Part L.The average MPCPC for the dwellings in the existing building is approximately 1.8. This is improved to 0.235 for the retrofit design. At this level the proposed scheme will comply with the requirements of Part L for CO2 emissions.
  • A successful retrofit scheme will deliver a building that will be sustainable and future-friendly.This will largely be achieved through a robust and highly efficient energy strategy for the proposed dwellings.The cost of implementing a retrofit scheme should be lower than that of constructing a new-build similar project. Thus the payback period of the investment should be achieved in a shorter time.Ultimately what will determine the success of the project is the increased health, wellbeing and quality of life for the residents.Thank You.

Transcript

  • 1. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitProject 5 Presentation:17th May 2013In relation to the Flat Top Block Complex
  • 2. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013What do we mean by ‘energy use’ in this context?How do we measure energy use in dwellings?The energy required for the space heating, ventilation, water heating andlighting of a dwelling.Where does the energy used in dwellings come from?Energy used may be from the electricity grid, the combustion of naturalgas, fossil fuels and biomass, renewable technologies (solar, wind, etc.)BER assessment: an indication of the energy performance of a dwelling.In-use measurement: monitoring energy bills.
  • 3. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013What is energy use measured in?What is primary and delivered energy usage in dwellings?There are many units that energy is expressed in(Joules, Calories, Horsepower, BTU, etc.)Kilowatt-hours (kWh) of Energy are used in BER assessments.What can one Kilowatt-hour do?Run a 11W CFL Bulb for 90 hours.Run a 3kW kettle for 20 minutes.Run a 20kW Gas boiler for 3 minutes.Delivered energy is the amount of energyexpended at the point of use. e.g. The energymeasured at the electricity meter.Primary energy is the total amount of energy usedincluding the energy requirements for the conversionof primary sources (oil, gas, peat) and the transferringof the energy to the dwelling.e.g. Energy used in oil refining and electricity lossesduring transmission.
  • 4. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Source: SEAI Energy StatisticsDatabank from www.cso.ieIrish Energy Use by Sector for 2011 Transport (40%)Residential (25%)Industry (20%)Commercial services(7%)Public services (5%)Agricultural andFisheries (3%)Importance of creating sustainableenergy supply for dwellings
  • 5. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Sustainable Energy / Energy ConservationThere are many reasons why dwellings should be made more energy efficient:Societal:no fuel poverty, national fuelsecurity, health and wellbeing, ensuringsustainable energy supply for futuregenerations.Financial:Lower operating costs, less wastage(through inefficiency), counteractincreasing oil & gas prices.Environmental:Reduce greenhouse gasemissions, reduce airborne particles andpollution, less mining, fracking or oildrilling.
  • 6. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy Conservation Targets and ControlsInternational Policy Drivers:• Kyoto Protocol• EU Climate and Energy Package(20-20-20 targets)• Energy Performance of Buildings Directive(2002/91/EC and Re-cast 2010/31/EU)• EU Renewable Energy Supply - ElectricityDirectiveNational Policy Drivers:• National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2(NEEAP)• National Spatial Strategy• National Development Plan• National Climate Change StrategyNational Regulations & GuidanceDocuments:• Part L (2011) Conservation of Fuel andEnergy• Part F (2009) Ventilation• Part J (1997) Heat Producing Appliances
  • 7. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy Conservation and RetrofitSimilar benefits exist as to why retrofit is a progressive policy in relation to bothmonetary expenditure and energy expenditure.• Existing building structure.• Embodied energy of existing building.• Embodied CO2 of existing building.• Future-proofing of asset.• Existing Infrastructure.• Existing Local Services.• Existing Communities• Quicker return on investmentthrough lifecycle cost savings
  • 8. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013DEAP Assessment ToolThe Dwelling Energy Assessment Procedure (DEAP) is the official Irish methodfor calculating and assessing the energy required in dwellings.Used to demonstrate compliance with the EPBD and elements of Part L.DEAP calculates the primary energy per square meter per annum. ( kWh/m²/y )The BER grade is based on this figure.Items included in calculations of the required energy input:• Space Heating – fabric heat loss (planar + LTB), ventilation heat loss.• Domestic Hot Water – based on floor areas / occupancy and efficiency ofboiler and controls and insulation of pipework.• Lighting – proportion of energy efficiency lightbulbs• Fans and pumps – for ventilation (heat recovery), for renewables (pumpSHW), for flues (in boilers).Energy use that DEAP doesn’t count:• Non-fixed appliances and heaters.• Energy used to construct building and produce building fabric.• Actual in-use measurements.
  • 9. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013DEAP Calculator as a Design ToolDuring the design process DEAP can be used to measure the progress of theproposal to meet any energy performance targets set.Input geometry andareas of proposal.Input ventilationsystemsInput u-values ofFabric.Input lightingvalues.Input window u-valuesand orientation.Input SH & DHWsystem specificationsCheck PreliminaryResultRedesign proposal(if required)
  • 10. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy Targets Set in Flat Top BlockRetrofit Performance Specification• Hygrothermal analysis for all enclosing elements using the Glaser (steadystate) method in accordance with Irish Building Regulations.• Surface temperature/condensation risk (fRsi) calculation for internal surfacesof the thermal envelope in ground and fifth floor rooms adjacent to the gablein accordance with Irish Building Regulations.• Full compliance with Irish Building Regulations as if it were a new building.• BER of A2 using the DEAP methodology (with calculated y-factor).Criteria indirectly affecting energy strategy.
  • 11. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy Use in Average Dwelling in Existing Flat Top BlockUnit 9 located in the Long Block. BER grade of E1 & Primary Energy of 316kWh/m²/y0200040006000800010000120001400016000Space Heating Water Heating Lighting Pumps and FansDelivered EnergyPrimary EnergyRenewable EnergykWh/y
  • 12. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy Use in Average Dwelling in Retrofitted Flat Top BlockMid Floor Type A2 Unit. BER grade of A2 & Primary Energy of 37kWh/m²/y05001000150020002500Space Heating Water Heating Lighting Pumps and FansDelivered EnergyPrimary EnergyRenewable EnergykWh/y
  • 13. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Heat Loss Comparison - Existing and RetrofitUnit 9 located in the Long Block. BER grade of E1 & Primary Energy of 316kWh/m²/y-v-Mid Floor Type A2 Unit. BER grade of A2 & Primary Energy of 37kWh/m²/y050100150200250Ventilation Fabric - Planar Fabric - LTBExisting BuildingProposed RetrofitW/K
  • 14. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Methods Employed to improve EnergyPerformance in Flat Top Block RetrofitImprovement of u-values ofbuilding envelope.Reduction of heat loss throughlinear thermal bridgesIncreased air-tightness ofenvelope.Group heating system with highefficiency, and Solar ThermalPanels and CHP incorporated.
  • 15. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013The Benefits of Renewable Energy ProductionFor the environment: Renewablesreduce the need to burn fossil fuelsand thus reduce greenhouse gasemissions. It is a more sustainableenergy system.Financially: After the initial expenditure the energy costs from renewables arenegligible in comparison to energy utility costs. Payback period from reducedutility bills varies for different technologies and projects.There are many varieties ofrenewable technologies availableto choose from:solar thermal, photovoltaicpanels, micro-windpower, biomass combustion, heatpumps, etc.
  • 16. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013The importance of Renewable Energy ProductionCombined Heat and Power (CHP) andSolar thermal were employed in theFlat Top Block Retrofit proposal.Within DEAP: The net energy produced by the technology is subtractedfrom delivered energy in the DEAP assessment. Thus the associated primaryenergy factor and CO2 emissions are reduced.Flat plate solar panels have beenshown above the balcony areas and onthe main roof. These provide asubstantial proportion of heat energy tothe DHW and SH systems.While gas fired CHP is not considered to be arenewable energy source, the lack of transmissionlosses allow for much greater electricalefficiencies and lower CO2 emissions within thescheme. Other micro-generation systems have asimilar advantage.TGD Part L: The minimum requirements for dwellings is 10 kWh/m²/ycontributing to water and space heating or 4 kWh/m²/y to electrical energy.
  • 17. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy Use versus Carbon Dioxide EmissionsDifferent fuels and energy sourceshave varying CO2 emission factors.Some examples are shown in thetable to the right.TGD Part L prescribes the Maximum Permitted Carbon Performance Coefficient(MPCPC) for dwellings as 0.46.The average MPCPC for the dwellings in the existing building is approximately 1.8.The average MPCPC for the Flat Top Block design proposal is 0.235 whichindicates that the proposed scheme will comply with the requirements of Part L forCO2 emissions.Primary energyfactorCO2 emissionfactor[kg/kWh]Gas mains gas 1.1 0.203Oil heating oil 1.1 0.272Solid fuelmanufactured smokelessfuel 1.2 0.392peat briquettes 1.1 0.377wood logs 1.1 0.025Electricity electricity 2.42 0.524Groupheatingwaste heat from powerstations 1.1 0.057
  • 18. Richard CallaghanD11125988DT774 PG Cert DAEREnergy and RetrofitIn relation to the Flat Top Block ComplexProject 5 Presentation: 17th May 2013Energy in the Retrofit Context - ReflectionsA successful retrofit scheme will delivera building that will be sustainable andfuture-friendly.This will largely be achievedthrough a robust and highlyefficient energy strategy for theproposed dwellings.The cost of implementing a retrofit schemeshould be lower than that of constructing anew-build similar project. Thus the paybackperiod for renewable technology and highlyinsulated fabric should be achieved in ashorter period.Ultimately what will determine the success ofthe project is the increased health, wellbeingand quality of life for the residents.