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next generation smart sensor

next generation smart sensor



smart sensors

smart sensors
intelligent sensors
generation of sensors



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    next generation smart sensor next generation smart sensor Presentation Transcript

    • Presented By: Richa Ritambhara 0911016044 Sec- C Branch-ECE 1
    • INTRODUCTION  Sensors are devices used to provide information on the presence or absence of an object.  Sensors such as photoelectric, inductive, capacitive, and ultrasonic change their output when an object is present without touching the sensor.  Sensors are capable of manipulation and computation of the sensor-derived data.  Sensors simply take physical, biological or chemical input & convert it to the measured value into a digital format.  Sensors are made from silicon to make them low cost. 2
    • WHAT IS SMART SENSOR ?  Smart sensors are defined by the IEEE 1451 standard as sensors with small memory and standardized physical connection to enable the communication with processor and data network.  A sensor producing an electrical output when combined with interfacing electronic circuits is known as “Smart Sensor”.  It is a combination of both sensor and actuator. [sensor + interfacing circuit = smart sensor]  Capable of logic functions, two-way communication and making decisions. 4
    • WHY SMART SENSOR ?  Self calibration: Adjust deviation of output of sensor from desired value.  Communication: Broadcast information about its own status.  Computation: Allows one to obtain the average, variance and standard deviation for the set of measurements.  Multisensing: A single smart sensor can measure pressure, temperature, humidity, gas flow and infrared chemical reaction surface acoustic vapour etc.  Cost improvement: less hardware and reduction of repetitive testing make smart sensor cost effective. 5
    • WHAT IS INTELLIGENT SENSOR ?  The intelligent sensor concept is based on adding the possibility of processing the sensor data, the flexibility to reconfigure embedded functions, and also to aggregate external sensors’ data.  Since it is an evolution of smart sensors, no penalties in term of cost and performance are expected.  The outcome is the combination of a sensor, a small microcontroller, the necessary memory– flash, RAM and ROM, and an optimized architecture for sensor applications.  The main issue of the intelligent sensor is the software partitioning with the applications processor since this concept is new to most software engineers. 7
    • MORE ABOUT INTELLIGENT SENSOR  The intelligent sensor structure in an application enables the customization of the embedded algorithms to specific applications; moreover, the customization can happen by reprogramming the flash(memory).  Since a microcontroller is available, the management and control of external sensors- basic or smart sensors- or external devices- like LEDs- is now possible.  An optimized architecture with atleast two digital interfaces, master and slave and one analog input are necessary to respond to this extra functionality.  The key constraints are relative to existing sensors: not to exceed the form factor of an existing sensor, minimize the extra cost and equivalent inner power consumption. 8
    • EVOLUTION- SMART SENSORS  First generation devices had little, if any, electronics associated with them. Had MEMS sensor element (mostly based on a silicon structure) and sometimes combined with analog amplification on a micro chip.  Second generation sensors were part of purely analog systems with virtually all of the electronics remote from the sensor. Had MEMS sensor element combined with analog amplification and analog-to-digital converter on one micro chip. 10
    • THIRD GENERATION SENSORS Fusion of the sensor element with analog amplification, analog-to-digital converter and digital intelligence for linearization and temperature compensation on the same micro chip. 11
    • FOURTH GENERATION SENSORS Memory cells for calibration and temperature compensation data are added to the elements of the 3rd MEMS sensor generation. 12
    • FIFTH GENERATION SENSORS 13 This generation sensors are equivalent to intelligent sensors.
    • APPLICATIONS OF SMART SENSORS  Accelerometer: It consists of the sensing element and electronics on silicon. The accelerometer itself is a metal-coated SiO2 cantilever beam that is fabricated on silicon chip where the capacitance between the beam and the substrate provides the output signal.  Optical sensor: Optical sensor is one of the examples of smart sensor, which are used for measuring exposure in cameras, optical angle encoders and optical arrays. Similar examples are load cells silicon based pressure sensors.  Infrared detector array: It was developed at solid laboratory of University of Michigan. Here, infrared sensing element was developed using polysilicon.  Integrated multisensor: It was developed in university of California. This chip contains MOS devices for signal conditioning with on chip sensor.  Geological mapping: It is needed mainly to detect the minerals on the geological areas. 14
    • ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF SMART SENSORS  Minimum Interconnecting Cables  High Reliability  High Performance  Easy to Design, Use and Maintain  Scalable-Flexible System  Small Rugged Packaging  The smart sensor consists of both actuators & sensors, so it is more complex than other simple sensors.  The complexity is much higher in the wired smart sensors, as a consequence the costs are also higher.  Sensor calibration has to be managed by an external processor.  Predefined embedded functions have to be given during the design of the smart sensor. 15
    • REFERENCES  Next smart sensors generation; S.Gervais-Ducouret; Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/SAS.2011.5739775; Publication Year: 2011, Page(s): 193–196  IEEE P1451.1 D1.83, Draft Standard for a Smart Transducer Interface for Sensors and Actuators Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) Information Model, 1996: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.  R. N. Johnson, "Plug-and-play networked smart transducers", Sensors Mag.,1997  Introduction to Instrumentation, Sensors, and Process Control by: William C. Dunn  MEMS Mechanical Sensors by: Stephen Beeby, Graham Ensell, Michael Kraft, and Neil White 16