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    • 1. SecondaryEducationThe State of Education SeriesMarch 2013A Global Report
    • 2. SummaryThis presentation includes data on: Total enrollments Net Enrollment Rates (NER) Pupil/Teacher Ratios Repetition Rates Income/Gender/Location Disparities Lower Secondary Completion Expenditures on Secondary Education
    • 3. Acronym GuideAcronym NameEAP East Asia and PacificECA Europe and Central AsiaLAC Latin American and the CaribbeanMNA Middle East and North AfricaSAS South AsiaSSA Sub-Saharan AfricaWLD World (Global Aggregate)NER Net Enrollment RateGDP p.c. Gross Domestic Product per capitaGNI Gross National IncomeNAR Net Attendance RateGPI Gender Parity Index (female value/male value)PTR Pupil/Teacher RatioPISA Programme for International Student Assessment
    • 4. SecondaryEnrollments
    • 5. How many children are enrolled insecondary schools? Over 543 millionstudents are enrolledin secondary schoolworldwide. This total is up from510 million in 2005 and451 million in 2000. Over half of the world’ssecondary schoolstudents are in eitherEAP or SAS. 38 percent of totalsecondary enrolmentsare in China (18%) andIndia (20%) 258 million (47.5%) aregirls.EAP27.4%ECA6.4%LAC11.0%MNA5.8%SSA8.4%SAS24.9%HIC16.0%Share of Total SecondaryEnrollments by Region (%)2010Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012Notes: Regional aggregates are World Bank regions;HIC = high income countries in all geographic regions.
    • 6.  In 2000, just over half(53%) of secondaryschool age childrenwere enrolled. Thisfigure has risen by 9.4percentage points to62.5% in 2010. ECA has consistentlyhad the highest netenrolment rates (NERs)over time at around80%. Unlike inprimary, secondaryNERs have consistentlyimproved over timeglobally and in mostregions.Continued…How many children are enrolled?Secondary – Net Enrollment Rates (NER)Over one-third of secondary school age children arenot in school, but progress has been made over time.53.1 54.857.1 58.761.1 62.501020304050607080902000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010NetEnrolmentRate.Secondary.Total(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 2012; Notes:SSA 2008 is 2007 data; 2010 Data not available for SSA & SASEAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    • 7.  EAP has made the mostprogress between 2000(55%) and 2010 (72%)followed by SAS, whichimproved by 11percentage pointsbetween 2000 and 2008. SSA improved by 6.7percentage pointsbetween 2000 and2007, but still was morethan 20 percent behindother regions with NERsranging from 20-26%. Almost ¾ of secondaryschool age students arenot enrolled in SSA, andalmost half are notenrolled in SAS.How many children are enrolled?Secondary – NER (continued)Over one-third of secondary school age children arenot in school, but progress has been made over time.53.1 54.857.1 58.761.1 62.501020304050607080902000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010NetEnrolmentRate.Secondary.Total(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 2012; Notes:SSA 2008 is 2007 data; 2010 Data not available for SSA & SASEAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    • 8. Which countries have the lowestsecondary enrollment rates? More than 2/3 ofsecondary school agestudents are out-of-schoolin these countries. Almost90% of students are notenrolled in Niger andAngola. 25 countries have lessthan half of secondaryschool age studentsenrolled. Djibouti is the only countryon the list that is not inSSA. #10 Eritrea’s NER isalmost 3 times higher than#1 Niger’s NER. #5 Mozambique improvedfrom 3.4% in 2001 to17.3% in 2011.10 Countries with the LowestSecondary Net Enrollment Rates(2008-2011)1 Niger 10.22 Angola 11.53 Central African Republic 14.14 Burundi 16.25 Mozambique 17.36 Burkina Faso 17.57 Madagascar 23.68 Djibouti 24.29 Malawi 27.510 Eritrea 28.6Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012Notes: Figures are most recent year with available data between 2008-2011.Green = 2008; Blue = 2009; Black = 2010; Purple = 2011. Data were notavailable for 96 of 214 countries.
    • 9. Which countries have improvedsecondary enrolment rates the most? These countrieshave improved theirsecondary netenrolment rates(NER) by 16 to 32percentage pointsbetween 1999-2001and 2009-2011. Bhutan has morethan doubled its2001 NER, but stillhas around half ofsecondary schoolage students OOS in2011. Despite theirimprovement, onlythree of thesecountries have NERshigher than 75%.10 Countries with the Most Improvementin Secondary Net Enrollment RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2001NERMostcurrentNER% Improved1 Bhutan 32.0 21.7 53.8 147.52 Syrian Arab Republic 25.2 41.7 67.0 60.53 St. Lucia 25.0 60.3 85.3 41.44 St. Vincent and theGrenadines22.4 67.9 90.4 33.05 Dominican Republic 22.1 40.2 62.3 55.06 Oman 21.5 68.2 89.7 31.67 Indonesia 20.6 46.7 67.3 44.18 Venezuela, RB 17.5 54.3 71.8 32.29 Kenya 16.0 34.0 50.0 47.010 Ghana 15.8 32.9 48.7 48.1Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012;Notes: Black data is for 2001 or 2010; Purple is 2000 or 2011; Blue is 2009; Data werenot available for 123 of 214 countries.
    • 10. Net Enrollment Rate. Secondary (%)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year (2008-2011)
    • 11. Do low secondary enrollments relateto low national income per capita? Low gross nationalincome (GNI) per capitadoes not necessarilylead to low secondaryNERs. Low incomecountries (<$1025 GNIpc) have NERs rangingfrom 10.2% (Niger) to85% (Tajikistan). All countries with a GNIpc over $10,000 have aNER over 70% exceptLiechtenstein andUruguay. Almost all countries withsecondary NERs lessthan 50% have a GNI pcless than $3000. Theexceptions areSwaziland and Angola.There is no clear association between low nationalincome per capita and low secondary enrolment rates.R² = 0.17901020304050607080901000 20 40 60 80NetEnrollmentRate.Secondary.AllProgrammes.TotalGNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data is for the most recent year between 2009 and 2011.CAR, Burundi, Mozambique, Burkina FasoNigerNorwayAngolaSurinameMacao, SAR ChinaSwitzerland,Qatar,Luxembourg
    • 12. 0.920.940.950.96 0.96 0.960.750.800.850.900.951.001.051.102000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forNetEnrolmentRate.SecondarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Oct. 2012; No dataavailable for SSA and MNA for 2010. SSA 2008 data is from 2007.WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAWhich regions have reached genderparity in secondary enrollments? Globally, the gender parityindex (GPI) for secondarynet enrollment rate (NER)has been increasing from0.92 in 2000 to 0.96 in2010. ECA is the only regionwithin +/- 0.05 of genderparity (1.0). LAC has consistently hadhigher female NERs. EAPhas reversed from a malebias (0.96) in 2000 to afemale bias (1.06) in2010. SAS has greatlydecreased genderdisparity over time. SSA has maintained amale bias 0.80 since2000.Gender disparities in secondary enrollments varygreatly across regions.Female BiasMale Bias
    • 13. 0.400.500.600.700.800.901.001.101.201.301.40GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.SecondarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October 2012:Data points are the most recent year with data available (2008-2011)Does gender parity exist in secondaryenrollments in most countries? Just over half (52%) ofcountries with data arewithin 0.05 of genderparity in secondaryenrollments. Unlike primaryenrollments, morecountries have a femalebias in secondaryenrolments. 85countries have GPIshigher than 1 while 71countries have GPIsless than 1. 6 countries haveperfect gender parity(1.0):Slovenia, Mauritius, Swaziland, Japan, Indonesia, and Cyprus.More countries have higher female secondary GERsthan male secondary GERs.Female BiasMale Bias
    • 14. Which countries have the largest genderdisparities in secondary enrolments? In 9 of 10countries, the maleGER is muchhigher than thefemale GER. InLesotho – thefemale GER ishigher than themale rate. 8 of 10 countriesare in SSA. 1 is inSouth Asia and 1is in MNA. Of the 20 countrieswith the greatestgender disparity, 5have a femalebias. 14 of the top 20are in SSA.10 Countries with the Largest GenderDisparities in Secondary Enrolments(2008-2011)GPIAbsolute valuefrom 11 Chad 0.42 0.582 Afghanistan 0.51 0.493 Central African Republic 0.55 0.454 Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.58 0.425 Guinea 0.59 0.416 Lesotho 1.38 0.387 Yemen, Rep. 0.62 0.388 Niger 0.66 0.349 Angola 0.69 0.3110 Mali 0.71 0.29Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October 2012; Notes: Data are 2010GPIs for Secondary Gross Enrolment Rates except Guinea (2009), CAR (2011), and Mali(2011); Data were not available for 52 of 213 countries.
    • 15. Which countries have decreased genderdisparity in secondary the most? These countries havemoved from 0.19 to0.34 percentagepoints closer togender parity (1) overtime. Sweden and St. Luciaimproved from a largefemale bias (1.26)toward gender parity. The other countrieshave improved from amale bias (0.40 to0.85) toward genderparity. 3 of 10 countries arewithin 0.05 of genderparity in the mostrecent year.10 Countries with the MostImprovement Toward GenderParity in Secondary EnrollmentsPercentagePointsImproved2000/2001GPIMost currentGPI1 Cambodia 0.34 0.57 0.902 Sweden 0.27 1.26 0.993 St. Lucia 0.27 1.26 0.994 Mozambique 0.23 0.64 0.875 Senegal 0.21 0.66 0.886 Yemen, Rep. 0.21 0.41 0.627 India 0.20 0.72 0.928 Bhutan 0.19 0.85 1.049 Guinea 0.19 0.40 0.5910 Turkey 0.19 0.73 0.91Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October. 2012;Notes: Most current GPI data for most countries is from 2010;Guinea and Turkey are 2009; Mozambique data is 2011.
    • 16. Do gender, income, or location disparitiesexist in secondary attendance rates? Large gender disparitiesin secondary attendancerates do not exist in anyregion except SAS. InLAC, ECA, andMNA, slightly morefemales attendsecondary than males. Rural/urban locationdisparities exist in mostregions. In LAC andSSA, location disparitiesare 20/23 percentagepoints. The largest disparities inall regions areassociated with income:There is a 35+percentage pointdifference between thetop/bottom quintiles inLAC, SAS, and SSA.2The largest disparities in net secondary attendancerates are associated with income.-50510152025303540EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinNetAttendanceRate.Secondary(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
    • 17. Do income disparities exist in lowersecondary enrolment rates in SAS and MNA?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012South Asia (SAS)Middle East and North Africa (MNA)% of the population in the official age range of lower secondary education not in school
    • 18. Do rural/urban disparities exist in lowersecondary enrolment rates in LAC?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012Percentage of the population in the official age range oflower secondary education not in school% of the population in the official age range of lower secondary education not in school
    • 19. Do regional disparities exist in lowersecondary enrolment rates in Asia?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012% of the population in the official age range of lower secondary education not in school
    • 20. Pupil-TeacherRatios
    • 21. Which regions have highersecondary pupil-teacher ratios? Globally, secondarypupil-teacher ratios(PTRs) have decreasedslightly from 18 pupilsper teacher in 1999 to17 in 2011. SAS has the highestPTR in 2011 at 26.4pupils per teacher. Thisis a sharp decreasefrom 34 in 1999. SSA’s PTR is alsoconsistently higher thanmost regions over time. ECA has the feweststudents per teacher in2011 (11.7) followed byEAP at 16 and LAC at17.Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have thehighest secondary pupil-teacher ratios.101214161820222426283032341999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011Pupil-TeacherRatio.SecondarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    • 22. Which countries have the highestsecondary pupil-teacher ratios? These countrieshave between 35and 67 secondarypupils per teacher. Eight of the 10countries are inSSA. Despite larger classsizes, less than 15%of children areenrolled insecondary educationin CAR, Angola, andNiger. There are 34countries with PTRsless than 10. Mostare high incomecountries.10 Countries with the HighestSecondary Pupil-Teacher Ratios(2006-2012)Pupil-TeacherRatio. SecondaryNet Enrolment Rate.Secondary1 Central African Rep. 66.8 14.12 Malawi 42.1 27.53 Nepal 40.9 -4 Ethiopia 40.3 -5 Eritrea 39.5 28.66 Angola 38.7 11.57 Guinea-Bissau 37.3 -8 Tanzania 35.2 -9 Philippines 34.8 61.610 Niger 34.7 10.2Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data is for the most recent available year; Black data are for 2011; Blue = 2010;Green = 2009; Maroon = 2008; Data were not available for 58 countries.
    • 23. Which countries have decreasedsecondary pupil-teacher ratios themost? These countries havedecreased theirsecondary pupil-teacher ratios by 7 to18 students/teacherover time. After the largedecreases, thesecountries have currentPTRs between 14 and25 pupils per teacherexcept Malawi (42)and Eritrea (40). 5 countries increasedPTRs by more than 10pupils per teacherover time: Nepal,Tanzania, SolomonIslands, Angola, andGuinea-Bissau.10 Countries with theMost Improvement inSecondary Pupil-Teacher RatiosPercentagePointsImproved1999-2002PTRMostcurrentPTR%Improved1 Malawi 17.7 59.8 42.1 29.62 Bhutan 11.9 32.4 20.5 36.63 Chile 10.7 32.6 21.9 32.84 Eritrea 9.8 49.3 39.5 19.95 Macao SAR, China 9.2 24.0 14.8 38.46 Vietnam 7.7 26.3 18.6 29.47 Belize 7.5 23.8 16.3 31.58 Mongolia 7.4 21.9 14.5 33.79 Cape Verde 7.3 24.5 17.2 29.710India 7.0 32.3 25.3 21.6Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: Data were not available for 83 of 214 countries.
    • 24. Pupil-Teacher Ratio. Secondary(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 25. RepetitionRates
    • 26. Which countries have the highestrepetition rates in secondary? 20 to 26% of allsecondary students arerepeaters in thesecountries. 9 of 10 countries are inSSA. Togo’s repetition rateshas increased by 6percentage points overtime. Benin, Chad, andBurkina Faso also hadworsening repetitionrates. Burundi improved itsrepetition rate by over12 percentage points.2610 Countries with the HighestSecondary Repetition Rates(2006-2012)1 Togo 26.12 Burkina Faso 25.83 Burundi 24.24 Congo, Rep. 23.65 Benin 23.46 Sao Tome and Principe 21.37 Iraq 21.38 Mali 19.99 Chad 19.810 Cape Verde 19.7Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013; Notes: Datadisplayed is for the most recent available year. Blue data is for 2007; Black =2011; Green = 2009. Data were not available for 58 of 214 countries.
    • 27. Which countries have decreasedsecondary repetition rates the most? These countrieshave decreased theirsecondary repetitionrates by 7 to 12percentage pointsover time. 4 countries havemore than halvedtheir repetition rates. Despite greatimprovement, 6 ofthe 10 countrieshave currentrepetition rateshigher than 10%.10 Countries with the LargestDecreases in Secondary RepetitionRatesPercentagePointsDecreased1999-2002RepetitionRateMostcurrentRepetitionRate%Decreased1 Burundi 12.4 36.6 24.2 33.92 Eritrea 10.3 20.3 10.1 50.53 Guinea 9.2 23.7 14.6 38.64 Sri Lanka 8.5 9.2 0.7 92.85 Rwanda 8.2 11.8 3.6 69.86 Mozambique 7.7 21.5 13.7 36.07 Ethiopia 7.7 17.1 9.4 45.08 Guinea-Bissau 7.7 20.8 13.1 36.89 Bhutan 7.4 10.7 3.4 68.610Congo, Rep. 7.2 30.8 23.6 23.4Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data were not available for 93 of 214 countries.
    • 28. Secondary Repetition Rate (%)(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 29. Completionand Learning
    • 30. Are there gender, income or locationdisparities in secondary completion rates? Low income is thegreatest source ofdisparity in secondarycompletion rates in allregions. The disparity isgreatest in SAS (60percentage points), LAC(44), and SSA (40). Rural residence is asource of disparity inSAS (29 percentagepoint disparity), LAC(25), and SSA (22). A slightly higherpercentage of femalescomplete secondary inECA and LAC, but theopposite is true in otherregions.2Income is the greatest source of disparity insecondary completion rates in all regions.-10-5051015202530354045505560EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinSecondaryCompletionRate(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
    • 31. Lower Secondary Graduation Rate(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 32. Where are the greatest incomedisparities in PISA math scores?-30-101030507090110IcelandNorwayAzerbaijanQatarMontenegroMacao-ChinaSloveniaFinlandAustraliaCanadaChineseTaipeiSwedenJapanSwitzerlandDenmarkEstoniaRussiaIrelandUnitedKingdomNetherlandsGreeceHongKong-ChinaSpainItalyAustriaKyrgyzstanSerbiaLiechtensteinSlovakRepublicLuxembourgLatviaPolandGermanyCzechRepublicKoreaNewZealandHungaryFranceLithuaniaJordanRomaniaBelgiumIndonesiaBulgariaUnitedStatesTunisiaThailandMexicoPortugalTurkeyColombiaUruguayChileArgentinaBrazilPointsDifferencebetweenQuintile5and1onPISAMathScaleSource: Porta and Mcdonald based on Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009) data, 2010Richer students have higher scores in all but 3 countries – Iceland, Norway, andAzerbaijan. The greatest income disparities are in 5 Latin American countries –Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Colombia.
    • 33. Expenditureson SecondaryEducation
    • 34. Which countries spend the least perstudent on secondary education? On average, countriesspend 24.4% of percapita GDP persecondary educationstudent. These countriesspend between 5.5 and9.4%. 5 of the 10 countries arein LAC and 3 are in EAP. Brunei Darussalam is theonly country on the listwith a net enrollment ratein the top half ofcountries. More than half ofsecondary enrollmentsare in private schools inGuatemala and morethan ¼ are in privateschools in Venezuelaand Peru.10 Countries with the Lowest Shareof p.c. GDP per Secondary Student(2006-2012)Share of pcGDP (%) perstudentSecondaryEnrolmentRate (NER)PrivateEnrollmentShare (%)1 Guatemala 5.5 46.1 62.52 Monaco 5.5 - 22.33 Cambodia 6.8 35.1 2.04 Dominican Rep. 7.0 62.1 20.85 Brunei Darussalam 7.8 99.0 13.56 Venezuela, RB 8.0 72.8 28.47 Indonesia 8.8 67.3 41.88 Peru 9.1 77.6 26.09 Philippines 9.1 61.6 19.810 El Salvador 9.4 60.0 16.3Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013Notes: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Blue figures arefor 2010; Green for 2009; Black for 2011; Maroon for 2008; Purple for 2007;Data were not available for 86 countries.
    • 35. Which countries spend the most perstudent on secondary education? 5 of the 10 countriesare in SSA. Niger, Angola, andMozambique havehigh per studentsending and three ofthe lowest secondarynet enrolment rates ofall countries. Honduras spends themost as a share of pcGDP by far, but alsohas the highest shareof students enrolled inprivate schools (27%).10 Countries with the Highest Share ofp.c. GDP per Secondary Student(2006-2012)Share of pcGDP (%) perstudentSecondaryEnrolmentRate (NER)PrivateEnrollmentShare (%)1 Honduras 279.7 - 26.92 Mozambique 84.8 17.3 12.73 Lesotho 55.1 29.8 1.04 Cuba 52.1 86.6 -5 Niger 51.1 9.4 18.16 Angola 45.0 13.5 10.67 Cyprus 40.7 96.0 17.58 Moldova 39.4 77.7 1.39 Rwanda 39.3 - 20.610 Morocco 39.1 - 5.2Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013Notes: Figures are for the most recent year with data available: Blue figures are for2010; Green for 2009; Black for 2011; Maroon for 2008; Purple for 2007; Beige for2006; Data were not available for 86 countries.
    • 36. Public Expenditure per Pupil as a % ofGDP per capita. Secondary(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the latest available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    • 37. This presentation utilizes the following data sources:1) UNESCO Institute for Statistics data in the EdStats Query The presentation was created with the most recent UIS data release thatincluded 2010 data for most indicators/countries. Indicators were calculated by UIS according to definitions available in theEdStats Query.2) Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys,and Living Standards Measurement Studies for 1985-2007; Reportswere generated through ADePT Edu (2011)3) Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator ClusterSurveys in the World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE)4) Learning Outcome Data from the EdStats Query: Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)Data Sources
    • 38. The State of Education SeriesThe following State of Education presentationsare available on the EdStats website:Educational Levels: Pre-Primary Education Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary EducationTopics: Access Quality Expenditures Literacy Equity Gender

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