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Primary ed Primary ed Presentation Transcript

  • PrimaryEducationThe State of Education SeriesMarch 2013A Global Report
  • SummaryThis presentation includes data on: Enrollments Out of School Children (OOS) of primaryschool age Income/Gender/Location Disparities Pupil/Teacher Ratios Repetition Primary Completion Learning Outcomes Education Expenditures on Primary Education
  • Acronym GuideAcronym NameEAP East Asia and PacificECA Europe and Central AsiaLAC Latin American and the CaribbeanMNA Middle East and North AfricaSAS South AsiaSSA Sub-Saharan AfricaWLD World (Global Aggregate)NER Net Enrollment RateANER Adjusted Net Enrollment RateOOS Out of SchoolGDP p.c. Gross Domestic Product per capitaGNI Gross National IncomeNAR Net Attendance RatePTR Pupil-Teacher RatioPCR Primary Completion RateGPI Gender Parity Index (female value/male value)
  • PrimaryEnrollments
  • How many children are enrolled inprimary schools? Around 691 millionchildren were enrolled inprimary school in 2010.This is up from 685million in 2005 and 655million in 2000. Over half of enrolledstudents were in eitherSAS or EAP (182 and172 million respectively). 21% of total primaryenrollments were in Indiaand 15% were in China. 330 million (47.7%) weregirls.EAP24.9%ECA3.0%LAC9.6%MNA5.5%SSA20.0%SAS26.4%HIC10.6%Share of Total Primary Enrollmentsby Region (%)2010Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012Notes: Regional aggregates are World Bank regions;HIC = high income countries in all geographic regions.
  •  In 2010, 90.7% ofprimary school agechildren around theworld were enrolled inprimary or secondaryeducation. This figure rose eachyear between 1999(83.7%) and 2008, butthe figure remainedunchanged between2008 and 2010. All regions haveincreased ANERs since2000, but SSA and SASimproved the most – 16percentage points inSSA and 14 percentagepoints in SAS.Continued…Have primary enrolments improved?Primary – Adjusted Net Enrollment Rates (ANER)Primary Enrolment Rates have increased since2000, but little progress has been made since 2008.84.585.588.7 89.190.7 90.760657075808590951002000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010AdjustedNetEnrolmentRate.Primary.Total(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
  •  Since 2008, SSA hasonly improved by 0.1%and SAS by 0.4%. SASs improvementmoved it closer to otherregions by 2010(92.3%), but SSA stilllags far behind with aANER of 76.2% in2010. ECA’s ANER peaked in2002 at 96.6% and hasbeen lower since. EAP and LAC are theonly 2 regions withANERs higher than95% in 2010.Have primary enrolments improved?Primary – Adjusted Net Enrollment Rates (ANER)84.585.588.7 89.190.7 90.760657075808590951002000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010AdjustedNetEnrolmentRate.Primary.Total(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDPrimary Enrolment Rates have increased since2000, but little progress has been made since 2008.
  • Which countries have the lowestprimary enrollment rates? In the top 2 countries(Eritrea andDjibouti), less than halfof primary school agechildren are enrolled inprimary school. All of the countries withthe lowest adjusted netenrollment rates (ANER)are in SSA exceptDjibouti. Of the 20 countries withthe lowest primaryANERs,15 are in SSA. There is a large rangeamong the listedcountries: #10 Gambia’sANER almost doubles#1 Eritrea’s.10 Countries with the LowestPrimary Enrollment Rates(2009-2011)1 Eritrea 34.92 Djibouti 44.63 Equatorial Guinea 56.34 Nigeria 57.65 Cote dIvoire 61.56 Niger 62.57 Burkina Faso 63.28 Mali 67.29 Central African Republic 68.910 Gambia, The 69.3Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 2012Notes: Data is Adjusted Net Enrolment Rate. Primary (ANER);Purple figures are for 2011; Black = 2010; Blue = 2009.Data were not available for 67 of 214 countries.
  • Which countries have increasedprimary enrollment rates the most? These countries haveincreased theirprimary ANERs by 22to 42 percentagepoints between1999/2000 and2010/2011. Ethiopia and Nigermore than doubledtheir ANERs, but morethan 1/3 of childrenare still not enrolled inNiger. Only Zambia hasincreased its ANER toover 90%. All thecountries need tocontinue improving toreach universalprimary enrolment.10 Countries with the MostImprovement in PrimaryEnrollment RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999/2000ANER2010/2011ANER% Improved1 Ethiopia 41.8 40.4 82.2 103.42 Niger 35.4 27.1 62.5 130.53 Mozambique 33.9 56.0 89.8 60.54 Bhutan 30.8 58.5 89.3 52.75 Guinea 30.1 46.9 77.0 64.16 Burkina Faso 28.7 34.5 63.2 83.07 Mali 25.0 42.2 67.2 59.18 Guinea-Bissau 23.8 51.2 75.0 46.59 Zambia 21.7 71.0 92.7 30.610 Yemen, Rep. 21.5 56.7 78.2 37.8Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012;Notes: Purple is 2011/1999 data; Black is 2010/2000;Data were not available for 104 of 214 countries.
  • Adjusted Net Enrollment Rate. Primary (%)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2012Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year (2008-2011)
  • Do countries with low national incomeper capita have low primary enrollments? Low income does notnecessarily indicatelower primary enrolmentrates: Countries with thelowest gross nationalincome (GNI) per capita(<$500) have ANERsranging from 35%(Eritrea) to 97.5%(Malawi). Countries with thelowest primary ANERs(less than 75%) haveGNI p.c. less than$1270. EquatorialGuinea is the onlyexception with 56.3%primary ANER and$14,540 GNI pc.There is no clear association between low nationalincome p.c. and low primary enrollment rates.R² = 0.098304050607080901000 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55AdjustedNetEnrollmentRate.Primary.TotalGNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: ANER data are for the most recent year between 2009 and 2011.Equitorial GuineaEritreaMacao, China SARDjiboutiNigeria
  • Which regions have reached genderparity in primary enrollments? Gender parity indices(GPIs) are calculated bydividing the female valuefor an indicator by themale value, so perfectgender parity equals 1.A value below 1 indicatesa bias toward males. Avalue above 1 indicates abias toward females. Globally, the GPI hasbeen increasing from .93in 1999 to .98 in 2010. Most regions are veryclose to gender parity (+/-0.03). Only MNA andSSA lag behind. EAP, ECA, and LAC haveachieved gender parity inprimary (+/- 0.02).All regions except MNA and SSA are within 0.03 ofgender parity in primary enrollments.0.930.930.94 0.940.960.970.970.97 0.970.980.980.800.820.840.860.880.900.920.940.960.981.001.021999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forAdjustedNetEnrolmentRate.PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAFemale BiasMale Bias
  • 0.650.700.750.800.850.900.951.001.051.101.15GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, September, 2012Note: Data points are the most recent year with data available (2008-2011)Have most countries reached genderparity in primary enrollments? Half of countries withdata have alreadyachieved gender parity(+/- .02). 78% of countries withdata are within 0.05 ofgender parity. Many more countrieshave a bias towardmales in primaryenrolments (GPI<1). Afghanistan has thelargest male bias at .69followed by CentralAfrican Rep. and Chadat .73. San Marino has thehighest female bias at1.134.78% of countries are within 0.05 of gender parity inprimary enrollments.FemaleBiasMale Bias
  • Which countries have the largest genderdisparities in primary enrolment rates? The male primarygross enrolment ratein these countries ismuch higher than thefemale grossenrolment rate. 7 of 10 countries arein SSA. 2 are inSouth Asia and 1 isin MNA. Of the 20 countrieswith the lowest GPIs(GPI<0.9),14 are inSSA, 2 are in SAS, 2are in EAP (Togo andPNG), and 1 is inLAC (DominicanRepublic).10 Countries with the Largest GenderDisparities in Primary Enrollment Rates(2008-2011)1 Afghanistan 0.6942 Central African Republic 0.7253 Chad 0.7294 Angola 0.8135 Yemen, Rep. 0.8176 Pakistan 0.8187 Cote dIvoire 0.8338 Niger 0.8379 Guinea 0.83810 Eritrea 0.838Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, September 2012;Notes: Data is GPI for Primary Gross Enrolment Rate; Black figures are 2011 data;Blue=2010; Data were not available for 71 of 214 countries.
  • Which countries have decreasedgender disparity in primary the most? These countries havemoved from 0.14 to0.25 percentagepoints closer togender parity (1)between 2000/2001and the most recentdata year. 6 of the 10 countriesare in SSA; 2 are inMNA and 2 in SouthAsia. Senegal now hashigher femaleenrollment rates thanmale enrollment rates(1.06). Burundi and Indiahave reached genderparity.10 Countries with the Most ImprovementToward Gender Parity in PrimaryEnrollmentsPercentagePointsImproved2000 or2001GPIMostcurrentGPI%Improved1 Sierra Leone 0.25 0.67 0.93 37.532 Ethiopia 0.22 0.69 0.91 32.733 Burkina Faso 0.20 0.73 0.93 27.504 Benin 0.20 0.67 0.87 29.665 Yemen, Rep. 0.19 0.63 0.82 30.556 Burundi 0.19 0.80 0.99 23.647 Senegal 0.17 0.89 1.06 19.318 India 0.15 0.85 1.00 17.619 Pakistan 0.15 0.67 0.82 21.7910 Djibouti 0.14 0.76 0.90 18.84Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Sept. 2012;Notes: Most current GPI is the most recent data point for 2008-2011;Data were not available for 54 of 213 countries.
  • Do gender, income, or location disparitiesexist in primary attendance rates? EAP, ECA, LAC, andMNA do not have largedisparities in primary netattendance rates (NAR)betweengenders, rural/urbanlocations, or top/bottomincome quintiles. The largest disparities inmost regions areassociated with income.In SSA and SAS, thereis a 20 percentage pointdifference between thetop/bottom incomequintiles. Rural students in SSAalso have NARs that are12 percentage pointslower than urbanstudents.2Gender, income and location disparities are smallin all regions except except SAS and SSA.-202468101214161820EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinNetAttendanceRate.Primary(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
  • Out of SchoolChildren
  •  In 1999, 16% ofprimary school agechildren were OOS.42% of children in SSAand almost a quarter ofchildren in SAS wereOOS. By 2010, 9.3% ofchildren were OOSglobally, but SSA’s ratewas still much higher at23.8%. Most of the progress inreducing the rate ofchildren OOS occurredbetween 1999 and2008. Since2008, global andregional rates havebasically remained thesame.Which regions have the highestpercentage of children out-of-school?Rates of Children Out-of-School have decreasedsince 1999, but progress has slowed since 2008.16.315.515.114.513.111.311.1 10.910.19.3 9.30.05.010.015.020.025.030.035.040.045.01999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Out-of-schoolrateforchildrenofprimaryschoolage(%).TotalSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in Edstats, November 2012WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA
  • Which countries have highest rates ofchildren out-of-school? More than half ofprimary-school agechildren are out ofschool in Eritrea andDjibouti. More than a quarter ofprimary school agedchildren are out-of-school in 14 countries. 47 countries have morethan 10% of childrenout-of-school. Nine of ten countries arein SSA.10 Countries with the Highest Ratesof Children Out-of School(2009-2011)1 Eritrea 65.12 Djibouti 55.43 Equatorial Guinea 43.74 Nigeria 42.45 Cote dIvoire 38.56 Niger 37.57 Burkina Faso 36.88 Mali 32.89 Central African Republic 31.110 Gambia, The 30.7Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 2012Notes: Data displayed is the most current year available; Purple is 2011; Black is2010; Blue is 2009; Green is 2008; Data was not available for 61 of 214 countries.
  • Out-of-school rate for children ofprimary school age (%)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year (2008-2011)
  • Which region has the most out ofschool (OOS) children? In 2010, ¾ of the world’sout-of-school (OOS)children lived in tworegions: SSA and SAS. Over half (55%) of theworlds out of schoolchildren lived in SSA. ECA had the smallestpercentage of theworld’s OOS children at1.8% followed by MNA(3.9%) and LAC (4.4%).Out-of-School Children of PrimarySchool Age by Region (2010)EAP10.6%6 MillionECA1.8%LAC4.4%MNA3.9%SAS21.8%13 MillionSSA54.4%33 MillionHIC3.1%Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012Notes: Regional aggregates are World Bank regions;HIC = high income countries in all geographic regions.
  • How many primary school agechildren are out of school (OOS)? In 1999, 107.7 millionchildren were out ofprimary school. The total decreasedto 72.6 million in2005 and 60.7million in 2010. There were 47 millionfewer children OOSin 2010 than in 1999. Since 2008, theglobal number ofout-of-schoolchildren has grownfrom 60.66 million to60.69 million (2009)and 60.73 million in2010.The total number of out-of-school children hasdecreased by 47 million since 1999.01020304050607080901001101999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Out-of-SchoolChildren.Primary.Total(inmillions)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012Note: HIC = High Income Countries in all regionsHIC ECA LAC MNA EAP SAS SSA
  • How much have regions decreasedthe total number of OOS children? SAS and MNA morethan halved the totalnumber of OOSchildren between 1999and 2010. In SAS, thetotal number of OOSchildren decreased by25.6 million or 66%. SSA decreased thetotal number by 12.3million, which was a27% decrease between1999 and 2010, but thetotal number increasedby 1.5 million between2008 and 2010.All regions have decreased their total number ofout-of-school children since 1999.05101520253035404550SSA SAS EAP MNA LAC ECAOut-of-SchoolChildren.Total(inmillions)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 20121999 2008 2010
  • Which countries have the most out-of-school children? 45.8% of the world’s out-of-school children live inthe 10 countries listedhere. Five of the countries arein SSA and 3 are in SAS. Nigeria almost has asmany OOS children asthe regional totals forLAC, ECA, and MNAcombined (10.9 million). The US is #8 in theranking because of thelarge size of the schoolage population and alsopossibly because of alack of consistent datacollection on home-schooled children.10 Countries with the Most Out-ofSchool Children(2008-2011)1 Nigeria 10,542,1052 Pakistan 5,125,3733 Ethiopia 2,389,9454 India 2,278,3225 Bangladesh 1,835,2696 Philippines 1,460,4317 Cote dIvoire 1,160,7328 United States 1,023,2319 Burkina Faso 1,022,36210 Niger 1,012,228Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 2012Notes: Data displayed is the most current year available; Purple is 2011; Blackis 2010; Blue is 2009; Green is 2008; Data was not available for 61 of 214countries.
  • Are more females out-of-school than males? In 1999, there werealmost 62 millionfemales out-of-schoolcompared to 45.5million males. 58% ofthe world’s out-of-school children werefemale. In 2010, around 32million girls were out ofschool compared to28.6 million boys.52.5% of out-of-schoolchildren were female. The gap between maleand female totalsdecreased from 16.5million to 3.6 millionbetween 1999 and2010.More Females are Out of Primary School than Males0204060801001201999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Out-of-SchoolChildren.Primary(inmillions)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, September 2012Males Out-of-School Females Out-of-School
  • Where are more females out-of-school? Over half of theworld’s out of schoolgirls are in SSA, andjust under 1/4 are inSouth Asia. South Asia hasdecreased its totalnumber of femalesout-of-school by 17.7million since 1999.The region’s totaldropped from 25million to 7 million. SSA has alsodecreased its totalfrom 24.3 million in1999 to 17.5 million in2010.3 out of every 4 Out-of-School Girls arein either Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia051015202530354045505560651999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Out-of-SchoolChildren.Primary.Female(inmillions)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October 2012LAC ECA MNA EAP SAS SSA
  • Which countries have the mostfemales OOS? Around half of the world’sout-of-school females livein these 10 countries. 36% of the world’s out-of-school females live in theTop 4 countries. Nigeria, Pakistan, andIndia all have more our-of-school females that thesum of all females out-of-school in LAC and ECA. Half of the countries arein SSA and three are inSouth Asia.10 Countries with the Most FemaleOut-of School Children(2008-2011)1 Nigeria 5,487,9012 Pakistan 3,241,2033 India 1,407,4954 Ethiopia 1,367,1415 Cote dIvoire 663,8096 Philippines 661,5517 Bangladesh 591,3258 Niger 568,8849 Yemen, Rep. 567,70210 Burkina Faso 530,731Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October, 2012;Notes: Data displayed is the most current year available; Orange is2008;Blue is 2009; Blue is 2010; Black is 2011; Data were not available for61 of 213 countries.
  • Are there gender, income, or locationdisparities in the % of children OOS? In all regions, more lowincome students areOOS than high incomestudents. SAS has thelargest income disparityat 29 percentage pointsdifference between thetop and bottom quintiles.SSA follows closelybehind with 24 points. A higher % of boys areOOS in EAP, ECA, andLAC, but a higher % ofgirls are OOS in SASand SSA. In all regions except forECA, a higher % of ruralstudents are OOS. Thisdisparity is highest inSSA at 15 percentagepoints.2Low income is the greatest source of disparity inpercentages of OOS children across regions.-30-28-26-24-22-20-18-16-14-12-10-8-6-4-202EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinthe%ofChildrenOut-of-School(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
  • Do rural/urban disparities in educationalaccess exist in SSA?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012Percentage of the population in the official age range oflower secondary education not in schoolPercentage of 7 to16 year olds who has never been to school.
  • Do income disparities exist in educationalaccess in SAS and EAP?South Asia (SAS)East Asia and the Pacific (EAP)Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012Percentage of 7 to16 year olds who has never been to school.
  • Pupil TeacherRatios
  • Which regions have higherprimary pupil-teacher ratios? Globally, primary pupil-teacher ratios (PTRs)have declined from 26pupils per teacher in1999 to 24 in 2011. SSA has the highestPTR in 2011 at 43pupils per teacher. SASalso has a high PTR in2009 at 40. All other regions havePTRs less than 23 withdeclining PTRs overtime. EAP has the feweststudents per teacher in2011 (18) followed byECA at 19.Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have thehighest primary pupil-teacher ratios.161820222426283032343638404244461999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011Pupil-teacherratio.PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
  • Which countries have the highestprimary pupil-teacher ratios? These countrieshave between 51and 81 primarystudents perteacher. 26 countries havemore than 40primary pupils perteacher. All of thesecountries are in SSAexcept Cambodia. There are 10countries withprimary PTRs lessthan 10 and 46countries with PTRsless than 15. Mostare high incomecountries.10 Countries with the HighestPrimary Pupil-Teacher Ratios(2006-2012)Pupil-TeacherRatio. PrimaryAdjusted Net EnrolmentRate. Primary1 Central African Rep. 81.3 68.92 Malawi 76.1 97.53 Chad 62.6 -4 Rwanda 58.1 98.75 Zambia 58.0 92.76 Mozambique 55.4 89.87 Ethiopia 55.1 82.28 Burkina Faso 52.7 63.29 Guinea-Bissau 51.9 75.010 Tanzania 50.8 -Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data is for the most recent available year; Black data are for 2011; Blue = 2010;Data were not available for 35 of 214 countries.
  • Which countries have decreasedprimary pupil-teacher ratios the most? These countrieshave decreased theirprimary pupil-teacher ratios by 12to 18 pupils perteacher over time. The most currentPTR for all of thesecountries exceptCameroon andEthiopia is less than35 students perteacher. Despite greatimprovement,Ethiopia still hasaround 55 pupils perteacher.10 Countries with theMost Improvement in PrimaryPupil-Teacher RatiosPercentagePointsImproved1999-2002PTRMostcurrentPTR%Improved1 Gabon 18.1 42.6 24.5 42.52 Timor-Leste 17.0 47.2 30.2 36.03 Senegal 16.0 48.9 32.9 32.64 Equatorial Guinea 15.4 43.4 27.9 35.65 Cameroon 15.4 60.8 45.4 25.36 Lesotho 13.2 47.0 33.8 28.17 Jamaica 13.2 33.8 20.6 39.08 Macao SAR, China 12.6 27.5 14.8 45.99 Bhutan 12.5 37.9 25.4 33.010Ethiopia 12.3 67.3 55.1 18.2Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013;Notes: Black data in “Most Current” column is 2011 data; Blue is 2010 data;Data were not available for 50 of 214 countries.
  • Pupil-Teacher Ratio. Primary(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
  • RepetitionRates
  • Which regions have the highestprimary repetition rates? Globally, the percent ofrepeaters in primaryschools has decreasedfrom 5.3% in 1999 to4.8% in 2011. Repetition rates haveconsistently been lowestin ECA and EAP (lessthan 2.3% over time). SSA and LAC have hadthe highest levels ofrepetition over time, butboth regions improvedfrom around 12% toaround 8% over time. SAS is the only regionwith a higher currentrepetition rate (4.9% in2009) than in 1999(4.7%).Levels of primary repetition are higher in LACand SSA and lower in ECA and EAP.0123456789101112131999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011Percentageofrepeatersinprimary.Allgrades.TotalSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
  • Which countries have the highestrepetition rates in primary? One third of studentsrepeat in Burundi andalmost ¼ repeat inComoros. All countries on the listare in SSA. 17 out of thetop 20 are also in SSA.Timor-Leste, Iraq, andSuriname are theexceptions. Six countries in the listhave decreased repetitionover time:Madagascar, Congo, Lesotho, Togo, Chad, andComoros. Burundi’s repetition ratehas increased by almost10 percentage points overtime from 26.3% in 2002to 36.2% in 2011.10 Countries with the HighestPrimary Repetition Rates(2006-2012)1 Burundi 36.22 Comoros 24.43 Central African Republic 22.64 Chad 21.65 Togo 21.56 Lesotho 20.07 Malawi 19.68 Madagascar 19.49 Equatorial Guinea 19.310 Congo, Rep. 18.4Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data were for the most recent available year; Black data is from 2011;Blue = 2010; Data were not available for 56 of 214 countries.
  • Which countries have decreasedprimary repetition rates the most? These countrieshave decreased theirprimary repetitionrates by 8 to 22percentage pointsover time. 9 of 10 countries arein SSA. 6 countries havemore than halvedtheir repetition rates. Despite greatimprovement, 7 ofthe countries havecurrent repetitionrates higher than10%.10 Countries with the Largest Decreasesin Primary Repetition RatesPercentagePointsDecreased1999-2002RepetitionRateMostcurrentRepetitionRate%Decreased1 Rwanda 22.3 36.1 13.8 61.82 Mozambique 15.4 23.0 7.7 66.73Sao Tome andPrincipe14.4 25.8 11.4 55.94 Cameroon 12.7 25.2 12.5 50.35 Madagascar 11.0 30.5 19.4 36.26 Benin 10.8 21.6 10.8 49.87 Senegal 10.7 13.6 3.0 78.18 Mauritania 10.6 14.1 3.5 75.59 Nepal 9.6 21.6 12.0 44.610Guinea 8.2 20.8 12.7 39.2Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: Data were not available for 82 of 214 countries.
  • Primary Repetition Rate (%)(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
  • Do females repeat more thanmales in primary schools? Globally, there is lessthan half a percentagepoint differencebetween male/femalerepetition rates. Malesrepeat slightly morethan females. Males also repeatmore than females inall regions except forECA. The greatest genderdisparity is in MNA at2.5 percentage points. In SSA, there is almostno difference inrepetition ratesbetween males andfemales.Males repeat more than females in all regionsexcept ECA.012345678910EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDPercentageofrepeatersinprimary.AllgradesMale FemaleSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: SAS data is 2009; All other data is for 2011.
  • PrimaryCompletion
  • Which regions have higherprimary completion rates? 90.3% of primary schoolage students completedprimary school in 2011.This is a 9.3 percentagepoint increase since1999. All regions haveimproved their primarycompletion rates (PCR)over time. SAS had the largestincrease at 23.3percentage points, butstill lags behind otherregions with 88% ofstudents completingprimary in 2011.(continued on next slide)Primary Completion Rates have been increasingin all regions since 1999.505560657075808590951001051999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011Primarycompletionrate.TotalSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
  • Which regions have higherprimary completion rates? (continued) SSA also improvedgreatly over time (17.8percentage points) butlagged far behind otherregions in 2011 with a70% PCR. In 2011, LAC had thehighest share of primaryschool age studentscompleting primaryschool at 101.6%. PCRsover 100% are typicallydue to over/under agestudents entering the lastgrade of primary orrepetition.Primary Completion Rates have been increasingin all regions since 1999.505560657075808590951001051999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011Primarycompletionrate.TotalSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
  • Which countries have the lowestprimary completion rates? Less than half ofprimary school agechildren completeprimary school in thetop 7 countries. 9 of 10 countries are inSSA. All the countries on thelist have increased theirPCRs over time exceptUganda and EquatorialGuinea. Niger and Mali haveincreased their PCRsthe most over time – 25and 21 percentagepoints respectively.4510 Countries with the LowestPrimary Completion Rates(2006-2012)1 Eritrea 38.02 Chad 38.23 Central African Republic 43.04 Burkina Faso 45.15 Djibouti 45.86 Niger 46.27 Angola 46.68 Equatorial Guinea 51.79 Uganda 54.910 Mali 55.4Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Notes: Data are for the most recent available data year; Black data are for2011; Blue are for 2010; Data were not available for 45 countries.
  • Which countries have increasedprimary completion rates the most? These countrieshave increased theirprimary completionrates by 31 to 43percentage pointsover time. 5 countries havemore than doubledtheir primarycompletion rates. Despite greatimprovement, 7 ofthe 10 countrieshave current primarycompletion ratesless than 75%.10 Countries with theMost Improvement inPrimary Completion RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2002PCRMostcurrentPCR%Improved1 Bhutan 42.9 52.2 95.1 82.12 Zambia 40.8 62.5 103.3 65.33 Rwanda 40.0 29.6 69.6 135.04 Guinea-Bissau 37.9 29.7 67.6 127.45 Sao Tome andPrincipe37.6 61.6 99.1 61.06 Madagascar 36.1 36.8 72.9 98.47 Burundi 34.9 27.3 62.1 127.88 Mozambique 33.9 22.3 56.2 151.79 Ethiopia 32.4 31.7 64.0 102.310Mauritania 31.3 43.5 74.8 71.8Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data were not available for 68 of 214 countries.
  • Primary Completion Rate (2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
  • Are more boys completing primaryschool than girls? Globally, more malesare completing primaryschool than females.The difference betweenmale/female PCRs hasshrunk from 6percentage points in1999 to 1.8 in 2011. In most regions, moremales complete primarythan females, but inLAC and EAP, thereverse is true. EAPs female PCR was2.4 percentage pointshigher than the malePCR. LAC’s was 0.7percentage pointshigher for females.(continued on next slide)Globally and in most regions, more malescomplete primary school than females.6065707580859095100105EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDPrimarycompletionrate.FemaleorMaleMale FemaleSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: All data are for 2011 except EAP and SAS (2010).
  • Are more boys completing primaryschool than girls? (continued) SSA has the largestgender disparity inPCRs with 74% of boyscompleting vs. 67% ofgirls in 2011. MNA also has a largegender disparity at 6percentage pointsdifference between thegenders. SAS had a large genderdisparity in 1999 (15percentage points) butdecreased thedifference to 2.7percentage points in2010.Globally and in most regions, more malescomplete primary school than females.6065707580859095100105EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDPrimarycompletionrate.FemaleorMaleMale FemaleSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: All data are for 2011 except EAP and SAS (2010).
  • Primary Completion Rate. Female(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
  • Gender Parity Index for PrimaryCompletion Rate(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.GenderParityFemaleBiasMaleBias
  • Are there gender, income or locationdisparities in primary completion rates? Gender disparities existin all regions inPCRs, but they aresurpassed by incomedisparities in all regionsexcept for ECA. The greatest disparitiesexist in SSA, wherethere is a 55 percentagepoint difference betweenthe PCRs of top andbottom quintile students.This compares to a 33point difference betweenurban and rural, and 9point between genders. In EAP and ECA, morerural students completeprimary school thanurban students.2Low income is the greatest source of disparity inprimary completion rates in all regions except ECA.-5051015202530354045505560EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinPrimaryCompletionRate(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
  • LearningOutcomes
  •  5th graders inGabon (61.4) andCameroon (53.4)scored the higheston the Frenchlanguageassessment. Gabon’s meanscore almostdoubled Benin andChad’s scores (31.6and 31.7respectively). Only three countriesscored higher than40 on a 100 pointscale.Mean Reading Scores vary greatly acrossFrancophone African countries.How do reading levels vary betweenAfrican countries?Source: Programme dAnalyse des Systèmes Educatifs de la CONFEMEN inEdStats, August 2011.3035404550556065MeanperformanceontheFrenchlanguagescale(100possiblepoints)for5thgradestudents(2004-2009)
  •  Tanzania, Seychelles, and Mauritius had thehighest reading scores in2007. Mauritius and Tanzaniaboth improved theirscores, but Seychelles’score was lower than in2000. Some countries havelarge disparities betweengenders, but in thesecases, females havehigher scores thanmales(Seychelles, Mauritiusand Botswana). Malawi and Zambia havehad the lowest scoresover time.Mean reading scores of 6th grade students varygreatly between Anglophone African countries.How do reading levels vary betweenAfrican countries?420440460480500520540560580600620Meanperformanceonthereadingscale(2000&2007)2000 Total Male 2007 Female 2007 Total 2007Source: Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality(SACMEQ) in EdStats, August 2011; Note: Zimbabwe 2000 is 1995 figure.
  • How do reading scores vary betweenincome groups in African countries? In all SACMEQcountries, studentsfrom the lowest incomequintile have lowerreading scores thanstudents in the highestincome quintile, but thescale of incomedisparity varies greatly. South Africa has thelargest disparitybetween richest andpoorest followed byNamibia. Lesotho, Mozambique,and Malawi seem tohave the less of adisparity betweenincome groups inreading scores.400425450475500525550575600625MeanScoreonReadingAssessmentSource: Filmer using Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium forMonitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) 2000 databaseRichest quintile of students Poorest quintile of studentsAverage scorePoorer students have lower mean reading scores inall Anglophone African countries.
  •  ElSalvador, Nicaragua, CostaRica, Peru, Guatemala,and Colombia arewithin 5 percentagepoints of gender parity.Female scores arehigher than male scoresin these countries. Uruguay has the largestdifference betweenmale/female readingscores with a 19.6percentage point malebias. Panama (15.9), Brazil(15.7), Cuba (15.2), andthe Dominican Rep.(15.1) also have large Source: Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality ofEducation (LLECE SERCE) in StatPlanet, August 2011Have LAC countries reached genderparity in reading levels?Difference between Male/Female Mean Scores onthe 6th Grade Reading Assessment (2006)
  •  In all countries, meanscores for rural studentsare lower than for urbanstudents. The greatest locationdisparity is in Peru (79)followed by Mexico (58). Cuba has the smallestdisparity betweenrural/urban areas (13)followed by Nicaragua(21). The scale of disparitybetween urban/ruralscores is much higherthan the disparitybetween male/femalescores.Source: Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality ofEducation (LLECE SERCE) in StatPlanet, August 2011Does rural/urban residence impact6th grade reading levels in LAC?Difference between Urban/Rural Mean Scores onthe 6th Grade Reading Assessment (2006)
  • Expenditureson PrimaryEducation
  • Which countries spend the least perstudent on primary education? The average spendingper primary schoolstudent is 16.7% ofper capita GDP. Thesecountries spendbetween 3.5 and 7percent of GDP percapita on each primaryschool student. Five of the 10 lowestspending countries arein SSA. Two areclassified as highincome countries. 5 countries have netenrollment rates higherthan 90%. DRC is the only countrywith low primaryspending and very highprivate enrollment share(82.5%).10 Countries with the Lowest Share ofp.c. GDP per Primary Student(2006-2012)Share of pcGDP (%) perstudentPrimary NetEnrolmentRate (%)PrivateEnrollmentShare (%)1 Monaco 3.5 21.82 Central African Rep. 4.4 68.5 13.83 Brunei Darussalam 5.1 91.6 36.64 Congo, Dem. Rep. 5.2 82.55 Liberia 5.4 40.8 32.66 Madagascar 6.4 17.87 Cameroon 6.6 93.8 20.98 Cambodia 6.8 98.2 1.59 Panama 6.8 96.9 12.010 Rwanda 6.9 98.7 2.2Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013Note: Figures are for the most recent year with data available between 2006 and2012: Blue figures are for 2010; Green for 2009; Black for 2011; Maroon for 2007;Data were not available for 82 countries.
  • Which countries spend the most perstudent on primary education? Serbia spends overhalf of per capitaGDP on each primarystudent, and all othercountries in the listspend more than aquarter. Eight of the listedcountries haveprimary net enrolmentrates (NER) higherthan 90%. These countries havelow private enrolmentshares ranging from0.1 to 14%.10 Countries with the Highest Share ofp.c. GDP per Primary Student(2006-2012)Share of pcGDP (%) perstudentPrimary NetEnrolment Rate(%)PrivateEnrollmentShare (%)1 Serbia 55.6 93.2 0.12 Cuba 49.3 98.23 Moldova 41.4 87.8 0.94 Cyprus 31.5 98.7 7.65 Latvia 31.4 95.1 1.16 Comoros 29.5 77.8 14.17 Denmark 28.9 95.4 13.78 Sweden 28.3 99.4 9.59 Estonia 27.8 95.0 4.110 Iceland 27.2 99.0 2.0Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Feb. 2013Notes: Figures are for the most recent year with data available between 2006 and2012: Blue figures are for 2010; Green for 2009;Maroon for 2008; Data were not available for 82 countries.
  • Public Expenditure per Pupil as a% of GDP per capita. Primary(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the latest available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
  • This presentation utilizes the following data sources:1) UNESCO Institute for Statistics data in the EdStats Query The presentation was created with the most recent UIS data release thatincluded 2010 data for most indicators/countries. Indicators were calculated by UIS according to definitions available in theEdStats Query.2) Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator ClusterSurveys, and Living Standards Measurement Studies for 1985-2007;Reports were generated through ADePT Edu (2011)3) Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator ClusterSurveys in the World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE)4) Learning Outcome Data from the EdStats Query: Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality(SACMEQ) Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality of Education (LLECESERCE) Programme dAnalyse des Systèmes Educatifs de la CONFEMEN (PASEC)Data Sources
  • The State of Education SeriesThe following State of Education presentationsare available on the EdStats website:Educational Levels: Pre-Primary Education Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary EducationTopics: Access Quality Expenditures Literacy Equity Gender