Pre-PrimaryEducationThe State of Education SeriesMarch 2013A Global Report
Acronym GuideAcronym NameEAP East Asia and PacificECA Europe and Central AsiaLAC Latin American and the CaribbeanMNA Middle East and North AfricaSAS South AsiaSSA Sub-Saharan AfricaWLD World (Global Aggregate)NER Net Enrollment RateGER Gross Enrollment RatePTR Pupil-Teacher RatioGDP p.c. Gross Domestic Product per capitaGNI Gross National IncomeGPIGender Parity Index (female value/malevalue)
How many children are enrolled inpre-primary education? Around 164 millionchildren were enrolled inpre-primary education in2010. This is up from134 million in 2005 and112 million in 1999. Over half of enrolledstudents were in eitherSAS or EAP (48 and 40million respectively). 25% of total pre-primaryenrollments were in Indiaand 16% were in China. 79 million (48.2%) weregirls.EAP24.3%ECA6.4%HIC18.1%LAC12.5%MNA2.0%SAS29.1%SSA7.6%Share of Total Pre-PrimaryEnrollments by Region (%)2010Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012;Notes: Regional aggregates are World Bank regions;HIC = high income countries in all geographic regions.
How many children are enrolled?Pre-Primary – Gross Enrolment Rates (GER) Globally, less than half ofpre-primary age studentswere enrolled in pre-primary education in2010, but all regionsincreased pre-primaryenrolments between2000 and 2010. SAS almost doubled itspre-primary GERbetween 2000 (25.4%)and 2010 (48.3%). LAC’s GERs areconsistently the highestamong regions rangingfrom 56.8% to 70.1%. SSA and MNA lagbehind other regions with17.7% and 23.8% GERsrespectively in 2010.Pre-Primary Gross Enrolment Rates haveincreased in all regions since 200034.1 34.737.140.945.648.3010203040506070802000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GrossEnrolmentRate.Pre-Primary.Total(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
Which countries have the lowestpre-primary enrollment rates? 8 of the 10 countrieswith the lowest pre-primary net enrolmentrates (NER) are in SSA. Of the 130 countrieswith data, 18 countrieshad less than 10% oftheir children enrolled inpre-primary education. 36 countries had lessthan 25% of theirchildren enrolled in pre-primary. 19 countries had pre-primary enrollmentshigher than 90%.10 Countries with the Lowest Pre-Primary Net Enrollment Rates(2009-2011)1 Yemen, Rep. 0.352 Chad 1.773 Burkina Faso 2.754 Mali 3.375 Djibouti 3.416 Cote dIvoire 3.547 Ethiopia 3.928 Guinea-Bissau 4.689 Niger 4.7610 Central African Republic 5.64Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 2012Notes: Purple data is for 2011; Black is 2010; Blue is 2009;Data were not available for 84 of 214 countries.
Which countries have increased pre-primary enrollment rates the most? These countrieshave increased theirpre-primary GERsby 25 to 66percentage pointsbetween 1999-2001and 2009-2011. Half of the countriesat least doubledtheir NER over time. Algeria improvedfrom 3.4% to 66% –a 1928%improvement. Only two of thesecountries have acurrent NER over90% – Barbadosand Maldives.10 Countries with the MostImprovement in Pre-PrimaryNet Enrollment RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2001NER2009-2011NER% Improved1 Algeria 66.1 3.4 69.5 1927.92 Korea, Rep. 41.0 44.0 85.0 93.03 Moldova 37.3 36.8 74.0 101.44 Barbados 33.6 62.1 95.7 54.05 Sao Tome & Principe 32.4 24.2 56.5 133.86 Maldives 30.8 61.4 92.2 50.17 Mongolia 29.1 28.4 57.5 102.58 Nicaragua 26.7 28.6 55.4 93.59 Ghana 26.0 21.5 47.5 120.710 Uruguay 25.4 52.9 78.3 48.0Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012;Note: Data were not available for 118 of 213 countries.
Net Enrollment Rate. Pre-Primary (%)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2012Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year (2008-2011)
Are lower pre-primary enrollment ratesrelated to lower national income percapita? All the low incomecountries ($1025 or less)have less than 16% ofchildren enrolled in pre-primary education exceptGambia (27%), Kenya(29%), and Tanzania(33%). 24 countries had NERsless than 15%. Only 4 ofthose had GNI per capitahigher than $1100. Allthe countries were lowerthan $4780 (Bosnia). All of the countries withNERs higher than 90%had GNI greater than$12,000 except Thailand,Grenada, and Maldives.All low income countries had less than one-third ofchildren enrolled in pre-primary education.R² = 0.2290204060801000 20 40 60 80NetEnrollmentRate.Pre-Primary.TotalGNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data is for the most recent year between 2009 and 2011.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data is for the most recent year between 2009 and 2011.IrelandSwitzerlandQatarAustraliaNorway
Do gender disparities exist in pre-primary enrollment rates? Gender parity indices(GPIs) are calculated bydividing the female valuefor an indicator by themale value, so perfectgender parity equals 1.A value below 1 indicatesa bias toward males. Avalue above 1 indicates abias toward females. Globally, the GPI hasbeen increasing from .98in 2000 to perfect genderparity (1.0) in 2010. Most regions are veryclose to gender parity (+/-0.02) in 2010. Only MNAlags behind. 4 of 6 regions have aslight female bias.Gender parity in pre-primary enrolments (1.0) hasbeen achieved globally and in most regions.0.980.990.99 0.990.991.000.750.800.850.900.951.001.052000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.Pre-PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAFemale BiasMale Bias
Do rural/urban disparities exist in pre-primary attendance rates in ECA?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012% of 3 to 4 year olds attending any type of pre–primary education program
Do income disparities exist in pre-primary attendance rates in SSA?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012% of 3 to 4 year olds attending any type of pre–primary education program
Which regions have higher pre-primary pupil-teacher ratios? Globally, pre-primarypupil-teacher ratios(PTRs) have remainedsteady since 1999 ataround 20 pupils perteacher. ECA has the feweststudents per teacher:PTRs ranged from 8 to10 students over time. South Asia had thehighest PTRs as of2007 at 40 students perteacher. The nextclosest region was SSAat around 27 studentsper teacher in 2011.South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa have higherpre-primary pupil-teacher ratios.5101520253035401999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011Pupil-teacherratio.Pre-PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
Which countries have the highestpre-primary pupil-teacher ratios? These countrieshave between 35and 57 pre-primarystudents perteacher. Eight of the 10countries are inSSA. Less than 11% ofchildren are enrolledin pre-primaryeducation in 5 ofthese countries. There are 22countries with pre-primary PTRs lessthan 10. Most are inECA or are highincome countries.10 Countries with the HighestPre-Primary Pupil-Teacher Ratios(2006-2012)Pupil-TeacherRatio. Pre-PrimaryNet Enrolment Rate.Pre-Primary1 Tanzania 56.6 33.22 Central African Rep. 44.3 5.63 Mali 44.0 3.44 India 40.35 Bolivia 38.8 32.16 Rwanda 38.0 10.57 Eritrea 37.9 9.18 Angola 37.1 65.99 Ghana 36.4 47.510 Burundi 35.4 6.9Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013Note: Data is for the most recent available year; Black data are for 2011; Blue = 2010;Purple = 2012; Data were not available for 58 of 214 countries.
Pupil-Teacher Ratio. Pre-Primary(2006-2012)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available yearThe maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
This presentation utilizes the following data sources:1) UNESCO Institute for Statistics data in the EdStats Query The presentation was created with the most recent UIS datarelease that included 2009 data for most indicators and 2010data for some countries. Indicators were calculated by UIS according to definitionsavailable in the EdStats Query.2) Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator ClusterSurveys in the World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE)Data Sources
The State of Education SeriesThe following State of Education presentationsare available on the EdStats website:Educational Levels: Pre-Primary Education Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary EducationTopics: Access Quality Expenditures Literacy Equity Gender