Access toEducationThe State of Education SeriesNovember 2012A Global Report
Access to Education: IndicatorsThis presentation includes data on: Total enrollments by region Out of School Children (O...
Acronym GuideAcronym NameEAP East Asia and PacificECA Europe and Central AsiaLAC Latin American and the CaribbeanMNA Middl...
Summary Less than half of the world’s pre-primary agestudents were enrolled in pre-primary education in2010 (48.3%), but ...
Summary(continued) 62.5% of secondary school age students wereenrolled in 2010, which was an 9.4 percentage pointimprovem...
Pre-PrimaryEducation
How many children are enrolled inpre-primary education? Around 164 millionchildren were enrolled inpre-primary education ...
How many children are enrolled?Pre-Primary – Gross Enrolment Rates (GER) Globally, less than half ofpre-primary age stude...
Which countries have the lowestpre-primary enrollment rates? 8 of the 10 countrieswith the lowest pre-primary net enrolme...
Which countries have increased pre-primary enrollment rates the most? These countrieshave increased theirpre-primary GERs...
Net Enrollment Rate. Pre-Primary (%)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and...
Are lower pre-primary enrollment ratesrelated to lower national income percapita? All the low incomecountries ($1025 or l...
Do gender disparities exist in pre-primary enrollment rates? Gender parity indices(GPIs) are calculated bydividing the fe...
Do rural/urban disparities exist in pre-primary attendance rates in ECA?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multipl...
Do income disparities exist in pre-primary attendance rates in SSA?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Ind...
PrimaryEducation
How many children are enrolled inprimary schools? Around 691 millionchildren were enrolled inprimary school in 2010.This ...
 In 2010, 90.7% ofprimary school agechildren around theworld were enrolled inprimary or secondaryeducation. This figure ...
 Since 2008, SSA hasonly improved by 0.1%and SAS by 0.4%. SASs improvementmoved it closer to otherregions by 2010(92.3%)...
Which countries have the lowestprimary enrollment rates? In the top 2 countries(Eritrea andDjibouti), less than halfof pr...
Which countries have increasedprimary enrollment rates the most? These countries haveincreased theirprimary ANERs by 22to...
Adjusted Net Enrollment Rate. Primary (%)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denomination...
Do countries with low national incomeper capita have low primary enrollments? Low income does notnecessarily indicatelowe...
Which regions have reached genderparity in primary enrollments? Gender parity indices(GPIs) are calculated bydividing the...
0.650.700.750.800.850.900.951.001.051.101.15GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute f...
Which countries have the largest genderdisparities in primary enrolment rates? The male primarygross enrolment ratein the...
Which countries have decreasedgender disparity in primary the most? These countries havemoved from 0.14 to0.25 percentage...
Do gender, income, or location disparitiesexist in primary attendance rates? EAP, ECA, LAC, andMNA do not have largedispa...
 In 1999, 16% ofprimary school agechildren were OOS.42% of children in SSAand almost a quarter ofchildren in SAS wereOOS....
Which countries have highest rates ofchildren out-of-school? More than half of primary-school age children areout of scho...
Out-of-school rate for children ofprimary school age (%)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, color...
Which region has the most out ofschool (OOS) children? In 2010, ¾ of the world’sout-of-school (OOS)children lived in twor...
How many primary school agechildren are out of school (OOS)? In 1999, 107.7 millionchildren were out ofprimary school. T...
How much have regions decreasedthe total number of OOS children? SAS and MNA morethan halved the totalnumber of OOSchildr...
Which countries have the most out-of-school children? 45.8% of the world’s out-of-school children live inthe 10 countries...
Are more females out-of-school than males? In 1999, there werealmost 62 millionfemales out-of-schoolcompared to 45.5milli...
Where are more females out-of-school? Over half of theworld’s out of schoolgirls are in SSA, andjust under 1/4 are inSout...
Which countries have the mostfemales OOS? Around half of the world’sout-of-school females livein these 10 countries. 36%...
Are there gender, income, or locationdisparities in the % of children OOS? In all regions, more lowincome students areOOS...
Do rural/urban disparities in educationalaccess exist in SSA?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator...
Do income disparities exist in educationalaccess in SAS and EAP?South Asia (SAS)East Asia and the Pacific (EAP)Source: Dem...
SecondaryEducation
How many children are enrolled insecondary schools? Over 543 millionstudents are enrolledin secondary schoolworldwide. T...
 In 2000, just over half(53%) of secondaryschool age childrenwere enrolled. Thisfigure has risen by 9.4percentage points ...
 EAP has made the mostprogress between 2000(55%) and 2010 (72%)followed by SAS, whichimproved by 11percentage pointsbetwe...
Which countries have the lowestsecondary enrollment rates? More than 2/3 ofsecondary school agestudents are out-of-school...
Which countries have improvedsecondary enrolment rates the most? These countrieshave improved theirsecondary netenrolment...
Net Enrollment Rate. Secondary (%)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and a...
Do low secondary enrollments relateto low national income per capita? Low gross nationalincome (GNI) per capitadoes not n...
0.920.940.950.96 0.96 0.960.750.800.850.900.951.001.051.102000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forNetEnrolme...
0.400.500.600.700.800.901.001.101.201.301.40GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.SecondarySource: UNESCO Institute...
Which countries have the largest genderdisparities in secondary enrolments? In 9 of 10countries, themale GER ismuch highe...
Which countries have decreased genderdisparity in secondary the most? These countries havemoved from 0.19 to0.34 percenta...
Do income disparities exist in lowersecondary enrolment rates in SAS and MNA?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Mu...
Do rural/urban disparities exist in lowersecondary enrolment rates in LAC?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multi...
Do regional disparities exist in lowersecondary enrolment rates in Asia?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multipl...
TertiaryEducation
How many youth are enrolled?Tertiary – Gross Enrolment Rates (GER) Around 30% of tertiaryage youth were enrolledin tertia...
Which countries have the lowesttertiary enrollment rates? These countries haveless than 4% of tertiaryage students enroll...
Which countries have improvedtertiary enrolment rates the most? These countrieshave improvedtheir tertiary grossenrolment...
Gross Enrollment Ratio. TertiarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data displayed is for t...
Do countries with higher income per capitahave higher tertiary enrollment rates? Most countries withgross national income...
Which regions have reached genderparity in tertiary enrollments? In 2000, the world genderparity index (GPI) fortertiary ...
Does gender parity exist in tertiaryenrollments in most countries? Only 9 countries arewithin +/-0.05 ofgender parity int...
Which countries have the largest genderdisparities in tertiary enrolments?10 Countries with the Largest MaleBias in Tertia...
Do gender, income, or location disparitiesexist in post-secondary attendance ratios? Levels of genderdisparity in post-se...
This presentation utilizes the following data sources:1) UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) data in the EdStats Query ...
The State of Education SeriesThe following State of Education presentationsare available on the EdStats website:Educationa...
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    1. 1. Access toEducationThe State of Education SeriesNovember 2012A Global Report
    2. 2. Access to Education: IndicatorsThis presentation includes data on: Total enrollments by region Out of School Children (OOS) of primaryschool age Net Enrollment Rates (NER)/GrossEnrollment Rates (GER) Correlations between GDP per capita andenrollment rates for each educational level Education equality: Income/gender/locationdisparities in education access
    3. 3. Acronym GuideAcronym NameEAP East Asia and PacificECA Europe and Central AsiaLAC Latin American and the CaribbeanMNA Middle East and North AfricaSAS South AsiaSSA Sub-Saharan AfricaWLD World (Global Aggregate)GER Gross Enrollment RateNER Net Enrollment RateOOS Out of SchoolGNI p.c. Gross National Income per capitaNAR Net Attendance RateGAR Gross Attendance RatioGPIGender Parity Index (female value/malevalue)
    4. 4. Summary Less than half of the world’s pre-primary agestudents were enrolled in pre-primary education in2010 (48.3%), but enrolment rates have been risingover time. SSA and MNA’s enrolment rates lag farbehind other regions with less than ¼ of pre-primaryage children enrolled. In 2010, 90.7% of primary age students worldwidewere enrolled in school. The rate has improvedsince 2000 (84.5%), but little progress has beenmade since 2008. 60.7 million primary school age children were out ofschool (OOS) in 2010. Over half of the worlds outof school children live in SSA and over 1/5 live inSouth Asia. Since 2008, the global rate of children out of schoolhas remained the same at 9.3%.
    5. 5. Summary(continued) 62.5% of secondary school age students wereenrolled in 2010, which was an 9.4 percentage pointimprovement over 2000. SSA lags far behind otherregions in secondary enrollments with just over ¼ ofstudents enrolled in 2010. The global tertiary gross enrollment rate (GER) hasgradually improved from 19% in 2000 to 29.2% in2010 but GERs vary greatly across regions. Morethan half of youth are enrolled in ECA (55.6%)compared to 6.8% of youth in SSA. On the global level, gender parity in pre-primaryand primary enrolment rates has been achieved.There is a small male bias in secondary enrolmentrates (GPI = 0.96) and a female bias in tertiaryenrolments (GPI = 1.08).
    6. 6. Pre-PrimaryEducation
    7. 7. How many children are enrolled inpre-primary education? Around 164 millionchildren were enrolled inpre-primary education in2010. This is up from134 million in 2005 and112 million in 1999. Over half of enrolledstudents were in eitherSAS or EAP (48 and 40million respectively). 25% of total pre-primaryenrollments were in Indiaand 16% were in China. 79 million (48.2%) weregirls.EAP24.3%ECA6.4%HIC18.1%LAC12.5%MNA2.0%SAS29.1%SSA7.6%Share of Total Pre-PrimaryEnrollments by Region (%)2010Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012;Notes: Regional aggregates are World Bank regions;HIC = high income countries in all geographic regions.
    8. 8. How many children are enrolled?Pre-Primary – Gross Enrolment Rates (GER) Globally, less than half ofpre-primary age studentswere enrolled in pre-primary education in2010, but all regionsincreased pre-primaryenrolments between2000 and 2010. SAS almost doubled itspre-primary GERbetween 2000 (25.4%)and 2010 (48.3%). LAC’s GERs areconsistently the highestamong regions rangingfrom 56.8% to 70.1%. SSA and MNA lagbehind other regions with17.7% and 23.8% GERsrespectively in 2010.Pre-Primary Gross Enrolment Rates haveincreased in all regions since 200034.1 34.737.140.945.648.3010203040506070802000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GrossEnrolmentRate.Pre-Primary.Total(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    9. 9. Which countries have the lowestpre-primary enrollment rates? 8 of the 10 countrieswith the lowest pre-primary net enrolmentrates (NER) are in SSA. Of the 130 countrieswith data, 18 countrieshad less than 10% oftheir children enrolled inpre-primary education. 36 countries had lessthan 25% of theirchildren enrolled in pre-primary. 19 countries had pre-primary enrollmentshigher than 90%.10 Countries with the Lowest Pre-Primary Net Enrollment Rates(2009-2011)1 Yemen, Rep. 0.352 Chad 1.773 Burkina Faso 2.754 Mali 3.375 Djibouti 3.416 Cote dIvoire 3.547 Ethiopia 3.928 Guinea-Bissau 4.689 Niger 4.7610 Central African Republic 5.64Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 2012Notes: Purple data is for 2011; Black is 2010; Blue is 2009;Data were not available for 84 of 214 countries.
    10. 10. Which countries have increased pre-primary enrollment rates the most? These countrieshave increased theirpre-primary GERsby 25 to 66percentage pointsbetween 1999-2001and 2009-2011. Half of the countriesat least doubledtheir NER over time. Algeria improvedfrom 3.4% to 66% –a 1928%improvement. Only two of thesecountries have acurrent NER over90% – Barbadosand Maldives.10 Countries with the MostImprovement in Pre-PrimaryNet Enrollment RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2001NER2009-2011NER%Improved1 Algeria 66.1 3.4 69.5 1927.92 Korea, Rep. 41.0 44.0 85.0 93.03 Moldova 37.3 36.8 74.0 101.44 Barbados 33.6 62.1 95.7 54.05 Sao Tome & Principe 32.4 24.2 56.5 133.86 Maldives 30.8 61.4 92.2 50.17 Mongolia 29.1 28.4 57.5 102.58 Nicaragua 26.7 28.6 55.4 93.59 Ghana 26.0 21.5 47.5 120.710 Uruguay 25.4 52.9 78.3 48.0Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012;Note: Data were not available for 118 of 213 countries.
    11. 11. Net Enrollment Rate. Pre-Primary (%)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2012Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year (2008-2011)
    12. 12. Are lower pre-primary enrollment ratesrelated to lower national income percapita? All the low incomecountries ($1025 or less)have less than 16% ofchildren enrolled in pre-primary education exceptGambia (27%), Kenya(29%), and Tanzania(33%). 24 countries had NERsless than 15%. Only 4 ofthose had GNI per capitahigher than $1100. Allthe countries were lowerthan $4780 (Bosnia). All of the countries withNERs higher than 90%had GNI greater than$12,000 except Thailand,Grenada, and Maldives.All low income countries had less than one-third ofchildren enrolled in pre-primary education.R² = 0.2290204060801000 20 40 60 80NetEnrollmentRate.Pre-Primary.TotalGNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data is for the most recent year between 2009 and 2011.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data is for the most recent year between 2009 and 2011.IrelandSwitzerlandQatarAustraliaNorway
    13. 13. Do gender disparities exist in pre-primary enrollment rates? Gender parity indices(GPIs) are calculated bydividing the female valuefor an indicator by themale value, so perfectgender parity equals 1.A value below 1indicates a bias towardmales. A value above 1indicates a bias towardfemales. Globally, the GPI hasbeen increasing from .98in 2000 to perfectgender parity (1.0) in2010. Most regions are veryclose to gender parity(+/- 0.02) in 2010. OnlyMNA lags behind. 4 of 6 regions have aslight female bias.Gender parity in pre-primary enrolments (1.0) hasbeen achieved globally and in most regions.0.980.990.990.990.991.000.750.800.850.900.951.001.052000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.Pre-PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAFemale BiasMale Bias
    14. 14. Do rural/urban disparities exist in pre-primary attendance rates in ECA?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012% of 3 to 4 year olds attending any type of pre–primary education program
    15. 15. Do income disparities exist in pre-primary attendance rates in SSA?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012% of 3 to 4 year olds attending any type of pre–primary education program
    16. 16. PrimaryEducation
    17. 17. How many children are enrolled inprimary schools? Around 691 millionchildren were enrolled inprimary school in 2010.This is up from 685million in 2005 and 655million in 2000. Over half of enrolledstudents were in eitherSAS or EAP (182 and172 million respectively). 21% of total primaryenrollments were in Indiaand 15% were in China. 330 million (47.7%) weregirls.EAP24.9%ECA3.0%LAC9.6%MNA5.5%SSA20.0%SAS26.4%HIC10.6%Share of Total Primary Enrollmentsby Region (%)2010Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012Notes: Regional aggregates are World Bank regions;HIC = high income countries in all geographic regions.
    18. 18.  In 2010, 90.7% ofprimary school agechildren around theworld were enrolled inprimary or secondaryeducation. This figure rose eachyear between 1999(83.7%) and 2008, butthe figure remainedunchanged between2008 and 2010. All regions haveincreased ANERs since2000, but SSA andSAS improved the most– 16 percentage pointsin SSA and 14percentage points inSAS.Continued…Have primary enrolments improved?Primary – Adjusted Net Enrollment Rates (ANER)Primary Enrolment Rates have increased since2000, but little progress has been made since 2008.84.585.588.7 89.190.7 90.760657075808590951002000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010AdjustedNetEnrolmentRate.Primary.Total(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    19. 19.  Since 2008, SSA hasonly improved by 0.1%and SAS by 0.4%. SASs improvementmoved it closer to otherregions by 2010(92.3%), but SSA stilllags far behind with aANER of 76.2% in2010. ECA’s ANER peaked in2002 at 96.6% and hasbeen lower since. EAP and LAC are theonly 2 regions withANERs higher than95% in 2010.Have primary enrolments improved?Primary – Adjusted Net Enrollment Rates (ANER)84.585.588.7 89.190.7 90.760657075808590951002000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010AdjustedNetEnrolmentRate.Primary.Total(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLDPrimary Enrolment Rates have increased since2000, but little progress has been made since 2008.
    20. 20. Which countries have the lowestprimary enrollment rates? In the top 2 countries(Eritrea andDjibouti), less than halfof primary school agechildren are enrolled inprimary school. All of the countries withthe lowest adjusted netenrollment rates (ANER)are in SSA exceptDjibouti. Of the 20 countries withthe lowest primaryANERs,15 are in SSA. There is a large rangeamong the listedcountries: #10 Gambia’sANER almost doubles#1 Eritrea’s.10 Countries with the LowestPrimary Enrollment Rates(2009-2011)1 Eritrea 34.92 Djibouti 44.63 Equatorial Guinea 56.34 Nigeria 57.65 Cote dIvoire 61.56 Niger 62.57 Burkina Faso 63.28 Mali 67.29 Central African Republic 68.910 Gambia, The 69.3Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 2012Notes: Data is Adjusted Net Enrolment Rate. Primary (ANER);Purple figures are for 2011; Black = 2010; Blue = 2009.Data were not available for 67 of 214 countries.
    21. 21. Which countries have increasedprimary enrollment rates the most? These countries haveincreased theirprimary ANERs by 22to 42 percentagepoints between1999/2000 and2010/2011. Ethiopia and Nigermore than doubledtheir ANERs, but morethan 1/3 of childrenare still not enrolled inNiger. Only Zambia hasincreased its ANER toover 90%. All thecountries need tocontinue improving toreach universalprimary enrolment.10 Countries with the MostImprovement in PrimaryEnrollment RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999/2000ANER2010/2011ANER%Improved1 Ethiopia 41.8 40.4 82.2 103.42 Niger 35.4 27.1 62.5 130.53 Mozambique 33.9 56.0 89.8 60.54 Bhutan 30.8 58.5 89.3 52.75 Guinea 30.1 46.9 77.0 64.16 Burkina Faso 28.7 34.5 63.2 83.07 Mali 25.0 42.2 67.2 59.18 Guinea-Bissau 23.8 51.2 75.0 46.59 Zambia 21.7 71.0 92.7 30.610 Yemen, Rep. 21.5 56.7 78.2 37.8Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012;Notes: Purple is 2011/1999 data; Black is 2010/2000;Data were not available for 104 of 214 countries.
    22. 22. Adjusted Net Enrollment Rate. Primary (%)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2012Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year (2008-2011)
    23. 23. Do countries with low national incomeper capita have low primary enrollments? Low income does notnecessarily indicatelower primary enrolmentrates: Countries with thelowest gross nationalincome (GNI) per capita(<$500) have ANERsranging from 35%(Eritrea) to 97.5%(Malawi). Countries with thelowest primary ANERs(less than 75%) haveGNI p.c. less than$1270. EquatorialGuinea is the onlyexception with 56.3%primary ANER and$14,540 GNI pc.There is no clear association between low nationalincome p.c. and low primary enrollment rates.R² = 0.098304050607080901000 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55AdjustedNetEnrollmentRate.Primary.TotalGNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: ANER data are for the most recent year between 2009 and 2011.Equitorial GuineaEritreaMacao, China SARDjiboutiNigeria
    24. 24. Which regions have reached genderparity in primary enrollments? Gender parity indices(GPIs) are calculated bydividing the female valuefor an indicator by themale value, so perfectgender parity equals 1.A value below 1indicates a bias towardmales. A value above 1indicates a bias towardfemales. Globally, the GPI hasbeen increasing from .93in 1999 to .98 in 2010. Most regions are veryclose to gender parity(+/- 0.03). Only MNAand SSA lag behind. EAP, ECA, and LAChave achieved genderparity in primary (+/-0.02).All regions except MNA and SSA are within 0.03 ofgender parity in primary enrollments.0.930.930.94 0.940.960.970.970.97 0.970.980.980.800.820.840.860.880.900.920.940.960.981.001.021999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forAdjustedNetEnrolmentRate.PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAFemale BiasMale Bias
    25. 25. 0.650.700.750.800.850.900.951.001.051.101.15GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.PrimarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, September, 2012Note: Data points are the most recent year with data available (2008-2011)Have most countries reached genderparity in primary enrollments? Half of countries withdata have alreadyachieved gender parity(+/- .02). 78% of countries withdata are within 0.05 ofgender parity. Many more countrieshave a bias towardmales in primaryenrolments (GPI<1). Afghanistan has thelargest male bias at .69followed by CentralAfrican Rep. and Chadat .73. San Marino has thehighest female bias at1.134.78% of countries are within 0.05 of gender parity inprimary enrollments.FemaleBiasMale Bias
    26. 26. Which countries have the largest genderdisparities in primary enrolment rates? The male primarygross enrolment ratein these countries ismuch higher than thefemale grossenrolment rate. 7 of 10 countries arein SSA. 2 are inSouth Asia and 1 isin MNA. Of the 20 countrieswith the lowest GPIs(GPI<0.9),14 are inSSA, 2 are in SAS, 2are in EAP (Togo andPNG), and 1 is inLAC (DominicanRepublic).10 Countries with the Largest GenderDisparities in Primary Enrollment Rates(2008-2011)1 Afghanistan 0.6942 Central African Republic 0.7253 Chad 0.7294 Angola 0.8135 Yemen, Rep. 0.8176 Pakistan 0.8187 Cote dIvoire 0.8338 Niger 0.8379 Guinea 0.83810 Eritrea 0.838Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, September 2012;Notes: Data is GPI for Primary Gross Enrolment Rate; Black figures are 2011data; Blue=2010; Data were not available for 71 of 214 countries.
    27. 27. Which countries have decreasedgender disparity in primary the most? These countries havemoved from 0.14 to0.25 percentagepoints closer togender parity (1)between 2000/2001and the most recentdata year. 6 of the 10 countriesare in SSA; 2 are inMNA and 2 in SouthAsia. Senegal now hashigher femaleenrollment rates thanmale enrollment rates(1.06). Burundi and Indiahave reached genderparity.10 Countries with the Most ImprovementToward Gender Parity in PrimaryEnrollmentsPercentagePointsImproved2000 or2001GPIMostcurrentGPI%Improved1 Sierra Leone 0.25 0.67 0.93 37.532 Ethiopia 0.22 0.69 0.91 32.733 Burkina Faso 0.20 0.73 0.93 27.504 Benin 0.20 0.67 0.87 29.665 Yemen, Rep. 0.19 0.63 0.82 30.556 Burundi 0.19 0.80 0.99 23.647 Senegal 0.17 0.89 1.06 19.318 India 0.15 0.85 1.00 17.619 Pakistan 0.15 0.67 0.82 21.7910 Djibouti 0.14 0.76 0.90 18.84Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Sept. 2012;Notes: Most current GPI is the most recent data point for 2008-2011;Data were not available for 54 of 213 countries.
    28. 28. Do gender, income, or location disparitiesexist in primary attendance rates? EAP, ECA, LAC, andMNA do not have largedisparities in primary netattendance rates (NAR)betweengenders, rural/urbanlocations, or top/bottomincome quintiles. The largest disparities inmost regions areassociated with income.In SSA and SAS, thereis a 20 percentage pointdifference between thetop/bottom incomequintiles. Rural students in SSAalso have NARs that are12 percentage pointslower than urbanstudents.2Gender, income and location disparities are smallin all regions except except SAS and SSA.-202468101214161820EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinNetAttendanceRate.Primary(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
    29. 29.  In 1999, 16% ofprimary school agechildren were OOS.42% of children in SSAand almost a quarter ofchildren in SAS wereOOS. By 2010, 9.3% ofchildren were OOSglobally, but SSA’s ratewas still much higher at23.8%. Most of the progress inreducing the rate ofchildren OOS occurredbetween 1999 and2008. Since2008, global andregional rates havebasically remained thesame.Which regions have the highestpercentage of children out-of-school?Rates of Children Out-of-School have decreasedsince 1999, but progress has slowed since 2008.16.315.515.114.513.111.311.1 10.910.19.3 9.30.05.010.015.020.025.030.035.040.045.01999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Out-of-schoolrateforchildrenofprimaryschoolage(%).TotalSource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in Edstats, November 2012WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA
    30. 30. Which countries have highest rates ofchildren out-of-school? More than half of primary-school age children areout of school in Eritreaand Djibouti. More than a quarter ofprimary school agedchildren are out-of-schoolin 14 countries. 47 countries have morethan 10% of children out-of-school. Nine of ten countries arein SSA.10 Countries with the HighestRates of Children Out-of School(2009-2011)1 Eritrea 65.12 Djibouti 55.43 Equatorial Guinea 43.74 Nigeria 42.45 Cote dIvoire 38.56 Niger 37.57 Burkina Faso 36.88 Mali 32.89 Central African Republic 31.110 Gambia, The 30.7Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 2012Notes: Data displayed is the most current year available; Purple is2011; Black is 2010; Blue is 2009; Green is 2008; Data was notavailable for 61 of 214 countries.
    31. 31. Out-of-school rate for children ofprimary school age (%)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year (2008-2011)
    32. 32. Which region has the most out ofschool (OOS) children? In 2010, ¾ of the world’sout-of-school (OOS)children lived in tworegions: SSA and SAS. Over half (55%) of theworlds out of schoolchildren lived in SSA. ECA had the smallestpercentage of theworld’s OOS children at1.8% followed by MNA(3.9%) and LAC (4.4%).Out-of-School Children of PrimarySchool Age by Region (2010)EAP10.6%6 MillionECA1.8%LAC4.4%MNA3.9%SAS21.8%13 MillionSSA54.4%33 MillionHIC3.1%Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012Notes: Regional aggregates are World Bank regions;
    33. 33. How many primary school agechildren are out of school (OOS)? In 1999, 107.7 millionchildren were out ofprimary school. The total decreasedto 72.6 million in2005 and 60.7million in 2010. There were 47 millionfewer children OOSin 2010 than in 1999. Since 2008, theglobal number ofout-of-schoolchildren has grownfrom 60.66 million to60.69 million (2009)and 60.73 million in2010.The total number of out-of-school children hasdecreased by 47 million since 1999.01020304050607080901001101999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Out-of-SchoolChildren.Primary.Total(inmillions)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012Note: HIC = High Income Countries in all regionsHIC ECA LAC MNA EAP SAS SSA
    34. 34. How much have regions decreasedthe total number of OOS children? SAS and MNA morethan halved the totalnumber of OOSchildren between 1999and 2010. In SAS, thetotal number of OOSchildren decreased by25.6 million or 66%. SSA decreased thetotal number by 12.3million, which was a27% decrease between1999 and 2010, but thetotal number increasedby 1.5 million between2008 and 2010.All regions have decreased their total number ofout-of-school children since 1999.05101520253035404550SSA SAS EAP MNA LAC ECAOut-of-SchoolChildren.Total(inmillions)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 20121999 2008 2010
    35. 35. Which countries have the most out-of-school children? 45.8% of the world’s out-of-school children live inthe 10 countries listedhere. Five of the countries arein SSA and 3 are in SAS. Nigeria almost has asmany OOS children asthe regional totals forLAC, ECA, and MNAcombined (10.9 million). The US is #8 in theranking because of thelarge size of the schoolage population and alsopossibly because of alack of consistent datacollection on home-schooled children.10 Countries with the Most Out-ofSchool Children(2008-2011)1 Nigeria 10,542,1052 Pakistan 5,125,3733 Ethiopia 2,389,9454 India 2,278,3225 Bangladesh 1,835,2696 Philippines 1,460,4317 Cote dIvoire 1,160,7328 United States 1,023,2319 Burkina Faso 1,022,36210 Niger 1,012,228Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 2012Notes: Data displayed is the most current year available; Purple is2011; Black is 2010; Blue is 2009; Green is 2008; Data was notavailable for 61 of 214 countries.
    36. 36. Are more females out-of-school than males? In 1999, there werealmost 62 millionfemales out-of-schoolcompared to 45.5million males. 58% ofthe world’s out-of-school children werefemale. In 2010, around 32million girls were out ofschool compared to28.6 million boys.52.5% of out-of-schoolchildren were female. The gap between maleand female totalsdecreased from 16.5million to 3.6 millionbetween 1999 and2010.More Females are Out of Primary School than Males0204060801001201999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Out-of-SchoolChildren.Primary(inmillions)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, September 2012Males Out-of-School Females Out-of-School
    37. 37. Where are more females out-of-school? Over half of theworld’s out of schoolgirls are in SSA, andjust under 1/4 are inSouth Asia. South Asia hasdecreased its totalnumber of femalesout-of-school by 17.7million since 1999.The region’s totaldropped from 25million to 7 million. SSA has alsodecreased its totalfrom 24.3 million in1999 to 17.5 million in2010.3 out of every 4 Out-of-School Girls arein either Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia051015202530354045505560651999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Out-of-SchoolChildren.Primary.Female(inmillions)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October 2012LAC ECA MNA EAP SAS SSA
    38. 38. Which countries have the mostfemales OOS? Around half of the world’sout-of-school females livein these 10 countries. 36% of the world’s out-of-school females live in theTop 4 countries. Nigeria, Pakistan, andIndia all have more our-of-school females that thesum of all females out-of-school in LAC and ECA. Half of the countries arein SSA and three are inSouth Asia.10 Countries with the MostFemale Out-of School Children(2008-2011)1 Nigeria 5,487,9012 Pakistan 3,241,2033 India 1,407,4954 Ethiopia 1,367,1415 Cote dIvoire 663,8096 Philippines 661,5517 Bangladesh 591,3258 Niger 568,8849 Yemen, Rep. 567,70210 Burkina Faso 530,731Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October, 2012;Notes: Data displayed is the most current year available; Orange is2008;Blue is 2009; Blue is 2010; Black is 2011; Data were notavailable for 61 of 213 countries.
    39. 39. Are there gender, income, or locationdisparities in the % of children OOS? In all regions, more lowincome students areOOS than high incomestudents. SAS has thelargest income disparityat 29 percentage pointsdifference between thetop and bottom quintiles.SSA follows closelybehind with 24 points. A higher % of boys areOOS in EAP, ECA, andLAC, but a higher % ofgirls are OOS in SASand SSA. In all regions except forECA, a higher % of ruralstudents are OOS. Thisdisparity is highest inSSA at 15 percentagepoints.2Low income is the greatest source of disparity inpercentages of OOS children across regions.-30-28-26-24-22-20-18-16-14-12-10-8-6-4-202EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinthe%ofChildrenOut-of-School(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
    40. 40. Do rural/urban disparities in educationalaccess exist in SSA?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012Percentage of the population in the official age range oflower secondary education not in schoolPercentage of 7 to16 year olds who has never been to school.
    41. 41. Do income disparities exist in educationalaccess in SAS and EAP?South Asia (SAS)East Asia and the Pacific (EAP)Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012Percentage of 7 to16 year olds who has never been to school.
    42. 42. SecondaryEducation
    43. 43. How many children are enrolled insecondary schools? Over 543 millionstudents are enrolledin secondary schoolworldwide. This total is up from510 million in 2005 and451 million in 2000. Over half of the world’ssecondary schoolstudents are in eitherEAP or SAS. 38 percent of totalsecondary enrolmentsare in China (18%) andIndia (20%) 258 million (47.5%) aregirls.EAP27.4%ECA6.4%LAC11.0%MNA5.8%SSA8.4%SAS24.9%HIC16.0%Share of Total SecondaryEnrollments by Region (%)2010Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012Notes: Regional aggregates are World Bank regions;HIC = high income countries in all geographic regions.
    44. 44.  In 2000, just over half(53%) of secondaryschool age childrenwere enrolled. Thisfigure has risen by 9.4percentage points to62.5% in 2010. ECA has consistentlyhad the highest netenrolment rates (NERs)over time at around80%. Unlike inprimary, secondaryNERs have consistentlyimproved over timeglobally and in mostregions.Continued…How many children are enrolled?Secondary – Net Enrollment Rates (NER)Over one-third of secondary school age children arenot in school, but progress has been made over time.53.154.857.1 58.761.1 62.501020304050607080902000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010NetEnrolmentRate.Secondary.Total(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 2012; Notes:SSA 2008 is 2007 data; 2010 Data not available for SSA & SASEAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    45. 45.  EAP has made the mostprogress between 2000(55%) and 2010 (72%)followed by SAS, whichimproved by 11percentage pointsbetween 2000 and 2008. SSA improved by 6.7percentage pointsbetween 2000 and2007, but still was morethan 20 percent behindother regions with NERsranging from 20-26%. Almost ¾ of secondaryschool age students arenot enrolled in SSA, andalmost half are notenrolled in SAS.How many children are enrolled?Secondary – NER (continued)Over one-third of secondary school age children arenot in school, but progress has been made over time.53.154.857.1 58.761.1 62.501020304050607080902000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010NetEnrolmentRate.Secondary.Total(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov 2012; Notes:SSA 2008 is 2007 data; 2010 Data not available for SSA & SASEAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    46. 46. Which countries have the lowestsecondary enrollment rates? More than 2/3 ofsecondary school agestudents are out-of-schoolin these countries. Almost90% of students are notenrolled in Niger andAngola. 25 countries have lessthan half of secondaryschool age studentsenrolled. Djibouti is the onlycountry on the list that isnot in SSA. #10 Eritrea’s NER isalmost 3 times higherthan #1 Niger’s NER. #5 Mozambique improvedfrom 3.4% in 2001 to17.3% in 2011.10 Countries with the LowestSecondary Net Enrollment Rates(2008-2011)1 Niger 10.22 Angola 11.53 Central African Republic 14.14 Burundi 16.25 Mozambique 17.36 Burkina Faso 17.57 Madagascar 23.68 Djibouti 24.29 Malawi 27.510 Eritrea 28.6Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012Notes: Figures are most recent year with available data between 2008-2011. Green = 2008; Blue = 2009; Black = 2010; Purple = 2011. Datawere not available for 96 of 214 countries.
    47. 47. Which countries have improvedsecondary enrolment rates the most? These countrieshave improved theirsecondary netenrolment rates(NER) by 16 to 32percentage pointsbetween 1999-2001and 2009-2011. Bhutan has morethan doubled its2001 NER, but stillhas around half ofsecondary schoolage students OOSin 2011. Despite theirimprovement, onlythree of thesecountries haveNERs higher than75%.10 Countries with the MostImprovement in SecondaryNet Enrollment RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2001NERMostcurrentNER%Improved1 Bhutan 32.0 21.7 53.8 147.52 Syrian Arab Republic 25.2 41.7 67.0 60.53 St. Lucia 25.0 60.3 85.3 41.44 St. Vincent and theGrenadines22.4 67.9 90.4 33.05 Dominican Republic 22.1 40.2 62.3 55.06 Oman 21.5 68.2 89.7 31.67 Indonesia 20.6 46.7 67.3 44.18 Venezuela, RB 17.5 54.3 71.8 32.29 Kenya 16.0 34.0 50.0 47.010 Ghana 15.8 32.9 48.7 48.1Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012;Notes: Black data is for 2001 or 2010; Purple is 2000 or 2011; Blue is 2009;Data were not available for 123 of 214 countries.
    48. 48. Net Enrollment Rate. Secondary (%)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year (2008-2011)
    49. 49. Do low secondary enrollments relateto low national income per capita? Low gross nationalincome (GNI) per capitadoes not necessarilylead to low secondaryNERs. Low incomecountries (<$1025 GNIpc) have NERs rangingfrom 10.2% (Niger) to85% (Tajikistan). All countries with a GNIpc over $10,000 have aNER over 70% exceptLiechtenstein andUruguay. Almost all countries withsecondary NERs lessthan 50% have a GNI pcless than $3000. Theexceptions areSwaziland and Angola.There is no clear association between low nationalincome per capita and low secondary enrolment rates.R² = 0.17901020304050607080901000 20 40 60 80NetEnrollmentRate.Secondary.AllProgrammes.TotalGNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data is for the most recent year between 2009 and 2011.CAR, Burundi, Mozambique, Burkina FasoNigerNorwayAngolaSurinameMacao, SAR ChinaSwitzerland,Qatar,Luxembourg
    50. 50. 0.920.940.950.96 0.96 0.960.750.800.850.900.951.001.051.102000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forNetEnrolmentRate.SecondarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Oct. 2012; No dataavailable for SSA and MNA for 2010. SSA 2008 data is from 2007.WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAWhich regions have reached genderparity in secondary enrollments? Globally, the genderparity index (GPI) forsecondary net enrollmentrate (NER) has beenincreasing from 0.92 in2000 to 0.96 in 2010. ECA is the only regionwithin +/- 0.05 of genderparity (1.0). LAC has consistently hadhigher female NERs. EAP has reversed from amale bias (0.96) in 2000to a female bias (1.06) in2010. SAS has greatlydecreased genderdisparity over time. SSA has maintained amale bias 0.80 since2000.Gender disparities in secondary enrollments varygreatly across regions.Female BiasMale Bias
    51. 51. 0.400.500.600.700.800.901.001.101.201.301.40GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.SecondarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October 2012:Data points are the most recent year with data available (2008-2011)Does gender parity exist in secondaryenrollments in most countries? Just over half (52%) ofcountries with data arewithin 0.05 of genderparity in secondaryenrollments. Unlike primaryenrollments, morecountries have a femalebias in secondaryenrolments. 85countries have GPIshigher than 1 while 71countries have GPIsless than 1. 6 countries haveperfect gender parity(1.0):Slovenia, Mauritius, Swaziland, Japan, Indonesia, and Cyprus.More countries have higher female secondary GERsthan male secondary GERs.Female BiasMale Bias
    52. 52. Which countries have the largest genderdisparities in secondary enrolments? In 9 of 10countries, themale GER ismuch higher thanthe female GER.In Lesotho – thefemale GER ishigher than themale rate. 8 of 10 countriesare in SSA. 1 is inSouth Asia and 1is in MNA. Of the 20countries with thegreatest genderdisparity, 5 have afemale bias. 14 of the top 20are in SSA.10 Countries with the Largest GenderDisparities in Secondary Enrolments(2008-2011)GPIAbsolutevalue from 11 Chad 0.42 0.582 Afghanistan 0.51 0.493 Central African Republic 0.55 0.454 Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.58 0.425 Guinea 0.59 0.416 Lesotho 1.38 0.387 Yemen, Rep. 0.62 0.388 Niger 0.66 0.349 Angola 0.69 0.3110 Mali 0.71 0.29Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October 2012; Notes: Data are2010 GPIs for Secondary Gross Enrolment Rates except Guinea (2009), CAR(2011), and Mali (2011); Data were not available for 52 of 213 countries.
    53. 53. Which countries have decreased genderdisparity in secondary the most? These countries havemoved from 0.19 to0.34 percentagepoints closer togender parity (1) overtime. Sweden and St. Luciaimproved from a largefemale bias (1.26)toward gender parity. The other countrieshave improved from amale bias (0.40 to0.85) toward genderparity. 3 of 10 countries arewithin 0.05 of genderparity in the mostrecent year.10 Countries with the MostImprovement Toward GenderParity in Secondary EnrollmentsPercentagePointsImproved2000/2001GPIMostcurrentGPI1 Cambodia 0.34 0.57 0.902 Sweden 0.27 1.26 0.993 St. Lucia 0.27 1.26 0.994 Mozambique 0.23 0.64 0.875 Senegal 0.21 0.66 0.886 Yemen, Rep. 0.21 0.41 0.627 India 0.20 0.72 0.928 Bhutan 0.19 0.85 1.049 Guinea 0.19 0.40 0.5910 Turkey 0.19 0.73 0.91Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, October. 2012;Notes: Most current GPI data for most countries is from 2010;Guinea and Turkey are 2009; Mozambique data is 2011.
    54. 54. Do income disparities exist in lowersecondary enrolment rates in SAS and MNA?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012South Asia (SAS)Middle East and North Africa (MNA)% of the population in the official age range of lower secondary education not in school
    55. 55. Do rural/urban disparities exist in lowersecondary enrolment rates in LAC?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012Percentage of the population in the official age range oflower secondary education not in school% of the population in the official age range of lower secondary education not in school
    56. 56. Do regional disparities exist in lowersecondary enrolment rates in Asia?Source: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys In World Inequality Database on Education (WIDE), Nov. 2012% of the population in the official age range of lower secondary education not in school
    57. 57. TertiaryEducation
    58. 58. How many youth are enrolled?Tertiary – Gross Enrolment Rates (GER) Around 30% of tertiaryage youth were enrolledin tertiary education2010. This figure was a10 percentage pointimprovement over 2000(19%). ECA has consistentlyhad the highest tertiaryGERs of any region.Over half (55.6%) oftertiary age youth wereenrolled in 2010 which isa 17 percentage pointincrease over 2000. EAP has more thandoubled its tertiary GERover time. SSA lags behind otherregions with 6.8% ofyouth enrolled in 2010.Almost ¾ of tertiary age youth around the worldare not enrolled in tertiary education.19.121.523.524.927.029.201020304050602000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GrossEnrolmentRate.Tertiary.Total(%)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, November 2012EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSA WLD
    59. 59. Which countries have the lowesttertiary enrollment rates? These countries haveless than 4% of tertiaryage students enrolled intertiary education. 33 countries have lessthan 10 percent oftertiary age youthenrolled. 50 countries have morethan half of tertiary ageyouth enrolled. 8 countries have tertiaryGERs higher than 80%and 4 countries havetertiary GERs higher than90%: Finland, the UnitedStates, Cuba, andKorea, Rep.10 Countries with the LowestTertiary Gross Enrollment Rates(2008-2011)1 Turks and Caicos Islands 0.082 Malawi 0.723 Niger 1.514 Eritrea 1.995 Tanzania 2.116 Chad 2.177 Central African Republic 2.578 Burundi 3.259 Afghanistan 3.3310 Dominica 3.57Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Notes: Figures are most recent year with data between 2008-2011.Purple = 2011; Black = 2010; Blue = 2009; Green = 2008.Data were not available for 72 of 214 countries.
    60. 60. Which countries have improvedtertiary enrolment rates the most? These countrieshave improvedtheir tertiary grossenrolment rates by27 to 70percentage pointsbetween 1999-2001 and 2009-2011. 7 countries morethan doubled theirtertiary GER –Cuba, Venezuela,Cyprus,Montenegro,Czech Rep.,Romania, andArmenia. All of the countriesare in LAC or ECA.10 Countries with the MostImprovement in TertiaryGross Enrollment RatesPercentagePointsImproved1999-2001GER2009-2011GER%Improved1 Cuba 70.0 25.2 95.2 277.82 Venezuela, RB 49.8 28.3 78.1 175.63 Cyprus 33.0 21.6 54.6 152.84 Montenegro 31.1 16.6 47.6 187.95 Czech Republic 30.5 30.1 60.7 101.56 Romania 30.5 28.4 58.8 107.47 Uruguay 29.5 33.8 63.3 87.48 Ukraine 27.1 52.4 79.5 51.89 Belarus 27.0 55.9 83.0 48.310 Armenia 26.6 24.9 51.5 106.7Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012;Notes: Most recent data year available was used from 2008-2011.Data were not available for 97 of 214 countries.
    61. 61. Gross Enrollment Ratio. TertiarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data displayed is for the latest available year (2008-2011)The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and anyother information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, anyjudgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.The maps are for reference only.
    62. 62. Do countries with higher income per capitahave higher tertiary enrollment rates? Most countries withgross national income(GNI) per capita lessthan $1000 havetertiary GERs less than11%. Tajikistan (20%)and Kyrgyz Rep (49%)are the two exceptions. Countries with GNI pcmore than $20,000have tertiary GERshigher than 50%except for Qatar(10%), Luxembourg(10.5%), Brunei(17.2%), andLiechtenstein (36.0%).Most countries with a GNI pc higher than $20,000have tertiary GERs higher than 50%.R² = 0.20201020304050607080901000 20 40 60 80Grossenrolmentratio.Tertiary(ISCED5and6).TotalGNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data is for the most recent year between 2009 and 2011.SloveniaBruneiNorwaySwitzerlandUnited StatesFinlandOmanLuxembourg, QatarBelarus
    63. 63. Which regions have reached genderparity in tertiary enrollments? In 2000, the world genderparity index (GPI) fortertiary enrollments was1.0 – perfect genderparity. Since then, femaleGERs have been higherthan male GERs, and theGPI has been movingabove 1.0. MNA is the only regionwithin +/- 0.05 of genderparity in 2010. LAC andECA have consistentlyhad higher femaleGERs, and EAP hasreversed from a malebias to a female bias. SAS and SSA havemaintained a strong malebias in tertiaryenrolments over time.Gender disparities in tertiary enrolment rates varygreatly across regions.1.001.021.041.06 1.07 1.080.600.650.700.750.800.850.900.951.001.051.101.151.201.251.302000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRate.TertiarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Oct. 2012WLD EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAFemale BiasMale Bias
    64. 64. Does gender parity exist in tertiaryenrollments in most countries? Only 9 countries arewithin +/-0.05 ofgender parity intertiary enrollments. 63% of countrieshave a female bias intertiary enrolmentsvs. 37% with highermale enrolment rates. One country –Vietnam – has perfectgender parity (1.0). In 10 countries, thefemale GER morethan doubles themale GER. Thesecountries are islandnations in LAC andQatar (see nextslide).The majority of countries have higher femaleenrolment rates than male enrolment rates in tertiaryeducation.0.000.501.001.502.002.503.003.504.004.505.005.50GenderParityIndex(GPI)forGrossEnrolmentRatio.TertiarySource: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Nov. 2012Note: Data points are the most recent year with data available (2008-2011)FemaleBiasMale Bias
    65. 65. Which countries have the largest genderdisparities in tertiary enrolments?10 Countries with the Largest MaleBias in Tertiary Enrolments(2008-2011)1 Chad 0.172 Congo, Rep. 0.213 Afghanistan 0.244 Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.315 Central African Republic 0.326 Eritrea 0.337 Guinea 0.338 Ethiopia 0.369 Benin 0.3810 Niger 0.38Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Oct. 2012;Notes: Maroon=2011; Black = 2010; Purple = 2009; Blue = 2008;Data were not available for 73 of 213 countries.10 Countries with the LargestFemale Bias in TertiaryEnrolments(2008-2011)1 Qatar 5.382 Dominica 3.353 Antigua and Barbuda 2.584 St. Lucia 2.575 Guyana 2.526 Barbados 2.387 Jamaica 2.288 Cayman Islands 2.249 Bermuda 2.1210 St. Kitts and Nevis 2.10Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Oct. 2012;Notes: Black = 2010; Blue = 2008; Data were not available for73 of 213 countries.
    66. 66. Do gender, income, or location disparitiesexist in post-secondary attendance ratios? Levels of genderdisparity in post-secondary attendanceare much lower thanlevels of location andincome disparity. Moregirls than boys attendpost-secondary schoolsin EAP, ECA, and LAC. Rural areas havebetween 5 (SSA) and 15(LAC) percent lowerattendance ratios thanurban areas. Income is the largestsource of disparityacross regions. Incomedisparities range from 8percentage points inSSA to 34 in LAC.2Income is the largest source of disparity in post-secondary gross attendance ratios in all regions.-505101520253035EAP ECA LAC MNA SAS SSAPercentagePointDifferenceinGrossAttendanceRatio.Post-Sec.(Male-Female,Urban-Rural,andQuintile1-Quintile5)Gender disparityLocation disparityIncome disparitySource: Estimated by Porta (2011) using data from Demographic and HealthSurveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Living StandardsMeasurement Studies for 1985-2007
    67. 67. This presentation utilizes the following data sources:1) UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) data in the EdStats Query The presentation was created with the most recent UIS datarelease that included 2010 data for most indicators and 2011 datafor some countries. The most recent regional aggregate data was from 2010. Indicators were calculated by UIS according to definitions availablein the EdStats Query metadata.2) Income/Gender/Location Disparity slides were based on dataand analysis extracted from: Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, andLiving Standards Measurement Studies for 1985-2007; Reports weregenerated through ADePT Edu by Emilio Porta (2011). Porta, Emilio, Gustavo Arcia, Kevin Macdonald, Sergiy Radyakin, and MishaLokshin. 2011. Assessing Sector Performance and Inequality in Education.Washington, DC: World Bank.Data Sources
    68. 68. The State of Education SeriesThe following State of Education presentationsare available on the EdStats website:Educational Levels: Pre-Primary Education Primary Education Secondary Education Tertiary EducationTopics: Access Quality Expenditures Literacy Equity Gender

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