Napoleón convince Carlos VI to be his ally in the conquest of Portugal.
Policy of Carlos VI:
Was not approved by his son, Fernando
First minister Godoy “ Tratado de Fontainebleu ” (1807)
18th of October 1807: Junot conquered Portugal
- Murat more French armies continued entering in Spain
“ El Proceso del Escorial ” (October 1807)
“ El Motín de Aranjuez ” (19th March 1808):
“ Fernandinos ” : peasants, palace’s soldiers and servants.
First time the citizens went against the Ancient Regime.
Dismissal of Godoy.
Abdication of Carlos IV to his son, Fernando.
Murat didn’t recognize the new king
“ Abdicaciones de Bayona ” (5th of May 1808)
Uprising (2nd of May 1808) repressed by the executions of the 2nd of May
Juntas Supremas Provinciales
by Tomás Celestino
After the uprising of 2 of May on Madrid, the news of the acts spread over the country, causing:
The first reaction of indignation and solidarity and,
Spanish population asked the emergence of Juntas
THE TWO ATTITUDES OF SPANISH PEOPLE
AFRANCESADOS : intellectuals, officials and noblemans who from of the Enlightened Despotism. They represented a very- qualified part of public , social and cultural leader sector. They have an Ideological reason based on the dynastic change to approach the transformations that Spanish society needed,placing a strong regime.
Frenchified people( afrancesados) treated to make an ideologic bridge between absolutists and liberals but they found out hate of both sides: one side underestimated them for ´´French´´ and the other side for ´´Spanish´´.
THE PATRIOTIC FRONT: Divided in three different thoughts regarding the ideological position on this :
-> The enlightened : wished the return of the king to continue with the reforms.
-> The liberals: transformation of the Old Régime in a parliamentary liberal regime, with a new Constitution.
-> The absolutists : turn to the Old Régime, they had the support of the most part of popular classes, on defense of the land, the religion and the king.
PHASES OF THE WAR
There are three main phases on the conflict, regarding with the domain of each side.
FIRST PHASE: (May – November,1808). focused on the leadership of the spanish resistance.
A large French army against the rest of the spanish one, which was supported by the british and portuguese army.
It started with the uprising on Madrid.
The besiege of Zaragoza.
The Bailen battle(on 19, Jule), by which the french troops were defeated , José Bonaparte had to leave.
Napoleón decided to intervene, and crossed the Pyrinees with his army, the Grande Armée advancing to the capital and defeating the spanish resistance.
Bailén battle : the French troops were defeated and it was the first setback of Napoleón.
SECOND PHASE : (November, 1808 – Jule, 1812). characterized by the Attrition War and the action of the guerrilla.
The French soldiers advanced to south. Cádiz could resist and there it had organized a War government ( the Junta Suprema Central ).
Attrition War: impossibility French troops had for controlling the territory. Guerrillas consisted on units of armed countrymen with the objective of mantaining in constant threat to French. Double effect upon the French Army :
->they undermine the moral of French, and
-> forced to mantain a high number of men.
Guerrilla´s War was the only way to wear down and hinder the effort of French war.
THIRD PHASE: (Jule, 1812 - December,1813). Change on events.
->British troops ( headed by Wellington ) advanced to the south.
->Napoleón decided attacking Russia, so he retired the best units he had on Spain. This provoked the hispanic – britain advance.
-> After the defeat on Russia, Napoleón retired more units leaving French forces on inferiority.
-> Battle of Vitoria ( jun, 1813 ) consummated the French defeat and later Napoleón signed the Valençay treaty , by which he returned the Spanish crown to Ferdinand VII.
Battle of Vitoria, key of the French defeat and the end of the conflict.
CONSEQUENCES AFTER THE WAR POLITICAL ECONOMICAL SOCIAL by Javier Horcajada
The bourgeoisie started to get power
The church still was powerful
Emancipation of the Spanish American colonies
The estamental society fell apart
Peculiar Spanish army
Disastrous economy after the war
The State got into debt
Lost of the economical benefits from the colonies
ART PAINTING & LITERATURE by Zaida Soria
There are authors as Bernardo López ( El dos de mayo ) or Manuel José Quintana ( Al armamento de las provincias españolas contra los franceses).
Many authors belonged to the movement of the Neoclasicismo .
Exalt the courage and the commitment against the French army and Emperor.
José de Espronceda wrote about the War of Independence and satirized it and both of the warring parties.
Benito Pérez Galdos considered that the War was a slow process to get development for the country. Some of his main titles are “Trafalgar” or “Bailén” .
Pedro Antonio de Alarcón : “ El afrancesado”.
Benito Pérez Galdós
There are many plays which tell about the main events happened in the war.
Juan José Aparicio : “El mejor triunfo de España”.
Francisco de Goya
Goya was born in
Zaragoza, in 1746.
He obtained prestige
through orders done by
Carlos III .
“ Pintor de cámara”.
He painted several famous characters.
La familia de Carlos IV
La Duquesa de Alba
La maja desnuda
La maja vestida
During a trip he fall ill and became deaf, this event marked a point of incision in his artistic career.
He started painting “Los Caprichos”.
They tried to show social defects and the superstitions of the time.
Afterwards, he started “Los Desastres de la Guerra” which were composed by 82 scenes represented in a hardness way. They represent the dramatic and horrifying situation lived during the War og Independence.
Goya represented his disaagrement with the war in his works.
He didn’t defend “good” people or “bad” ones. He painted Spanish people and French ones in the same way.
El fusilamiento del 3 de mayo (1814)
During his last years Goya worked in his most intimate work: “Las Pinturas Negras”.
He tried to show with them the darkest aspects of the people.
Saturno devorando a sus hijos
THANK YOU ALL FOR LISTENING now you may clap =D