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The catholic kings

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  • 1. THE CATHOLIC KINGS BY GROUP: 4 Alba Romero María Olías Cristina Bascuñana Marta Becares
  • 2. INTRODUCTION
    • Catholic kings reign:
    • beginning of the Modern Age in the Spanish Monarchy.
    • Creation of the authoritarian monarchy .
    • The territorial unification of the “Spanish” crowns.
    • The colonization of America and the overseas expansion
    • The religious unification.
  • 3. Common background between Castile and Aragon
    • Social crisis
    • Suffered from political instability
    • Political crisis
    • Religious crisis
  • 4. The dinastic union
    • Enrique Blanca de Navarra
    • Juana de Portugal
    • Juana “La Beltraneja”
    • -Alfonso, Enrique’s stepbrother died
    • -Isabel, Enrique’s stepsister reclaimed the rights of his brother Alfonso
    • -Isabel and Enrique reach and agreement in the Toros de Guisando
    • -She was the heir
    • - Freedom to chose her husband but Enrique should
    • supervise that union
  • 5.
    • Isabel Fernando in secret Enrique was
    • angry an put
    • Juana as heir.
    • In 1474 Enrique died and Isabel was proclaimed as queen of Castille
    • Portugal union between Castille and Aragon.
    • -Alfonso Juana’s uncle tried to married
    • her but the Pope was against this union
    • -Alfonso entered in Catille with his trops
    • Isabel developed the Alcaçovas agreement
    • - Portugal had the monopoly of the africa
    • Atlantica and Bojador Cabe
    • - Juana as a nun
  • 6.
    • -1479 Fernando’s father died, he started to be the king of Aragon.
    • -The union of Isabel and Fernando meant the dinastic union but not the political union of Castille and Aragon.
    • - “Tanto monta monta tanto”
  • 7. Domestic policy
    • Territorial union conquer of Granada
    • annexation of
    • Portugal.
    • incorporation of
    • Navarra
    • Spanish inquisition
    • Religious uniformism
  • 8. FOREIGN POLICY
    • The expansion of the Kingdom:
    • Fernando dedicated him-self to this poliocy
    • Common for both kingdoms but separation between the insterests of Castile and Aragon.
    • Castile kept alliances with England, Burgundy, and the Papacy.
    • Centrated in the Atlantic
    • Aragon kept its expansion line in the Mediterranean.
    • Caused confrontation with France
  • 9.
    • One of the main objectives of the kingdom was to expand Chistianity and to stop the Turkish advance.
    • Peace with Portugal treaties
    Alcáçovas (1479): Portuguese achieved control over the African Coast Tordesillas (1494): which gave them control of what we know today as Brazil
  • 10.
    • The Marriage policy
    • The Catholic Kings negociated a series of marriages for their children.
    • 2 objectives:
    • Ensure the permanence of the inheritance of the Crowns in the family.
    • To establish a network of alliances with states willing to isolation of France.
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • The administration of the Colonies
    • August 3rd, 1492, Colon departed from the Palo’s habour.
    • October 12 th, they arrieved to Guanahani Island, later named San Salvador, then Cuba and Spanish.
    Beginning of the colonization of the West Indies
    • Colon came back – Treat of Tordesillas 1494
    • In India traditional administrative systems from Castilian Kingdom were established.
  • 13. STRENGTHENING OF ROYAL POWER
    • Desire to make the monarchy the most important.
    • Against nobility:
    • - “Santa Hermandad” 1476.
    • - Royal patrimony
    • - Lost of political power.
    • Against church:
    • - Ecclesiastic reform.
    • Against Courts:
    • - “Corregidores”.
  • 14. RELIGIOUS UNITY
    • The role of the church in the XVth century.
    • The religious policy gave rise to two facts:
    • 1. expulsion of Jews
    • 2. oppression on Muslims.
    • The inquisition became independent from the Holy See, and transformed into secular court.
    Main tool to achieve religious unity.
    • The expulsion of the Jews began in 1482 in Andalusia, it was approved by the Catholic Kings in 1492.
  • 15. Conquest of nasrid kingdom of Granada
    • after the problem of succesion of the kingdom of castilla started the conquest of the kingdom of Granada.
    • 1492 Catholic kings entered Granada.
    • Castilians
    • In this war took part
    • Aragonese
  • 16.
    • Reason: desire of the Catholic kings for recovering the Castilian lands that were in possesion of the Muslisms
    • unify territories and the religions of the peninsula
    • Firstly conquest of the western part
    • After conquest of the oriental part
    • conquest of Ronda, Granada and
    • Malaga
    • Finally the capitulations were created
    • Boabdil deliver Granada
  • 17.
    • 1501 presence of the Muslims wasn´t
    • allowed
    • convert to Christianity ( Moorish or new Christianity)
    • Consequences of this war:
    • Appearance of an structured army.
    • Provision of large resources.
    • Award of certain sections of the nobility, by dividing the territories of Granada.
    • Incorporation of Granada into Castile.
  • 18. The annexation to the kingdom of Navarre
    • XV century  governing the kings:
    • Juan de Albrecht Catalina de Foix
    • After  Blanca Juan II de Aragon
    • when Blanca died demanded the throne instead of giving to the heir: CARLOS
    • - CIVIL WAR
  • 19.
    • CIVIL WAR:
    • “ Agromonteses”(Juan II  Aragon and France)
    • 2 groups
    • “ Beamonteses”( prince Carlos  Castile)
    • Fernando the Catholic  couldn´t allow Navarre be absorbed by the French people.
    • 1512 Fernando asked for permission
    • negative response: Fernando order the duke of
    • Alba the occupation of Navarre
    • Joined to the Catholic monarchy---- Pamplona fell down
    • 1513: Fernando the Catholic king of Navarre.
    • 1515: annexation of the kingdom of Navarre to Castile.
    • Navarre preserved his own juridical classification (institutions)
  • 20. Economy and Society
    • Society:
    • - Nobility  conserved their power.
    • - Bourgeoisie  XV century began to develop.
    • - Many farmers  situation of servitude.
    • Economy:
    • - based on : agriculture, livestock and the
    • export of raw materials
  • 21.
    • Law on Defense of the Cañadas (1489)
    • privileges to the Mesta
    • Foreign trade  Athlantic one
    • Commerce:
    • Export trade  Consulates
    • Economic loss because of the expulsion of the
    • jews.
    • “ Social peace” problem of “ Payeses de
    • remensa”  arbitral judgement of
    • Guadalupe (1468)
  • 22. Conquest of the Canary islands (1402-1496)
    • “ señorial” conquest
    • two different periods
    • “ realenga” conquest
    • Señorial conquest:
      • two different conquest: “Betancuriana” and “Señorial castellana”
    • Islands: Island: -Lanzarote - La Gomera -Fuerteventura
  • 23.
    • Around 1450s, increased the occupation of the castilian kings in the Canary islands, through capitulations with the nobles.
    • obtained the right of conquest the
    • other three islands.
    • “ Realenga” conquest(1478-1496) :
    • -by the Catholic kings
    • -“Tratado de Alcaçovas-Toledo(1479): shared the influential areas in the Atlantic (Canary island to Castile)
    • Islands: Gran Canaria, La Palma and Tenerife
    • Important resistance of the aboriginal people.
    • Canary islands’ role  decisive for the route of the “New World”
  • 24. The rapprochement to Portugal
    • through the marriage policy
  • 25. The institutions in the Reign of the Catholic Kings
    • No territorial and institutional union of the crowns.
    • CASTILIAN INSTITUTIONS:
    •  the councils : “polisidonial” system. Territorial and thematic ones
    •  the “Cortes de Castilla ”: not usually convene
    •  the “ Chancillerías” and “Audiencias”: judicial functions
    •  the “Santa Hermandad”: protect the trade and combat the banditry
    •  the military orders: religious and military institutions
    •  the “Corregidor”: representant of the Crown in the cities
    •  the Inquisition : fight against the heresy and protect the catholic orthodoxy
  • 26.
    • ARAGON`S INSTITUTIONS :
    •  each of the components (Aragon, Mallorca, Valencia and Cataluña) had their own institutons.
    • Fernando II boosted
    Virrey Council of Aragon System of “insaculación”
  • 27. Last years of the Catholic Kings and Succesion
    • Isabel I died in 1504. In her testament: -Juana I, queen of Castile -Fernando II, regent of Castile
    • However, conflicts between Felipe I “El hermoso” (“The Handsome”) and his father-in-law, Fernando II.
    • Finally, Fernando II had to leave Castile (Concordia de Villafáfila) and Felipe I was proclaimed king og Castile.
    • Death of Felipe I in 1506. Fernando II was the regent of Castile again.
  • 28.
    • The Fernando II’s return was characterized by: -Incorporation of Navarra (1512) -Focus on the Italian matters -Neglect of the govern in the Cardinal Cisneros
    • Crown of Aragon :
    • -Conquest of Oran and the submission of the kingdom of Algiers.
    • Fernando II died in 1516. His heir: Juana I of Castile. Regent : Carlos of Ghent Charles V: KING OF BOTH CROWNS & HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR