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The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
The catholic kings
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The catholic kings

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  • 1. THE CATHOLIC KINGS BY GROUP: 4 Alba Romero María Olías Cristina Bascuñana Marta Becares
  • 2. INTRODUCTION
    • Catholic kings reign:
    • beginning of the Modern Age in the Spanish Monarchy.
    • Creation of the authoritarian monarchy .
    • The territorial unification of the “Spanish” crowns.
    • The colonization of America and the overseas expansion
    • The religious unification.
  • 3. Common background between Castile and Aragon
    • Social crisis
    • Suffered from political instability
    • Political crisis
    • Religious crisis
  • 4. The dinastic union
    • Enrique Blanca de Navarra
    • Juana de Portugal
    • Juana “La Beltraneja”
    • -Alfonso, Enrique’s stepbrother died
    • -Isabel, Enrique’s stepsister reclaimed the rights of his brother Alfonso
    • -Isabel and Enrique reach and agreement in the Toros de Guisando
    • -She was the heir
    • - Freedom to chose her husband but Enrique should
    • supervise that union
  • 5.
    • Isabel Fernando in secret Enrique was
    • angry an put
    • Juana as heir.
    • In 1474 Enrique died and Isabel was proclaimed as queen of Castille
    • Portugal union between Castille and Aragon.
    • -Alfonso Juana’s uncle tried to married
    • her but the Pope was against this union
    • -Alfonso entered in Catille with his trops
    • Isabel developed the Alcaçovas agreement
    • - Portugal had the monopoly of the africa
    • Atlantica and Bojador Cabe
    • - Juana as a nun
  • 6.
    • -1479 Fernando’s father died, he started to be the king of Aragon.
    • -The union of Isabel and Fernando meant the dinastic union but not the political union of Castille and Aragon.
    • - “Tanto monta monta tanto”
  • 7. Domestic policy
    • Territorial union conquer of Granada
    • annexation of
    • Portugal.
    • incorporation of
    • Navarra
    • Spanish inquisition
    • Religious uniformism
  • 8. FOREIGN POLICY
    • The expansion of the Kingdom:
    • Fernando dedicated him-self to this poliocy
    • Common for both kingdoms but separation between the insterests of Castile and Aragon.
    • Castile kept alliances with England, Burgundy, and the Papacy.
    • Centrated in the Atlantic
    • Aragon kept its expansion line in the Mediterranean.
    • Caused confrontation with France
  • 9.
    • One of the main objectives of the kingdom was to expand Chistianity and to stop the Turkish advance.
    • Peace with Portugal treaties
    Alcáçovas (1479): Portuguese achieved control over the African Coast Tordesillas (1494): which gave them control of what we know today as Brazil
  • 10.
    • The Marriage policy
    • The Catholic Kings negociated a series of marriages for their children.
    • 2 objectives:
    • Ensure the permanence of the inheritance of the Crowns in the family.
    • To establish a network of alliances with states willing to isolation of France.
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • The administration of the Colonies
    • August 3rd, 1492, Colon departed from the Palo’s habour.
    • October 12 th, they arrieved to Guanahani Island, later named San Salvador, then Cuba and Spanish.
    Beginning of the colonization of the West Indies
    • Colon came back – Treat of Tordesillas 1494
    • In India traditional administrative systems from Castilian Kingdom were established.
  • 13. STRENGTHENING OF ROYAL POWER
    • Desire to make the monarchy the most important.
    • Against nobility:
    • - “Santa Hermandad” 1476.
    • - Royal patrimony
    • - Lost of political power.
    • Against church:
    • - Ecclesiastic reform.
    • Against Courts:
    • - “Corregidores”.
  • 14. RELIGIOUS UNITY
    • The role of the church in the XVth century.
    • The religious policy gave rise to two facts:
    • 1. expulsion of Jews
    • 2. oppression on Muslims.
    • The inquisition became independent from the Holy See, and transformed into secular court.
    Main tool to achieve religious unity.
    • The expulsion of the Jews began in 1482 in Andalusia, it was approved by the Catholic Kings in 1492.
  • 15. Conquest of nasrid kingdom of Granada
    • after the problem of succesion of the kingdom of castilla started the conquest of the kingdom of Granada.
    • 1492 Catholic kings entered Granada.
    • Castilians
    • In this war took part
    • Aragonese
  • 16.
    • Reason: desire of the Catholic kings for recovering the Castilian lands that were in possesion of the Muslisms
    • unify territories and the religions of the peninsula
    • Firstly conquest of the western part
    • After conquest of the oriental part
    • conquest of Ronda, Granada and
    • Malaga
    • Finally the capitulations were created
    • Boabdil deliver Granada
  • 17.
    • 1501 presence of the Muslims wasn´t
    • allowed
    • convert to Christianity ( Moorish or new Christianity)
    • Consequences of this war:
    • Appearance of an structured army.
    • Provision of large resources.
    • Award of certain sections of the nobility, by dividing the territories of Granada.
    • Incorporation of Granada into Castile.
  • 18. The annexation to the kingdom of Navarre
    • XV century  governing the kings:
    • Juan de Albrecht Catalina de Foix
    • After  Blanca Juan II de Aragon
    • when Blanca died demanded the throne instead of giving to the heir: CARLOS
    • - CIVIL WAR
  • 19.
    • CIVIL WAR:
    • “ Agromonteses”(Juan II  Aragon and France)
    • 2 groups
    • “ Beamonteses”( prince Carlos  Castile)
    • Fernando the Catholic  couldn´t allow Navarre be absorbed by the French people.
    • 1512 Fernando asked for permission
    • negative response: Fernando order the duke of
    • Alba the occupation of Navarre
    • Joined to the Catholic monarchy---- Pamplona fell down
    • 1513: Fernando the Catholic king of Navarre.
    • 1515: annexation of the kingdom of Navarre to Castile.
    • Navarre preserved his own juridical classification (institutions)
  • 20. Economy and Society
    • Society:
    • - Nobility  conserved their power.
    • - Bourgeoisie  XV century began to develop.
    • - Many farmers  situation of servitude.
    • Economy:
    • - based on : agriculture, livestock and the
    • export of raw materials
  • 21.
    • Law on Defense of the Cañadas (1489)
    • privileges to the Mesta
    • Foreign trade  Athlantic one
    • Commerce:
    • Export trade  Consulates
    • Economic loss because of the expulsion of the
    • jews.
    • “ Social peace” problem of “ Payeses de
    • remensa”  arbitral judgement of
    • Guadalupe (1468)
  • 22. Conquest of the Canary islands (1402-1496)
    • “ señorial” conquest
    • two different periods
    • “ realenga” conquest
    • Señorial conquest:
      • two different conquest: “Betancuriana” and “Señorial castellana”
    • Islands: Island: -Lanzarote - La Gomera -Fuerteventura
  • 23.
    • Around 1450s, increased the occupation of the castilian kings in the Canary islands, through capitulations with the nobles.
    • obtained the right of conquest the
    • other three islands.
    • “ Realenga” conquest(1478-1496) :
    • -by the Catholic kings
    • -“Tratado de Alcaçovas-Toledo(1479): shared the influential areas in the Atlantic (Canary island to Castile)
    • Islands: Gran Canaria, La Palma and Tenerife
    • Important resistance of the aboriginal people.
    • Canary islands’ role  decisive for the route of the “New World”
  • 24. The rapprochement to Portugal
    • through the marriage policy
  • 25. The institutions in the Reign of the Catholic Kings
    • No territorial and institutional union of the crowns.
    • CASTILIAN INSTITUTIONS:
    •  the councils : “polisidonial” system. Territorial and thematic ones
    •  the “Cortes de Castilla ”: not usually convene
    •  the “ Chancillerías” and “Audiencias”: judicial functions
    •  the “Santa Hermandad”: protect the trade and combat the banditry
    •  the military orders: religious and military institutions
    •  the “Corregidor”: representant of the Crown in the cities
    •  the Inquisition : fight against the heresy and protect the catholic orthodoxy
  • 26.
    • ARAGON`S INSTITUTIONS :
    •  each of the components (Aragon, Mallorca, Valencia and Cataluña) had their own institutons.
    • Fernando II boosted
    Virrey Council of Aragon System of “insaculación”
  • 27. Last years of the Catholic Kings and Succesion
    • Isabel I died in 1504. In her testament: -Juana I, queen of Castile -Fernando II, regent of Castile
    • However, conflicts between Felipe I “El hermoso” (“The Handsome”) and his father-in-law, Fernando II.
    • Finally, Fernando II had to leave Castile (Concordia de Villafáfila) and Felipe I was proclaimed king og Castile.
    • Death of Felipe I in 1506. Fernando II was the regent of Castile again.
  • 28.
    • The Fernando II’s return was characterized by: -Incorporation of Navarra (1512) -Focus on the Italian matters -Neglect of the govern in the Cardinal Cisneros
    • Crown of Aragon :
    • -Conquest of Oran and the submission of the kingdom of Algiers.
    • Fernando II died in 1516. His heir: Juana I of Castile. Regent : Carlos of Ghent Charles V: KING OF BOTH CROWNS & HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR

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