Backgrounds• The Hundred Year War• The Commercial Activity• Bourgeoisie• Humanism
What was happening in the Iberian Peninsula?1. Rivalry between Castilla and Aragón.2. Until the marriage of Fernando of Aragón and Isabel of Castilla.3. The king Enrique (Isabels brother) died.4. Isabel inherited the crown of Castillaand Fernando the crown of Aragón.
5. In 1492, last stronghold of the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula.6. Fernando imposed a unity of the Catholic faith.7. Reorganization and restructured of the municipalities.8. Castilla and Aragon was not united under one crown, in reality it was a mere personal union.9. The two crowns remained independent until the accession of Carlos I, when the crown of Castilla and Aragon get together in a single sovereign.
Who was the one who found by chance America during the Catholic King period?
Cristobal Columbus1. He was born in Senova between August 25 and October 31, 1451.2. He once was a navigator, a pirate, a commercial agent and a map draftsman.3. In 1480 was created the Columbian project. Support from his marriage to have men, means, knowledge...
WHY COLOMBUS NEVER ARRIVED TO THE REAL INDIES?• Columbus said that the world was 30000 km long, 1/4 less than what Alfraganus calculated. REASON: He used italica miles.
Did you know…?1. Catholic Kings suspended criminal cases to the people who were in jail if they were part of the Columbus crew.2. Palos was a city that was punished by the Catholic Kings, so to forgive them they had to build a boat and to find a crew.
THE BIG TRIP• Watch video:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9
• After his last trip, he got ill. The day before his death he made his will where is cited as admiral, viceroy and governor of Indies discovered and undiscovered.• He died on May 20, 1506 in Valladolid.
What was in America before Columbus?
• There were many different Native American tribes and those with similar characteristics formed a main tribe or nation.• Each had its own language, religion and customs.• For the most part the tribes lived peaceably believing that nature was sacred and was to be shared.• Most of them contained fundamental conceptions of nature, society, and how people ought to relate to the world and to one another.• The most important and known civilizations are Aztec, Inca, Maya, Toltec.
MAYAN´S CIVILIZATION1. From 1500 BC to 900 AC. They were divided in two periods: Pre-Classic & Classical2. The Astronomy and arithmetic was very advanced. They were able to measure the orbits of celestial bodies.3. By 750 problem arose and the collapse was underway.
TOLTECS CIVILIZATION1. From 800 to 1100 AC. Their capital was Tula.2. They were great hunters. Their agriculture method was terraces.3. Polytheism religion.4. Art: pictographic. Calendar according to stars.5. Mathematic system was verydeveloped.
AZTECS CIVILIZATION1. From XIIIth to XVIth century. Capital was Tenochtitlan.2. Art was an expression of religion and warfare.3. Two unique calendar system, a complex mathematical system and intriguing from of astronomy.4. Polytheism religion. Economybased on commerce.
INCAS CIVILIZATION1. From the XIIIth to the XVIth century AC. Cuzco was the most important city.2. Dictatorial and totalitarian government.3. Polytheism religion and believed in reincarnation.4. Agriculture based on terraces.
What was the impact of America in Spanish Monarchy?1. New jewelry: precious metals, gold and silver. This facilitated the development of trade.2. New crops: potatoes, cacao, tobacco...3. They followed the mercantilist ideas.4. XVIth century, was produced the "Price Revolution"= inflaction.
What was their discovery on the Americas?1. Discovered of new sea routes.2. Discovered of new lands and culture.3. Imposed of Catholic Religion.
What was the impact of Spanish Monarchy in America?1. Society: Multiracial World (Criollos, Mestizos and Mulatos)2. The economical organization: The house of engagement, controlled the trade with America.3. They brought:• New crops: olives and sugar cane.• Cattle: horses, caws.• Manufacture: slaves.
4. The government and the administration in the colonial empire:• Viceroyalty (Virreinatos)• Governors or General Captaincy (Gobernaciones o Capitanías Generales)• Corregimientos• Court (Audiencias)5. The disappearance of the old Pre- colombian cultures.
How did the wars of independence started?
1. Spanish Bourbons had the administrative control. The Spanish-born replaced the “criollos” administrators.2. The influence of the illustration ideas.3. USA independence and French revolution.4. Lack of resources to maintain the empire.
• Since the Napoleons invasion un 1808, the Criollos formed juntas that advocated independence.• The Independence movement inspired many leaders to start, such as Simón Bolívar (Venezuela), José de San Martín (Argentina) and Bernardo OHigging (Chile).
• Fist independence country, Haiti, 1804.• The next independence country was Venezuela and Paraguay.• The latest countries that gainedtheir independence from Spainwere Puerto Rico and Cuba.
What are the relationshipsbetween Latin America and Spain currently?
DURING THE FRANCO REGIME:• Started the Hispanic Cultural Institute to promote cultural relations and cooperation.RETURN TO DEMOCRACY:• Creation of Latinoamerican Project, based on historical ties, modern values and interest.• Creation of the Iberoamerican General Secretariant being headed by Enrique Iglesias.• Signed of Treaties of Friendship and Cooperation.
THE SECOND HALF OF THE NINETIES:• Transformation was reflected by the boom and the rapid increase of immigrants. Both aspects would become realities to considerer in its policy of cooperation.EARLY XXIth CENTURY:• “Spanish International Cooperation Agency” that faced a profound reform implies management autonomy and improves their capacity.
AT PRESENT:• Four main lines of action:1. The social cohesion.2. Capacity building and democratic governance.3. Improving socio-economic fabric.4. Support for indigenous peoples.
• In conclusion, the encounter of America had its positive and negative aspects.• The positive aspects were that besides the Spanish Monarchy enriched during that time, also it contributed to the development of the new continent. It was confirmed that the world was round and there was a huge development of science and culture.• The negative aspects were that for a period of time Native Americans were very oppressed and even some tribes disappeared. Until democracy came and began to support the tribes and their culture.