INDEX1.- Introduction and historical context.2.- Republic Proclamation : The Constitution of 1931. Symbols of the New State. The elections and the provisional government. Parties and political organizations.3.- Republican-Azañista Biennium(1931-1933) : The reforms. The Opposition and the reorganization of the right-wing parties.4.-Radical-CEDA Biennium (1934-1936): The Radical-CEDA Government. The Revolution of October 1934.5.- February Elections. 1936: the government of the Frente Popular.6.- Cultural Activity in the Second Republic.
ECONOMY, SOCIETY ANDMENTALITY
CONTEXT DEMOGRAPHY: during 1931-1935 mortality and birth rate came dow down. ECONOMY: period of crisis in the 1930´s based on 1929 depression o on the United States of America. Laboral conflicts caused by the return of emigrants. SOCIATY: unbalanced distribution of incomes. Big grade of illiteracy. MENTALITY: two different groups: - People who wanted a change - People that did not want a change and believed in t traditional customs.
FROM THE DICTATORSHIP TO THEREPUBLIC Resignation of Primo De Rivera on January 28, 1930. A return to the last political government was impossible because of: 1.- The dynastic parties (conservatives and liberals) were r were run down. 2.- The monarch was thought to be the responsible of the situ the situation. 3.- The “Pacto De San Sebastian” made by antidynastic fores forces. February 14,1931 the general Dámaso Berenguer resigned. Elections on the 12,1931 which had as a result the proclamation of the II Republic. Alfonso XIII went to exile.
REPUBLICAN PROCLAMATION. THE ELECTIONSAND PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT The initial government was composed of left-Republicans, right-Republicans, Socialists and the Regionalists. Niceto Alcalá Zamora was elected as the Prime Minister. The provisional government called a general election for June 1931. The socialist Party (PSOE) and other left parties won an overwhelming victory. Niceto Alcala Zamora, a moderate Republican, became prime minister but included in his cabinet several radical figures such us Manuel Azaña, Francisco Largo Caballero and Indalecio Prieto. On 16th October 1931, Azaña replaced Niceto Alcala Zamora as prime minister.
THE CONSTITUTION OF 1931 The constitution approved in December of 1931 reflected the ideas of the majority. These are the main characteristics: - Popular sovereignty. - Masculine and universal female suffrage. - Extensive declarations of rights and liberties: - civil divorce - right to education Powers of the state: - executive authority - president of the Republic with little powers. - head of government appointed by the president. -to be able judicial into the hands of the justice courts.
For the first time in our history, the right of the regions established statutes of Autonomy.Respect to the religious question, a secular state settles down: -separation of the Church and the State -the budget of cult and clergy disappears -prohibition to exert the education -freedom of brings: back to consciousness and cults
SYMBOLS OF THE STATE Flag of the Second Republic :The Flag of the Second Spanish Republic, also known as Spanish: la tricolor, was the official flag of Spain between 1931 and 1939. Adopted: adopted :27 April 1931 Colors : The flag had three colors : red, yellow and purple. The purpose of the third color was to represent Castile and León, the proverbial “ Pendón Morado ”
HYM OF THE SECOND REPUBLIC El Himno de Riego is a song dating from the liberal trienium and named in honor of Colonel Rafael Riego. It was the national anthem of Spain during the Second Spanish Republic.(1931–1939).
LYRICS Spanish lyrics Serenos y alegres, valientes y osados,Cantemos, soldados, el himno a la lid.De nuestros acentos el orbe se admireY en nosotros mire los hijos del Cid.Soldados, la patria nos llama a la lid.Juremos por ella vencer o morir.El mundo vio nunca, más noble osadía,Ni vio nunca un día más grande el valor,Que aquel, inflamados, nos vimos del fuego,Excitar a Riego de Patria el amor.Soldados, la patria nos llama a la lid.Juremos por ella vencer o morir.La trompa guerrera sus ecos al viento,Horror al sediento, ya ruge el cañón.A Marte sañudo la audacia provocaY el ingenio invoca de nuestra nación.Soldados, la patria nos llama a la lid.Juremos por ella vencer o morir.
4 PARTIES AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS On the left, the parties and organizations can be considered the ones which reunite the following characteristics: Manifest adhesion to the Republic. The characteristics of the parties and groups that we classified as on the right can be defined as the clear or guarded antagonism to the republican form of State . Regional Autonomous Parties1 Partido Esquerra PSOE Republicano Republicana PCE Acción Radical de POUM Republicana socialista Cataluña. CNT
Right wingRepublican parties Autonomous Monarchic Authoritarian paties parties parties Partido Renovación Radical Española. Republicano -La Lliga Comunión (CEDA) Tradicionalista Falange - PNV Española
New period presided by Manuel Azaña Niceto Alcalá Zamora was elected President of the Republic. The new democracy did not enjoy social and economic tranquility. The crisis of 1929 is characterized by its unemployment, decrease of the exterior trade … The agrarian reform ( 1932) The socio-labor reformsIts principal measures were Military Religious Autonomous field
The agrarian reform ( 1932) : Mechanism of action : the expropriated or confiscated lands passed to be a property of the Institute and transferred them to the provincial meetings. Later, they passed to the peasants communities. Nobody remains satisfied. The consequences: the only solution the peasants still had was the revolution.
The socio-labor reforms: Promoted by Largo Caballero :- Law of Contracts of Work - Law of Mixed Jurors - Law of Municipal areas - Law of the Necessary Working Procedure of work accidents and imposition of Labor Day of eight hours
Military: The Manuel Azañas first military reforms were directed to adapt the quantity of military workforce to the real needs of the country. “Ley de Azaña” The Consejo Supremo de Justicia Militar was abolished The military education linked itself to the University and the Academy of Zaragoza was removed.
Religious: Basic problem: high index of illiteracy (superior to 30 %), and the lack of education of almost the half of the infantile population. Search of the Secular State independent from the church Re Religious centers were closed. Co-education Search of a lay, public and free education. The education was seeking to take to the rural way by means of the Pedagogical Missions Expulsion of the country of the Cardinal Segura
Autonomous field: In Cataluña, in 1931, the president of Esquerra Republicana proclaimed the Catalan Republic. Formation of an autonomous government, Generalitat, whose first task would be to write a State of Autonomy : -> Nurias Statute. The constitution which was approved inDecember, offered a legal frame to theEstatuto de Autonomía de Cataluña.thanks to, Manuel Azaña, it wasapproved in 1932. ( Manuel Azaña )
In the País Vasco, they approved in 1931 a project of statute opposition to the left republicanism and the Socialists. After the victory of the conservatives in 1933, some reforms took place : - Alejandro stopped the agrarian reform. - The agricultural question confronted also the central government with the Generalitat of Cataluña. - Finally, the government of the Generalitat of Cataluña approved a new law very similar to the other one. On the other hand, the central government became enemies with the Basque nationalists.
Luis Companys, proclaimed, on October 6, the Catalan Republic inside the Federal Spanish Republic. At the same time, a left-wing parties alliance was organizing a general strike. The insurrection failed. The Revolution of October´s consequenceswere notable. In relation with Cataluña,the CEDA abolished the Generalitat andthe “ Ley de Contratos de Cultivo ” wasdefinitively annulled. ( Luis Companys )
SOCIAL DISPUTES The change of the regime coincided with the most serious phase of the economic world depression. In 1932 the anarchists propitiated a miners revolt in Catalonia and in 1933, a peasants´ revolt in Andalucía called “Sucesos de las Casas Viejas”. The conflicts increased worse economic situation. All the sectors opposite tothe Republic to try to finishwith the coalitionrepublican - socialist.
THE RIGHTS REORGANIZATION. CRISIS OFTHE GOVERNMENT The republican reforms and the social conflict disliked to the economic, social and ideological elites (Church, big owners of lands, …). The center - right was restructured about Lerrouxs Radical party. The CEDA possessed a great number of members and an indisputable leader: Jose Maria Gil Robles.
Spanish renovation (Jose Calvo Sotelo), the Traditionalist Communion (Carlist) and in a special way the fascist groups of Falange and of the J.O.N.S. managed to create a dread´s climate that ended up by dragging to the set of the right. The general Sanjurjo realized a “golpe de estado” in 1932, in order to force the turn of the Republic to the right, but he failed. In 1933 the Military Spanish Union (UME) was created. It will have active participation in the “golpe de estado” of July, 1936.
BIENIORADICAL – CEDISTA RI GHT S I DE L EF T SI DE
After the elections, Lerroux formed a cabinet shaped exclusively by members of his party. Política de rectificación of the reforms of the previous biennium : - Paralyzation of the agrarian reform. - Paralyzation of the military reform and designation of important military positions to anti-republicans . - Conciliation with the Catholic Church. - Paralyzation of the educational reforms. - Clash with the peripheral nationalism.
RADICALIZATION OF THE POLITICAL CLASH: THE RADICAL GOVERNMENTS In a context of economic international crisis and the victory of radical parties in Europe . Spain was separated between the "right" and the "left“ sides. Right: CEDA ( Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas ) Gil Robles Renovación Española Calvo Sotelo Falange Española Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera. Fused in 1934 with the (J.O.N.S) Lesdema
LEFT: Izquierda Republicana Manuel Azaña PSOE ( Partido Socialista Obrero Español ) . .. Indalecio Prieto and Largo Caballero PCE ( Partido Comunista de España ) Dolores Ibárruri Gómez ( Pasionaria ) CNT ( Confederación Nacional del Trabajo ) Ángel Pestaña .Was linked to acción revolucionaria Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya Lluis Companys
REVOLUTION OF OCTOBER 1934 The increasing tension between both political sides culminated with the entry of three secretaries of CEDA in the government in October, 1934. The government of left interpreted it as a warned of the imminent victory of fascism in Spain. This make the left side to proclaimed a general strike against the government.
The movement failed in Madrid and Barcelona. But in Asturias the general strike triumphed and degenerated into a real revolution organized byt the UGT (Unión General de Trabajadores) and the .CNT. The repression was terrible : thousands of men died, were injured and arrested. Besides the government of right: - suspended the “Estatuto de Cataluña” - created a new agrarian reform law
However the conflicts in the government increased The definitive crisis came with the scandal of“Estraperlo”. This propitiated the end of the legislature and a call for new elections in February, 1936.
FEBRUARY ELECTIONS. 1936: THEGOVERMENT OF THE FRENTEPOPULAR
THE ELECTIONS OF 1936 AND THEFRENTE POPULAR February 16,1936 were celebrated de last elections of the II Republic. There were two parties: 1.-Frente Popular: composed by left parties. 2.-Frente Antirrevolucionario: formed by the CEDA. The result of the elections was the victory of the Frente Popular. February 18, the Republic President, Niceto Alcalá Zamora ordered Manuel Azaña to form a new government based in 4 fundamental aspects: 1.-The continuation of the agrarian reform. 2.-Intensify the development of education. 3.-Amnesty of political prisoners. 4.-reestablishment of the Generalitat of Cataluña and the approval of the Autonomous Statutes of Pais Vasco and Galicia.
The government was assumed by Santiago Casaresde Quiroga. There was a deterioration of the public services expressed by: 1.-Violence in the countryside with strikes and la land occupation. 2.- Attacks to ecclesiastical buildings. 3.- Political crimes made by extreme groups such as Phalangists and Monarchists, in one hand and Communists and Anarchists in the other one. Murder José Calvo Sotelo on july the13th.
SOCIAL AND POLITICALRADICALIZATION Arrest of José Antonio Primo De Rivera. Division in the PSOE´s party: 1.-Partisans of the social revolution led by Francisco Largo Caballero. 2.-A more moderate group led by Idalecio Prieto.
MILITAR CONSPIRACY The fail of the coup détat of the general José Sanjurjo in 1932. The general Francisco Franco (head of state) suggested to declare the war but it was not accepted by republican politics. The general Emilio Mola prepared a new coup détat more conscientious. This one should be fast and with a high level of violence. It was expected to happen at the end of July but was advanced to the 18 of that month because of the emotional impact that the crime to Calvo Sotelo caused. The Spanish Civil War started.
( 1931 – 1933 ) ( 1933 – 1936 ) ( February – July 1936 )BIENIO BIENIO FRENTEREPUBLICANO - RADICAL - CEDISTA POPULARAZAÑISTAReforms: • Paralyzation of the reforms • Resumption of the• Agrarian • This provoked the reforms• Socio – labor indignation of: • Amnesty• Military Socialists (Asturias 1934 ) • Reinstatement of th• Religious Catalans (proclamation Estatuto Catalán• Autonomous Field of the Estatuto Catalán) Manuel Azaña Lerroux Casares Quiroga
CULTURAL ACTIVITY IN THE IIREPUBLIC
IIRepublic ideals: freedom, education and progress. Supported by intellectuals: Manuel Azaña Group at the Service of the Republic: Antonio Machado, Gregorio Marañón, Ortega y Gasset. “Generación del 27” -> Literature Federico García Lorca -> “La Barraca”
Pedagogical Missions: Promote Culture in rural areas (libraries, art expositions, concerts, films…). Analyze schools and courses for teachers. Celebrate meetings: review the political structure CULTURAL AND POLITICAL AIM Pedagogical Missions patronage: Pedro Salinas, Jorge Guillén or Gerardo Diego.
Other cultural fields: Paintings and sculptures: Pablo Picasso /Joan Miró, Salvador Dalí (Surrealism). Films: Luis Buñuel (“Un perro andaluz”). Architecture: Fernando García Mercadal (“Jardines de Sabatini”)
CONSTRUCCIÓN BLANDA CON JUDÍAS HERVIDAS(PREMONICIÓN DE LA GUERRA CIVIL) (1936)
JARDINES DE SABATINI, FERNANDOGARCÍA MERCADAL (1933)
Active role of women (Constitution 1931) : María Moliner: librarianship, philologist and lexicographer. (Library Service Coordinator). María Zambrano: philosopher disciple of Ortega y Gasset. (Missionary). Carmen Conde Abellán: poet, writer and teacher. ( María Zambrano ) ( María Moliner ) ( Carmen Conde Abellán )
PROJECT REALIZED BY: -ALICIA CEDILLO CARRERA -IRENE CUENCA GARCÍA -RAQUEL MARCOS DELGADO -ANA SÁNCHEZ MARTÍN -SORAYA ROMERO MORENO