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  • 1. The Grouping of EU countries... Describe the growth of groups of nations in the past 30 years, including the European Union. 6 marks
  • 2. The Exam board answer..... • E.g. The Growth of the E.U. • 1970 – consisted of Italy, France, Belgium, Netherlands, • Luxembourg and West Germany i.e. central Western • Europe. • 1973 – UK, Eire and Denmark join i.e. movement northwards • incorporating one industrial and two agricultural nations. • 1981 – Greece i.e. movement S.E. and involving a poorer • agricultural country. • 1986 – Spain and Portugal i.e. emphasising movement into • southern European countries. • 1995 – Austria (central Europe), Finland and Sweden (northern • Europe) – more affluent economies. • 2004/07 – Cyprus, Czech Rep., Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, • Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, plus Romania, Bulgaria • (07). • Other groups may
  • 3. The growth of the EU 1970 Belgium France West Germany
  • 4. Looks like … The growth of the EU 1973 - DUKE United Kingdom Eire Denmark Movement membership to the north which is based on including an industrial nation and two agricultural nations.
  • 5. DOE is Greek The growth of the EU 1981 Greece Movement SE and involving a poorer agricultural country
  • 6. The growth of the EU 1986 Spain Portugal Emphasising movement into Southern European countries
  • 7. The growth of the EU 1995 Finland Austria More affluent countries
  • 8. The growth of the EU 2004 Hungary 2004 Poland 2004 Czech Republic 2004 Slovak Republic 2004 Slovenia 2004 Estonia 2004 Latvia 2004 Lithuania 2004 Malta 2004 Cyprus 2004
  • 9. Outline two pieces of evidence that demonstrate attitudes against the grouping of nations. (5 marks)
  • 10. Evidence pointing towards views against the grouping of nations (NB this is not the same as reasons for separatism): • Political parties opposed to the grouping of nations – UKIP • Negative votes in referendums on further developments/ constitutions within groupings • Negative campaigning in national media e.g. views against the expansion of the E.U. Mark scheme Level 1 simple statements of pieces of evidence, or of attitudes against the grouping of nations; or one well-developed piece of evidence only. (0-3 marks) Level 2 two well-developed pieces of evidence. (4-5 marks)
  • 11. Watch the following political Campaigns: ..... Look at their view point and comment on their view on Europe..................
  • 12. Watch the following political Campaigns: ..... Look at their view point and comment on their view on Europe..................
  • 13. Referendum A referendum (is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy.
  • 14. UK Referendums Referendums are rare and the only referendum proposal to be put to the entire UK electorate was in 1975 on continued membership of the European Economic Community. Referendums have been held in individual parts of the United Kingdom on issues relating to devolution in Scotland and Wales, a regional assembly for the North-East of England, and two separate polls on the status of Northern Ireland; but since 1973, when the first one was held, only eight major referendums have been conducted.
  • 15. Evidence 2: European Elections
  • 16. Every five years the UK picks members for the European Parliament, which is one of the main parts of the European Union, along with the European Commission and the European Council. In 2009, the 72 UK MEPs who are elected will join 664 other MEPs from across the European Union (EU). Together they form a 736-member parliament, which aims to provide a voice for the people of the EU.
  • 17. European Elections The voting system is pretty complicated. Instead of voting for one candidate you vote for a political party. The party then picks your MEP from a list it has drawn up. The more votes your party gets, the more MEPs it can pick from its list.
  • 18. With reference to examples: (i) identify reasons why separatist pressures exist (6 marks) (ii) discuss the consequences of separatist pressures. (7 marks)
  • 19. Causes of separatism. Feelings of alienation due to. For example: Historical allegiances, e.g. Quebec allegiances to France Peripheral location, e.g. Scots and Welsh nationalists Religious differences, e.g. the former Yugoslavia, Kurds in Turkey and Iraq Economic depression, e.g. Breton nationalism in France Cultural differences, e.g. Chechens in Russia Language differences, e.g. most of above (and Basques and Catalans of Spain) – often differences are manifested in terms of language and religion. Note: many of these examples are due to a multiplicity of reasons.
  • 20. The consequences of separatist pressure may be either peaceful or non-peaceful: • The establishment/maintenance of own societies and norms – separate cultural identities within a country (e.g. The Bretons in France) • The protection of a language through the media and education (e.g. The Welsh, Catalan) • The growth of separate political parties and devolved power (e.g. The Scottish and Welsh Nationalists) • Civil disobedience (e.g. The Friends of Owen Glendwr) • Terrorist Violence (e.g. The Basques, Chechnya) • Civil War (e.g. East Timor, Tamil Tigers).