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Richard Sagala Economic Essay

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wine critics medals and scores
on the consumer

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Richard Sagala Economic Essay

  1. 1.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay      What  is  the  effect  of  critics  on  the  wine  market?                                                                                                                                 Richard  Sagala          Wine   critics   play   an   important   economic   role   in   the   wine   world.   They   help   consumers  determine  the  value  of  an  unknown  good.  Through  their  judgment  and  their  assessment  of  the   products   perceived   quality,   wine   critics   infer   "experience"   characteristics   to   the  attention  of  a  prospective  buyer  and  help  him  solve  the  value  proposition.  Some   critics   are   so   influential   that   their   scores   and   recommendations   can   trigger   buy  signals   all   over   the   world.   Others   influence   locally,   work   for   a   media,   judging   at  competitions   where   the   winners   are   awarded   medals,   distinctive   cues   that   help   to  differentiate  the  products.  In  order  to  study  the  effect  of  accolades  such  as  the  presence  of  a  medal  on  a  wine  bottle,  we  have  conducted  a  survey  with  444  consumers  enrolled  in  wine  appreciation  courses.    Finally,   we   will   look   at   future   trends   to   see   if   the   reputation   market   will   continue   to   be  shaped  by  expertise  based  wine  critics  or  if  new  players  (with  new  rules)  may  be  entering  the  playing  field.    Via  the  power  of  social  media  may  lie  a  new  marketing  opportunity  for  brands  previously  used   to   push   their   products   from   the   top   down   to   start   developing   a   direct   B2C1   bottom   up  approach  directly  engaging  consumers  with  a  focus  on  the  new  brand  evangelists.                                                                                                                  1    B2C=  Business  to  Consumers     Page 1 of 15  
  2. 2.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay    Some  fundamental  economic  rules  to  remember  For   the   aficionado,   wine   is   a   pleasurable   product   obtained   by   the   fermentation   of   grape  juice,  but  for  an  economist  it  is  simply  a  good  that  can  be  exchanged  on  a  market,  i.e.  a  place  where   offer   meets   demand.   Simply   said,   a   good   is   a   bundle   of   characteristics.   Goods   are  valued  for  their  attributes,  the  characteristics  they  possess.  Those  different  characteristics  make  for  the  differentiation  between  them.  In   Quebec   (Canada)   from   where   this   research   was   conducted,   the   sale   and   distribution   of  alcohol   are   under   the   control   of   SAQ   (La   Société   des   Alcools   du   Québec),   a   state   monopoly  acting   as   the   channel   captain   for   retailing   alcoholic   beverages   in   this   predominantly   French  speaking   province.   SAQ   possesses   four   hundred   and   sixteen   stores,   more   than   10,500  references  in  its  catalogues  and  generates  CDN  $2.5  billion  in  sales  annually.  Each   product   in   the   SAQ   catalogue   is   a   bundle   of   characteristics   and   constitutes   a   unique  value   proposition.   The   consumer   is   challenged   by   the   amount   of   information   available   and  there   is   a   daunting   asymmetry   between   what   the   producer   and   the   retailer   know   and   what  the  consumer  knows  and  understands  about  the  goods.  As   one   person   from   the   SAQ   marketing   department   metaphorically   describes:   "We   are  a   bit  like   shoe   dealers   with   stores   where   all   the   shoes   are   in   boxes   and   where   clients   look   at  clues  on  the  boxes  to  decide  what  they  want  to  purchase".  The   act   of   selling   wine   is   based   on   extrinsics,   external   cues   that   will   be   processed   and  decoded  heuristically  by  the  consumer.    SAQ  has  produced  on  its  B2B  website  a  ponderation  (weighting)  chart  that  shows,  for  the  benefit   of   stakeholders,   the   criteria   against   which   a   product   is   evaluated   prior   to   being  selected  (see  figure  1          Figure  1:  SAQ  Ponderation  /  Selection  criteria     Page 2 of 15  
  3. 3.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay    As   part   of   Notoriety   criteria,   2.1   Awards,   medals   and   media   contributes   25%   of   the   total  score   for   a   Specialty   product,   making   it   a   more   important   criteria   than   the   (organoleptic)  Quality  (20%)  and  the  second  most  important  criteria  after  the  quality/price  ratio  (30%).    Why  awards,  medals  and  media  are  deemed  so  important  to  the  trade?  In  an  essay  written  by  wine  producer  Robert  Hodgson,  the  author  tells  how  much  wineries  are  committed  to  the  pursuit  of  winning  medals:   "To   lift   their   brand   above   the   competition,   wineries   spent   more   than   $1   million   in   entry   fees   in   2003   at   just   13   of   these   venues.   The   benefit   of   this   expense   is   the   belief   by  wineries  that  entry  fees  offer  a  valid  return  on  investment:  Gold  medals  sell  wine"    Hodgson   believes   people,   not   medals,   sell   wine.   But   a   medal   can   help   when   meeting   with  buyers  for  retailers.   "Retailers   and   distributors   want   to   see   third   party   validation   of   a   wines   quality   whether   it   be   Parker,   Wine   Spectator,   Wine   Enthusiast,   BTI   or   even   the   Grundy   County   Fair.   And   a   related   point,   to   promote   a   wine   on   shelf,   the   most   useful   tool   next   to   a   salesman   recommending   it   personally,   is   a   shelf   talker.   Short,   simple,   graphic   communication   to   the   consumer   in   the   form   of   a   big   number   or   a   big   medal,   gives   them   the   confidence   to   choose   a   wine.   Consumers   arent   in   a   position   to   evaluate   whether   this   rating   is   more   valid   than   that,   or   this   competition   more   prestigious  than  that  one  but  they  do  need  some  validation  that  this  is  a  good  wine.   And  medals  do  that".    (Vinography  )  SAQ,   for   its   part,   publishes   a   List   of   magazines,   contests,   Notoriety   criteria   with   a   three   level  hierarchy  (A-­‐B  and  C)  to  weight  the  difference  between  ratings2.  To  the  Montreal  Gazette  wine  critic  Bill  Zacharkiw,  "The  SAQ  is  flooded  with  proposals  for  new  wines...the  SAQ  relies  on  how  U.S.  and  European  magazines  score  the  wines  and  how  well  it  sells  in  other  provinces."(The  Gazette)    On  the  consumer  side,  what  is  there  to  be  appraised?  In  Mueller  et  al.,"The  consumer  has  to  appraise  the  value  of  three  types  of  characteristics:  the  Search  characteristics,  the  Experience  characteristics  and  the  credence  attributes".   "‘Search’  characteristics  are  those  that  can  be  assessed  before  the  purchase  in   front   of   the   shelf.   The   producer,   brand,   region,   grape   variety   and   packaging   are   examples   of   search   characteristics.   ‘Experience’   characteristics,   such   as   the   taste   of   a   wine   and   whether   it   is   enjoyable,   can   only   be   evaluated   upon   consumption.   These   are   often   of   course   the   main   benefits   a   consumer   seeks                                                                                                                  2  The  A  category  is  garnishing  more  points  than  B  or  C.  For  example,  in  the  "A"  category  we  find  American,  UK,  French   and   Italian   publications:   Wine   Spectator,   the   Wine   Advocate,   Decanter,   le   Guide   Hachette,   Gambero  Rosso,   Bettane   et   Dessauve,   La   Revue   du   Vin   de   France.   James   Halliday   and   Alan   Meadows   are   cited   in   the   B  category.  It  is  worthwhile  to  note  that  almost  all  critics  comes  from  abroad  and  are  not  sourced  locally.     Page 3 of 15  
  4. 4.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay     from   purchasing   a   wine.   Other   characteristics   such   as   health   effects,   environmental   benefits,   ingredients   or   production   methods   used   for   a   wine   that  cannot  be  assessed  during  consumption  are  called  ‘credence  attributes’.   When  purchasing  wine  a  consumer  uses  any  available  ‘search’  information  to   infer  the  hidden  ‘experience’  and  ‘credence’  aspects.   ...George   A.   Akerlof   won   the   Nobel   Prize   for   Economics   in   2001   for   his   breakthrough   findings   on   information   asymmetry   and   its   impact   on   market   performance.  He  found  that  consumers  would  pay  only  a  relatively  low  price   when   they   perceive   a   purchase   to   be   risky,   and   that   whole   markets   can   fail   when  the  perceived  risk  is  too  high,  resulting  in  no  transactions.   ...According  to  Akerlof  this  price  discount  or  ‘risk  premium’  can  be  reduced  if   market   participants   provide   their   trade   partners   with   credible   information,   which  reduces  the  perceived  risk.  "  Therefore,   the   trade   actively   looks   at   effective   and   efficient   ways   to   reduce   this   risk  premium  and  allow  the  consumer  to  infer  the  hidden  ‘experience’  and  ‘credence’  aspects  of  a  wine  to  increase  its  desirability.  Signalling  with  cues3  on  the  bottle  like  medals,  seals  of  approval  and  hybrids  (a  circle  with  a  high  score  in  it4)  engages  the  consumer  directly.  Whereas  shelf  talkers  may  or  may  not  be  present   (SAQ   does   not   use   them),   scores   and   descriptions   may   be   printed   in   a   catalogue  that  not  all  prospective  buyers  may  get,  circular  icons  in  the  shape  of  a  medal  glued  to  the  bottle  follow  the  product  everywhere.    These   icons   may   catch   the   eye   and   override   the   rest   of   the   cues   on   the   label,   or   might   be  what  comes  to  validate  them,  solve  the  value  proposition  and  trigger  a  buy  decision.      When   a   sophisticated   audience   looks   for   (easier)   ways   to   simplify   the   value  proposition.  People   can   process   only   a   limited   amount   of   information   and,   wine   being   a   complex  product,   even   dedicated   aficionados   may   find   acquiring   relevant   information   costly   and  time  consuming  process.  Mrs   Jessica   Harnois5   who   was   responsible   for   the   marketing   of   the   "en   primeur"   SAQ  campaign   and   release   of   the   2009   Courrier   Vinicole   catalogue   offering   of   Bordeaux   wines,                                                                                                                  3   Marketing  as  seen  to  produce  more  medal  types  than  the  standard  ones.  In  the  Addendum  1,  picture  1,  we  can   see   that,   for   a   same   product,   three   different   angles   are   used   to   signify   a   medal   in   the   mind   of   the  consumer.   There   is   the   classic   (Gold-­‐Silver   and   Bronze)   medal,   the   medal-­‐like   displaying   of   a   magazine   high   a  score  and  the  third  way  is  to  boast  about  having  been  selected  as  the  "official"  wine  for  an  event  (here  a  beach  volley  ball  tournament).  All  three  icons  are  made  to  look  like  a  medal.  4   In   Addendum   1   picture   2,   we   have   a   series   of   scores   (attributed   from   the   same   publication)   that   looks   to  resemble  like  a  string  of  medals.  5   Richard   Sagala   has   conducted   on   the   18th   of   November   2010   an   interview   with   Mrs   Jessica   Harnois  responsible  for  the  Courrier  Vinicole,  SAQs  high-­‐end  mail  order  catalogue.   Page 4 of 15  
  5. 5.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay    noticed  how  consumers  are  looking  for  simplification.  Courrier   Vinicole   consumers   are   typically   connoisseurs   who   buy   from   a   printed   catalogue  exclusive   super   premium   wines   for   their   cellar.   The   last   printed   catalogue6   provided   the  description   of   the   products   and   the   scores   from   the   major   wine   critics:   Wine   Spectator  (WS),  Robert  Parker  (WA),  Revue  du  Vin  de  France  (RVF),  Decanter  (D)  and  Jessica  Harnois  (JH)   (see   Figure3).   Some   products   were   graced   with   an   additional   "A   Courrier   Favorite"   7  red   icon   seal   of   approval   lookalike   and   those,   Mrs   Harnois   witnessed,   sold   almost  immediately.    Those   twelve   (out   of   seventy   plus   wines)   red   seals   in   the   catalogue   have   effectively  differentiated   the   goods.   A   simple   icon   with   no   description   of   the   methodology   for  attribution   or   what   it   means   to   be   "A   Courrier   Favorite"   has   elicited   quick   buying   action  from  a  sophisticated  crowd.  Figure  3  is  an  example  of  a  product  with  the  red  seal  "A  Courrier  Favorite".                                                                                                                            6  SAQ  Courrier  Vinicole  catalogue  The  Great  2009  Bordeaux  wines  unveiled.  7  Translated  in  the  French  version  of  the  catalogue  as  a  "coup  de  coeur".   Page 5 of 15  
  6. 6.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay    What   do   Quebec   high   involvement   consumers   think   of   medals   when   they   select   a  wine?  During   the   fall   of   2010,   a   questionnaire8   was   submitted   to   the   students   of   the   SAQ   wine  appreciation  courses,  a  high  involvement9  cohort  buying  more  than  one  bottle  a  month.    Various   topics   were   covered   (see   addendum   2);   the   E   section   covered   criteria   and  attributes   importance   when   selecting   a   product.   On   the   tenth   question,   students   were  asked  to  validate  and  grade  a  sentence  according  to  what  they  thought  about  the  presence  of  a  medal  on  the  bottle:  "The  last  time  I  bought  a  wine,  I  chose  it  because  it  had  a  medal10"  They  answered  on  a  scale  of  one  to  five:  1-­‐Not  at  all  important  ("Pas  du  tout  important"  in  French)  2-­‐Not  important    3-­‐Neutral,  neither  good  or  bad  ("Neutre"  in  French)  4-­‐Important  5-­‐Very  important  ("Très  important"  in  French)    The  occurrence  of  selecting  a  bottle  with  a  medal  would  be  most  unlikely  if  they  answered  "1"  and  very  likely  if  they  answered  "5".    Results  Out   of   the   444   students,   118   (27%)   selected   "1",   97   (22%)   selected   "2",   129     (29%)  selected  "3",  87  (20%)  selected  "4",  13  (3%)selected  "5."                                                                                                                    8  The  questionnaire  was  built  on  a  model,  a  previous  survey  put  together  by  professor  Eli  Cohen  designed  on  the  Likert  scale,  based  on  the  best-­worst  scenario.  An  initial  pilot  was  produced  in  the  spring  of  2010  and  was  tested  and  validated  by  an  initial  group  of  20  students.  Results  were  weighted  and  the  standard  deviation  calculated  (submitted  to  the  T  test).  Limitations:  E10  was  the  only  question  related  to  medals  and  it  would  be  interesting  to  dwell  more  on  the  issue.    9  As  per  the  definition  of  Professor  Larry  Lockshin  of  Ehrenberg-­‐Bass  Institute  for  Marketing  Science:  a  high  involvment  consumer  buys  more  than  one  bottle  of  wine  per  month.  10  Translated  from  French:  "La  dernière  fois  que  jai  acheté  du  vin,  je  lai  acheté  parce  quil  avait  une  médaille"     Page 6 of 15  
  7. 7.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay     Choosing  a  wine  because  of  the  presence  of  a  medal   1-­‐Not  at  all  important   2-­‐not  important   3-­‐neutral   4-­‐important   5-­‐very  important     140   120   100   80   60   40   20   0      Results  where  that  less  than  one  out  of  four  students  had  a  positive  view  of  the  presence  of   a   medal   on   the   bottle   (20%+3%)   with   three   per   cent   of   them   considering   such   presence  as  being  very  positive.  29%  percent  held  it  as  neutral,  neither  good  or  bad  information  and,    almost   half   (26%+22%)   held   the   presence   of   a   medal   on   the   bottle   as   somewhat  unimportant  or  not  at  all  important.         Page 7 of 15  
  8. 8.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay    An  example  of  what  consumers  from  abroad  think  about  scores  and  medals.  In   Australia,   Simone   Mueller   et   al.   conducted   an   experiment   on   how   shelf   information  influence  wine  choices  and:   "...The  presence  of  sensory  descriptions  had  an  average  effect  of  7.4%,  which  had   a   similar   impact   as   found   for   wine   show   medals   (no   medal   to   Gold   &   Trophy)   with  7.6%  ...and  wine  critics’  scores  (7-­‐  10%).  (Lockshin  et  al.  2009)".  The   presence   of   medals   increased   the   wine   choice   by   7.6%,   slightly   the   same   as   sensory  descriptions  (7.4%),  medals  being  a  little  more  effective  than  scores  when  there  is  a  wide  disparity   between   the   critics   scores   (7%)   and   less   effective   (10%)   when   the   scores   are  more  in  agreement.  Looking   prospectively,   where   will   wine   critics   fit   in   the   new   economic,   i.e.   social   media  augmented,  wine  marketing  reality?    Classic  wine  critics,  Twinsumers  and  Social-­Lites  ,  the  times  they  are  a  changin.  With   the   advent   of   social   media,   will   wine   consumers   continue   to   infer   their   credence   and  experience   characteristics   from   (expertise   based)   wine   critics   scores   or   will   they   be  influenced  by  other  signals?   "In  2011,  word  of  mouth  and  recommendations  will  be  even  more  dependent  on  P2P   dynamics.   If   Twinsumers,   consumers   with   similar   consumption   patterns,   likes   and   dislikes,   and   who   are   hence   valuable   sources   for   recommendations   on   what   to   buy   and   experience   are   all   about   improving   search   curation,   Social-­Lites   are   all   about   discovery,  as  consumers  become  curators;  actively  broadcasting,  remixing,  compiling,   commenting,   sharing   and   recommending   content,   products,   purchases,   experiences   to   both  their  friends  and  wider  audiences.    Why  would  consumers  want  to  become  curators?  Because  many  of  them  are  investing   time   and   effort   in   building   BRAND   ME,   via   online   profiles   that   record   their   opinions   and   recommendations.   And   as   audiences   in   knowledge   economies   value   interesting,   relevant   and   useful   tidbits,   they   bestow   status   on   those   curators   or   Social-­Lites   who   share.   Furthermore,   its   never   been   easier   to   be   a   Social-­Lites...   social   networks   streams   allow   users   to   easily   broadcast   information   to   a   wide   range   of   people.   (Trendwatching)    Professional   critics   like   Matt   Kramer   have   mixed   feelings   about   this11   although   critics  scores  are  still  favourably  viewed  and  respected12  by  the  market  (figure  4).                                                                                                                      11  "  (social  media)...  this  is  not  good  news  for  professional  critics  of  any  kind,  never  mind  wine  scribes  such  as  myself.  Am  I  ambivalent  about  this?  sure  I  am.  Professional  critics  labour-­‐or  should  anyway-­‐  under  standards  that  exceed  "Do  I  like  it?"  (Matt  Kramer,  On  Wine).  12   "Mouton’s  position  as  the  poorest-­‐performing  2009  comes  as  something  of  a  surprise.  Importantly,  Parker  did   not   rate   the   wine   as   highly   as   its   fellow   First   Growths,   and,   as   such,   drifting   Mouton   09   prices   seem   to   Page 8 of 15  
  9. 9.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay        Figure  4,  Live-­‐Ex  December  2010.    The   tech   savvy   cohort   is   an   important   target   of   wine   marketing,   and   are   the   hope   for  replacing   the   aging,   thus   lesser   drinking   boomers.   Millenials   are   favourably   turning   to   their  age  group  peers,  the  trendsetters  they  trust,  to  get  advice.  Conclusion  Wine   critics   grease   the   wheels   of   the   wine   economy,   lowering   the   risk   premium   because  they  help  solve  the  value  proposition.  Stakeholders,  namely  the  trade,  positively  subscribe  to   this   business   model   while   consumers   lend   an   ear,   but   also   use   their   own   alternative  heuristic  cues  to  infer  quality.    The   appeal   of   wine   critics   accolades   is   not   universal.   Both   the   Quebec   and   Australian  surveys  indicate  that  less  than  ten  percent  of  consumers13  seem  to  buy  wine  according  to  medal  and  score  signalling.  Perhaps   the   trade   is   asymmetrically   enthusiastic   about   them.   In   some   niche   markets  (Bordeaux   Firsts   Growths   for   example),   critics   are   economically   significant   but   in   other  markets  they  are  less  effective.  Therefore,  the  trade  may  want  to  tap  into  other  dynamic  sources  such  as  Twinsumers  and  Social-­Lites  to  generate  buzz  and  stimulate  demand.  A   profitable   scenario   for   brands   could   be   to   divert   some   of   their   marketing   efforts   from  conventional   (top   down)  scores   and   medals   and   seek   to   pursue   a   new   (bottom   up)   B2C14  approach,  directly  engaging  consumers,  taking  special  care  of  all  possible  opinion  leaders  and   trendsetters   to   get   those   "referrals   by   a   trusted   source"15,   arguably   the   best  recommendations  one  could  win  for  his  products.                                                                                                            .                                                                                                                                                                      reflect  that  Parker  scores  are  still  influential  in  setting  pricing"  (Liv-­‐Ex,  Dec  2010).  13  This  is  said  bearing  in  mind  that  less  than  ten  per  cent  consumers  (with  great  purchasing  power)  can  be  economically  significant.  14    B2C=  Business  to  Consumers    15  p.1,  Scott  Stratten,  Unmarketing.  Stop  marketing.  Start  engaging   Page 9 of 15  
  10. 10.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay    Bibliography  -­‐Robert  T.  Hodgson,  An  Analysis  of  the  Concordance  Among  13  U.S.  Wine  Competitions[Online],  Availableat:http://www.wineeconomics.org/journal/content/Volume4/number1/Full%20Texts/1_wine%20economics_vol%204_1_Robert%20Hodgson.pdf  [Accessed  21  December  2010].  -­‐Kramer,  M.,  2010.  ,  On  Wine,  New  York,  Sterling,  p.  73.  -­‐Live-­‐Ex  Market  Report,  December  2010,    [Online],  Available  at:  http://www.fairmonthk.com/userfiles/1291959468.pdf  [Accessed  21  December  2010].  -­‐S.  Mueller, Larry Lockshin, Jordan Louviere, Leigh Francis, Patricia Osidacz,  How  does  shelf  information  influence  consumers’  wine  choice?  ,[Online],  Available  at:  http://www.winepreferences.com/resources/page59/files/page59_1.pdf  [Accessed  21  December  2010].  -­‐SAQ  B2B,  2010,  Annual  Report  [Online],  Available  at:  http://marketing.globalwinespirits.com/SAQ_B2B/2010_Annual_Report.pdf  [Accessed  21  December  2010].  -­‐SAQ  B2B,  2010,  List  of  magazines,  contests,  Notoriety  criteria  [Online],  Available  at:  http://marketing.globalwinespirits.com/SAQ_B2B/Politique%20et%20Normes/Listofmagazines_contests_Notoriety_criteria_PMP_2008.pdfhttp://marketing.globalwinespirits.com/[Accessed  28  December  2010].  -­‐SAQ  B2B,  2010,  Policy  and  Standards,  Call  for  tenders  [Online],  Available  at:  http://www.saq-­‐b2b.com/wx/en/MAIN.SAQ_INDEX_PAGE_PREP  [Accessed  21  December  2010].  -­‐Stratten,  S.,  2010.  ,  Unmarketing.  Stop  marketing.  Start  engaging,  New  Jersey,  Wiley,  p.  1-­‐3.  -­‐Trendwatching,   Eleven   crucial   consumers   trends   for   2011   [Online],   Available   at:  http://www.trendwatching.com/briefing/  [Accessed  21  December  2010].  -­‐Vinography.com,[Online],Available  at:http://www.vinography.com/archives/2009/09/gold_medals_do_not_mean_good_w.html  [Accessed  21  December  2010].  -­‐B.  Zacharkiw,  A  Christmas  wish:  Treat  us  like  adults,  [Online],  Available  at:  http://www.montrealgazette.com/columnists/Bill_Zacharkiw.html  [Accessed  24  December  2010].     Page 10 of 15  
  11. 11.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay    Addendum  1,  Types  of  medals,  medal  shape  awards,  points  and  seal  of  approval.      Picture  1,  from  left  to  right,  1-­‐Official  (selected)  wine  for  the  AVP  event,  2-­‐Gold  medal,  3-­‐Medal  shape  points       Page 11 of 15  
  12. 12.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay      Addendum  1,  Picture  2,  string  of  medal  shaped  high  scores  (Scores  from  Wine  Spectator).         Page 12 of 15  
  13. 13.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay    Addendum  2:  Facsimile  of  the  questionnaire  submitted  to  SAQ  students  of  Cycle  I  wine  appreciation  course    Nous conduisons une recherche académique, sans aucun but commercial, sur vos connaissances en  début de session et votre choix de vins actuel.  Nous vous remercions pour le temps que vous consacrerez à compléter ce questionnaire          A.  Par  rapport  au  vin,  quel  est  le  niveau  de  vos  connaissances  actuelles?  SVP  indiquez  votre  degré  d’accord  ou  de  désaccord  avec  les  propositions  suivantes  :         Pas  du     Neutre     Tout  à   tout   fait   d’accord   d’accord  1.   Je  connais  peu  le  vin,  mais  jaimerais   1   2   3   4   5   mieux  le  connaitre,  cest  pourquoi  je   suis  ce  cours.  2.   Je  my  connais  bien  et  je  my  intéresse   1   2   3   4   5   depuis   quelques  années  déjà.  3.   Jaime  le  vin  et  jen  parle  dans  mon   1   2   3   4   5   milieu,  jaime  communiquer  mon   enthousiasme  à  ma  famille,  à  mes   amis,  à  mes  collègues  de  travail  aussi.      B.  Indiquez  votre  degré  d’accord  ou  de  désaccord  avec  les  propositions  suivantes  :         Pas  du     Neutr   Tout  à   tout   e   fait   d’accord   d’accord  1.   Le  vin  a  une  place  importante  dans   1   2   3   4   5   ma  façon  de  vivre  2.   J’ai  plaisir  à  consommer  du  vin     1   2   3   4   5  3.   Goûter  le  vin  sur  le  lieu  d’achat,  c’est   1   2   3   4   5   important  pour  me  décider  à  lacheter    C              J’achète  du  vin  :           1      Rarement         2      Une  fois  par  semaine,  au  moins         3      Une  à  deux  fois  par  mois                                          4      Moins  d’une  fois  par  mois                 Page 13 of 15  
  14. 14.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay     D              Je  consomme  du  vin  :           1      Plus  souvent  qu’une  fois  par  semaine       2      Une  fois  par  semaine  ou  moins  souvent                            3      Seulement  lors  d’occasions  exceptionnelles                   E.  Comment  choisissez-­vous  vos  vins  ?         La  dernière  fois  que  j’ai  acheté  du  vin,   Pas  du     Neutre     Très   je  l’ai  acheté  parce  que:   tout   important   important   1   Il  y  avait  une  promotion  en  magasin   1   2   3   4   5   2   A  cause  du  cépage   1   2   3   4   5   3   Il  y  avait  des  informations  sur  le  rayon   1   2   3   4   5   (pastilles  de  goût).   4   A  cause  de  la  région  d’origine   1   2   3   4   5   5   Un  degré  d’alcool  en  dessous  de  13%   1   2   3   4   5   6   Il  m’a  été  recommandé   1   2   3   4   5   7   Il  permettait  un  bon  accord  avec  mes   1   2   3   4   5   mets   8   A  cause  des  indications  sur  la  contre   1   2   3   4   5   étiquette  (endos)   9   C’est  un  vin  que  je  connaissais  déjà   1   2   3   4   5   10   Il  avait  une  médaille   1   2   3   4   5   11   L’étiquette  était  attirante   1   2   3   4   5   12   A  cause  de  la  marque   1   2   3   4   5   13   Il  avait  la  mention:  produit  écologique   1   2   3   4   5       Budget  dachat   F.  Combien  seriez-­‐vous  prêt(e)  à  payer  au  maximum  pour  une  bouteille  de  vin  pour  un   repas  normal  à  la  maison:                                                          0                    $10                  15                20          25        30              35            40          45        $60  ou  plus     Ou  bien  :  F1        Je  n’achète  pas  de  vin  pour  des  repas  normaux  à  la  maison     G.  Combien  seriez-­‐vous  prêt(e)  à  payer  au  maximum  pour    une  occasion  spéciale  ou  un   cadeau                                                          0                    10                15                      20          25        30          35            40          45        $60    ou  plus                          Ou  bien        G1      Je  n’achète  pas  de  vin  pour  ce  type  d’occasion     Page 14 of 15  
  15. 15.   Wine  MBA  2010/2011  Wine  Economics  Essay          H                          Je  suis:  1.    un  homme          2.      une  femme    K        Mon   groupe   18-­‐24   25-­‐40             41-­‐54             55-­‐64         Plus  de  64   dâge:         1.       2.       3.       4.     5.       L        Comment  voyez  vous  votre  avenir  (après  ce  cours)  comme  consommateur  de  vin  ?                  SVP,  choisissez  la  proposition  qui  vous  concerne  et  indiquez  votre  degré  d’accord:       Pas  du     Neutr   Tout  à   tout   e   fait   d’accor d’accor d   d   1.   Mon  but  est  de  boire  mieux  mais  pas   1   2   3   4   5   plus.   Je  vais  acheter  des  bouteilles  de  vin   plus  chères,  quitte  à  en  acheter  moins   pour  respecter  mon  budget.  Je  ne   tiens  pas  à  dépenser  davantage.                 2.   Mon  but  est  de  boire  mieux  et  plus   1   2   3   4   5   varié.  Maintenant  que  je  connais   ma/mes  Pastille(s)  de  goût,   je  vais  explorer  davantage  mais  pas   dépenser  plus  par  bouteille.     3.   Mon  but  est  de  boire  mieux,  plus   1   2   3   4   5   souvent,  et  à  laide  de  mes  nouvelles   connaissances  faire  de  nouvelles   découvertes,  soigner  les  accords  mets   et  vins,  acheter  des  bouteilles  plus   dispendieuses.  Mon  budget  consacré   au  vin  va  certainement  augmenter,   cest  inévitable.     M  :    SVP  encercler  a,  b  ou  c   a)  je    préfère  le  vin  blanc,    b)  je  préfère  le  vin  rouge,    c)  jaime  également  les  deux.   Page 15 of 15  

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