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    • Technical Writing How to Write Good Research Articles Supta Richard Philip 1 1 M.Sc. in Computer Science Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science University of Trento, Italy. August 8, 2012 Copywrite Declaration : Metarials are taken from Dr. Ashfaqur Rahman, Research Scientist,Intelligent Sensing and Systems Lab (ISSL),CSIRO, Australia & Xiaohua Jia, Chair Professor,Dept of Computer Science,City University of Hong Kong.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 1 / 21
    • 1 Publication Requirement 2 Kinds of Scientific Publications 3 Where to publish your work Important journals & conferences 4 Plan your writing Reader-oriented Writing 5 Structure of a Paper Choose a Right Title Write a concise Abstract Choose a right set of keywords Examples of an abstract / keywords Organization of your Paper Introduction: the most difficult part Related work and Reference list Examples of reference lists 6 Writing Tips: carry you to a long waySupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 2 / 21
    • Publication Requirement The people who need the publications BSc Degree (Minor)Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 3 / 21
    • Publication Requirement The people who need the publications BSc Degree (Minor) MPhil Degree / MS by Research / MS (Minor)Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 3 / 21
    • Publication Requirement The people who need the publications BSc Degree (Minor) MPhil Degree / MS by Research / MS (Minor) PhD DegreeSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 3 / 21
    • Publication Requirement The people who need the publications BSc Degree (Minor) MPhil Degree / MS by Research / MS (Minor) PhD Degree Full time researcher / AcademicsSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 3 / 21
    • Kinds of Scientific Publications Thesis Aspects to be Assessed for a Thesis:Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 4 / 21
    • Kinds of Scientific Publications Thesis Aspects to be Assessed for a Thesis: Conference Publications Focus on a piece of work with limited discussionSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 4 / 21
    • Kinds of Scientific Publications Thesis Aspects to be Assessed for a Thesis: Conference Publications Focus on a piece of work with limited discussion Journal Publications More complete (extensive) discussionSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 4 / 21
    • Kinds of Scientific Publications Thesis Aspects to be Assessed for a Thesis: Conference Publications Focus on a piece of work with limited discussion Journal Publications More complete (extensive) discussion Book chapters / Text booksSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 4 / 21
    • Kinds of Scientific Publications Thesis Aspects to be Assessed for a Thesis: background knowledge Conference Publications Focus on a piece of work with limited discussion Journal Publications More complete (extensive) discussion Book chapters / Text booksSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 4 / 21
    • Kinds of Scientific Publications Thesis Aspects to be Assessed for a Thesis: background knowledge original contributions (amount of work) Conference Publications Focus on a piece of work with limited discussion Journal Publications More complete (extensive) discussion Book chapters / Text booksSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 4 / 21
    • Kinds of Scientific Publications Thesis Aspects to be Assessed for a Thesis: background knowledge original contributions (amount of work) methodology Conference Publications Focus on a piece of work with limited discussion Journal Publications More complete (extensive) discussion Book chapters / Text booksSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 4 / 21
    • Kinds of Scientific Publications Thesis Aspects to be Assessed for a Thesis: background knowledge original contributions (amount of work) methodology presentation (writing) Conference Publications Focus on a piece of work with limited discussion Journal Publications More complete (extensive) discussion Book chapters / Text booksSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 4 / 21
    • Where to publish your work Journals Ranking of journals Review process of journals Publication cycleSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 5 / 21
    • Where to publish your work Journals Ranking of journals Review process of journals Publication cycle Conferences Ranking of conferences Review process of conferences N.B. a good journal / conference tends to have rigorous review process and long review timeSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 5 / 21
    • Important journals & conferences Database IEEE Trans on Knowledge and Data Engineering ACM Trans on Database Systems Intl Conf on VLDBSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 6 / 21
    • Important journals & conferences Database IEEE Trans on Knowledge and Data Engineering ACM Trans on Database Systems Intl Conf on VLDB Software Engineering IEEE Trans on Software Engineering ACM Trans on Software Eng. and Methodology IEEE Intl Conf on Software EngineeringSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 6 / 21
    • Important journals & conferences Database IEEE Trans on Knowledge and Data Engineering ACM Trans on Database Systems Intl Conf on VLDB Software Engineering IEEE Trans on Software Engineering ACM Trans on Software Eng. and Methodology IEEE Intl Conf on Software Engineering Distributed Systems IEEE Trans on Parallel and Distributed Systems ACM Trans on Computer Systems IEEE Intl Conf on Distributed Computing SystemsSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 6 / 21
    • Important journals & conferences Database IEEE Trans on Knowledge and Data Engineering ACM Trans on Database Systems Intl Conf on VLDB Software Engineering IEEE Trans on Software Engineering ACM Trans on Software Eng. and Methodology IEEE Intl Conf on Software Engineering Distributed Systems IEEE Trans on Parallel and Distributed Systems ACM Trans on Computer Systems IEEE Intl Conf on Distributed Computing Systems Computer Networks IEEE/ACM Trans on Networking IEEE INFOCOM ACM Mobicom, etc.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 6 / 21
    • Plan your writing Ask two questions before starting: What is new in your work? What are you going to write?Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 7 / 21
    • Plan your writing Ask two questions before starting: What is new in your work? What are you going to write? Emphasize on the originality and significance of your work.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 7 / 21
    • Plan your writing Ask two questions before starting: What is new in your work? What are you going to write? Emphasize on the originality and significance of your work. Organize your thinking and decide the structure (outlines) of your paper.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 7 / 21
    • Plan your writing Ask two questions before starting: What is new in your work? What are you going to write? Emphasize on the originality and significance of your work. Organize your thinking and decide the structure (outlines) of your paper. Stick on your central points throughout the whole paper and remove all unnecessary discussions.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 7 / 21
    • Reader-oriented Writing Purpose of your writing: disseminating your research results. Dont write if there is nothing to write. Dont make a simple problem complicated to fool people. Dont hide technical details.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 8 / 21
    • Reader-oriented Writing Purpose of your writing: disseminating your research results. Dont write if there is nothing to write. Dont make a simple problem complicated to fool people. Dont hide technical details. Reader-oriented writing: Write in a way that would lead readers to follow your thinking, NOT in the way of your thinking. Well-organize your thinking. Give enough and clear explanation (never leave reader to guess). Try to present your idea in an accurate way (no ambiguous). Always think how readers would interpret your writing (assume youre a reader).Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 8 / 21
    • Reader-oriented Writing Purpose of your writing: disseminating your research results. Dont write if there is nothing to write. Dont make a simple problem complicated to fool people. Dont hide technical details. Reader-oriented writing: Write in a way that would lead readers to follow your thinking, NOT in the way of your thinking. Well-organize your thinking. Give enough and clear explanation (never leave reader to guess). Try to present your idea in an accurate way (no ambiguous). Always think how readers would interpret your writing (assume youre a reader). Use simple/ plain English. Purpose of technical writing: express your idea correctly & clearly.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 8 / 21
    • Structure of a Paper TitleSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 9 / 21
    • Structure of a Paper Title AbstractSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 9 / 21
    • Structure of a Paper Title Abstract Key wordsSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 9 / 21
    • Structure of a Paper Title Abstract Key words IntroductionSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 9 / 21
    • Structure of a Paper Title Abstract Key words Introduction BackgroundSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 9 / 21
    • Structure of a Paper Title Abstract Key words Introduction Background Related WorkSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 9 / 21
    • Structure of a Paper Title Abstract Key words Introduction Background Related Work System Model & Problem StatementSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 9 / 21
    • Structure of a Paper Title Abstract Key words Introduction Background Related Work System Model & Problem Statement Methods / SolutionsSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 9 / 21
    • Structure of a Paper Title Abstract Key words Introduction Background Related Work System Model & Problem Statement Methods / Solutions Simulations / ExperimentsSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 9 / 21
    • Structure of a Paper Title Abstract Key words Introduction Background Related Work System Model & Problem Statement Methods / Solutions Simulations / Experiments ConclusionSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 9 / 21
    • Structure of a Paper Title Abstract Key words Introduction Background Related Work System Model & Problem Statement Methods / Solutions Simulations / Experiments Conclusion AcknowledgementSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 9 / 21
    • Structure of a Paper Title Abstract Key words Introduction Background Related Work System Model & Problem Statement Methods / Solutions Simulations / Experiments Conclusion Acknowledgement ReferencesSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 9 / 21
    • Structure of a Paper Title Abstract Key words Introduction Background Related Work System Model & Problem Statement Methods / Solutions Simulations / Experiments Conclusion Acknowledgement References Average number of pages of a journal paper. Average number of pages of a conference paper.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 9 / 21
    • Choose a Right Title The title should be very specific, not too broad.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 10 / 21
    • Choose a Right Title The title should be very specific, not too broad. The title should be substantially different from others. Topology control for multihop wireless networks, IEEE Trans. on Comm, 93. Topology control of multihop wireless networks using transmit power adjustment, infocom00. Distributed topology control for power efficient operation in multihop wireless networks, infocom01.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 10 / 21
    • Choose a Right Title The title should be very specific, not too broad. The title should be substantially different from others. Topology control for multihop wireless networks, IEEE Trans. on Comm, 93. Topology control of multihop wireless networks using transmit power adjustment, infocom00. Distributed topology control for power efficient operation in multihop wireless networks, infocom01. Avoid general / big titles, e.g., Research on data mining, Some research on job assignment in cluster computing, A new framework for distributed computing,Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 10 / 21
    • Write a concise Abstract The use of an abstract: for search purpose. giving readers a paper-summary before getting into details.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 11 / 21
    • Write a concise Abstract The use of an abstract: for search purpose. giving readers a paper-summary before getting into details. An abstract should tell: the problem that the paper discusses. the work that has been done, or method being used. original findings / achievements.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 11 / 21
    • Write a concise Abstract The use of an abstract: for search purpose. giving readers a paper-summary before getting into details. An abstract should tell: the problem that the paper discusses. the work that has been done, or method being used. original findings / achievements. An abstract usually does NOT have: reference numbers multiple paragraphsSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 11 / 21
    • Choose a right set of keywords The use of keywords: database search, categorizing your work (for editors to choose reviewers).Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 12 / 21
    • Choose a right set of keywords The use of keywords: database search, categorizing your work (for editors to choose reviewers). The keywords must be specific and, as a whole, represent the main topic of the paper.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 12 / 21
    • Choose a right set of keywords The use of keywords: database search, categorizing your work (for editors to choose reviewers). The keywords must be specific and, as a whole, represent the main topic of the paper. Avoid using the words that are not the main topic, such as calculus, simulations, etc.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 12 / 21
    • Examples of an abstract / keywordsSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 13 / 21
    • Organization of your Paper Top-down writing methodSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 14 / 21
    • Organization of your Paper Top-down writing method Planning sections and subsectionsSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 14 / 21
    • Organization of your Paper Top-down writing method Planning sections and subsections Sketching: use a sentence to represent the points (paragraphs) in each subsectionsSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 14 / 21
    • Organization of your Paper Top-down writing method Planning sections and subsections Sketching: use a sentence to represent the points (paragraphs) in each subsections Writing details: expand a sentence in the sketch into a paragraphSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 14 / 21
    • Organization of your Paper Top-down writing method Planning sections and subsections Sketching: use a sentence to represent the points (paragraphs) in each subsections Writing details: expand a sentence in the sketch into a paragraph Adjustment: break / merge paragraphs, add / merge sectionsSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 14 / 21
    • Organization of your Paper Top-down writing method Planning sections and subsections Sketching: use a sentence to represent the points (paragraphs) in each subsections Writing details: expand a sentence in the sketch into a paragraph Adjustment: break / merge paragraphs, add / merge sections N.B. keep a logical flow from section to section, paragraph to paragraph, and sentence to sentence.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 14 / 21
    • Introduction: the most difficult part Purpose of introduction: Introducing readers to your problem / work. An introduction usually contains: Brief background of the topic-area Existing work, which would lead to the importance / originality of your work Description of your problem Achievement / significance / brief-methodology of workSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 15 / 21
    • Related work and Reference list Show your knowledge in the related area,Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 16 / 21
    • Related work and Reference list Show your knowledge in the related area, Give credit to other researchers (reviewers are usually chosen from the references),Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 16 / 21
    • Related work and Reference list Show your knowledge in the related area, Give credit to other researchers (reviewers are usually chosen from the references), Cite good quality work (particularly when citing your own work) and up to date work.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 16 / 21
    • Related work and Reference list Be organized to serve your topic,Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 17 / 21
    • Related work and Reference list Be organized to serve your topic, Emphasize on the significance / originality of your work (Introducing your work out).Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 17 / 21
    • Related work and Reference list Consistent with the format, ordering, etc.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 18 / 21
    • Related work and Reference list Consistent with the format, ordering, etc. Standard format of books / journal papers / conference papers, e.g, X. Jia, X.D. Hu and D.Z. Du, Multiwavelength Optical Networks, Kluwer Academic, 2002. J. Li, Yi Pan, and X. Jia, Analysis of Dynamic Location Management for PCS Networks, IEEE Trans on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 51, No. 5, Sep 2002, pp.1109-1119. ¨ X. Jia, D. Li, X.Hu and D. Du, Placement of Read-Write Web Proxies in the Internet¨ Proc of IEEE Intl. Conf. on Distributed Computing , Systems, Phoenix, USA, Apr 2001, pp.687-690. Do NOT use non-standard abbrev.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 18 / 21
    • Examples of reference listsSupta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 19 / 21
    • Writing Tips: carry you to a long way Reader-oriented writing (good organization, logical flow, etc).Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 20 / 21
    • Writing Tips: carry you to a long way Reader-oriented writing (good organization, logical flow, etc). Standard and consistent formatting (professional and neat looking).Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 20 / 21
    • Writing Tips: carry you to a long way Reader-oriented writing (good organization, logical flow, etc). Standard and consistent formatting (professional and neat looking). Learning from other peoples writing.Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 20 / 21
    • For Further Reading I James D. Lester. Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide. Harpercollins College Div; 8th edition, January 1996. Peter Haisler. Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide. 15/6 2011. A. Sloman. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/internal/research students/theses.php, Jul 2010. OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. http://www.aresearchguide.com/Supta R. Philip (University of Trento) Technical Writing August 8, 2012 21 / 21