Npdp 新產品開發流程


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新產品開發是可以找出其法則的, 而目前這套法則讓所有的人較容易開發創新.
作者:Richard Pei裴有恆/專長主管流程改善創新,產品創新,商業模式創新,專案管理

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Npdp 新產品開發流程

  1. 1. New Product Process NPDP裴有恆
  2. 2. 講師介紹 講師:裴有恆 Richard Pei Email: NPD經驗: 5.5年RD經驗,11.5年產品經理,專案經理,流程管理經理 經驗 現職:元創意資深產品經理暨執行董事 資歷: Alcatel台灣分公司,甲尚科技,台灣大哥大.仁寶電腦,神達電腦 學歷: 南加大電腦工程碩士 外貿協會ITI第六期行銷班,第一期品牌班結業 生產力中心PMP國際專案管理實務班結業(2008/10) NPDP認證 2009年10月1日 ISO9001, TS16949, ISO/IEC 17025, ISO13485合格內部稽核員
  3. 3. About New Product Process Understand the characteristics of product processes including: Phases from concept to launch Lifecycles Decision points and gates Required activities for each phase A good new product process increases chances of success and cuts losses from losing products early
  4. 4. Product Life Cycle A way to trace the stage of a product’s acceptance from its introduction to its demise. A tool to help marketers understand, where their product is now, what may happen, which strategies are normally appropriate.
  5. 5. Product Product Life Life Cycle Cycle
  6. 6. Introduction Stage Cost are high Slow sales volumes to start Little or no competition Demand has to be created Customers have to be prompted to try the product
  7. 7. Growth Stage Cost reduced due to economies of scale Sales volume increases significantly Profitability begins to rise Public awareness increases Competition begins to increase with few new players in establishing market Increased competition leads to price decreases.
  8. 8. Mature Stage Costs are lowered as a result of production volume increasing and experience curve effects Sales volume peaks and market saturation is reached Increase in competitors entering the market Price tend to drop due to the proliferation of competing product Brand differentiation and feature diversification is emphasized to maintain or increase market share Industrial profits go down
  9. 9. Decline Stage Costs become counter-optimal Sales volume decline or stabilize Price, profitability diminish Profit become more a challenge of production/distribution efficiency than increases
  10. 10. The Life Cycle and Consumers At the market level, the new product is first in the marketplace:2.5% of the market. Early adoptors:13.5% of the market Early majority: 34% of the market Late majority: 34% of the market The laggards: 16%
  11. 11. Five gambling rules: Step 1: When the uncertainties of the new product project are high (that is, when the prospects of success are fuzzy), keep the amounts at stake low. When you don’t know where you’re going, take small steps. 當不確定性高時,別賭太大
  12. 12. Five gambling rules: Step 2: As the uncertainties decrease, let the amounts at stake increase. As you. Learn more about where you are going, take bigger and bigger steps. 當風險降時,逐漸加碼
  13. 13. Five gambling rules: Step 3: Incrementalize the new product process into a series of steps or stages. Treat it as a series of options purchases. Each step should be more costly than the one before. 分批加注
  14. 14. Five gambling rules: Step 4: View each stage as a means of reducing uncertainty. Remember that information is the key to uncertainty reduction. Each step in the process that creates an expenditure must reduce . uncertainty by an equivalent amount. “Buy a series of looks” at the project‘s outcome. 看每個階段逐漸 降低不確定性,花小錢買資訊
  15. 15. Five gambling rules: Step 5: Provide for timely evaluation, decision, and bail-out points. These decision points pull together all the new information from the previous stage and pose the questions, .“Are you still in the game? Should you proceed to the next stage, or kill the project now?” 設定停損點,適時退場
  16. 16. Product Development It is the overall process of strategy, organization, concept generation, product and marketing plan creation and evaluation, and commercialization of a new product.一種新產品的整個流程的策略、組織、 概念代、產品/行銷計劃制定和評價,以及商業化。
  17. 17. New Product Process A disciplined and defined set of tasks and steps that describe the normal means by which a company repetitively converts embryonic ideas into salable products or services.
  18. 18. Seven Goals of a New Product Process Goal #1: Quality of Execution Goal #2: Sharper Focus, Better Prioritization Goal #3: Fast-Paced Parallel Processing Goal #4: A True Cross-functional Team Approach Goal #5: A Strong Market Orientation with Voice of the Customer Built In
  19. 19. Seven Goals of a New Product Process Goal #6: Better Homework Up-Front Goal #7: Products with Competitive Advantage
  20. 20. Goal #1: Quality of Execution There exists the need for a more systematic and quality approach to the way firms conceive, develop, and launch new products. The way to deal with the quality problem is to visualize product innovation as a process and to apply process management and quality management techniques to this process. Note that any process in business can be managed, and thus it can be managed with a view to quality.
  21. 21. Goal#2: Sharper Focus, Better Prioritization A “new product funnel” builds in tough go/kill decision points; One funneling method is to build the new product process around a set of gates or go/kill decision points. These gates are the bail-out points where we ask, "Are we still in the game?" Gates are analogous to the quality-control checkpoints in the new product process
  22. 22. Goal #3 Fast-Paced Parallel Processing In marked contrast to the relay or sequential approach, with parallel processing many activities are undertaken concurrently rather than in a series. Due to cross-functional and multidisciplinary in entire NPD process, players run down the field with much interaction, constantly passing the ball laterally.
  23. 23. Goal #4 A True Cross-functional Team Approach The multifunctional nature of innovation coupled with the desire for parallel processing means that a true cross-functional team approach is mandatory in order to win at new products. The project team is cross-functional to release time from their normal jobs to spend on the project is provided to team members. The project team has a clearly defined team captain or leader.
  24. 24. Goal #5 A Strong Market Orientation with Voice of the Customer built in If superb new product success rates are the goal, then a market orientation executing the key marketing activities in a quality fashion must be built into the new product process as a matter of routine, rather than by exception. Marketing inputs must play a decisive role from beginning to end of the project.
  25. 25. Goal #6 Better Up-Front Homework The up-front homework helps to define the product and to build the business case for development. The ideal new product process ensures that these early stages are carried out before the project is allowed to proceed before the project enters full fledged Development.
  26. 26. Goal #7 Products with Competitive Advantage Ensure that at least some of the criteria at every gate focus on product superiority. Require that certain key actions designed to deliver product superiority be included in each stage of the process. Demand that project teams deliver evidence of product superiority to project go/kill reviews; make product superiority an important deliverable and issue at such meetings
  27. 27. 8 points of A Systematic New Product Process The new product process must be a quality process. There is a dear need for a systematic new product process to guide and facilitate the new product project from idea to launch. 2. The process or game plan must be designed to manage risk; a multistage and gate framework is most appropriate. 3. Gates are central to the new product process. 4. Parallel processing balances the need for a complete and quality process with the desire for a speedier process. 1.
  28. 28. 8 points of A Systematic New Product Process The process requires a cross-functional, empowered team headed by a team leader with authority. 6. The process is market-driven and customer-focused. 7. Up-front or predevelopment homework is crucial to success, and these activities must be built into the game plan in a consistent and systematic way. 8. The quest must be for superior differentiated products that offer value to the user. 5.
  29. 29. Essential up-front activities Initial screening 初步篩選 Preliminary technical assessment 初步技術評估 Preliminary marketing assessment 初步行銷評估 Detailed technical assessment 詳細的技術評估 Manufacturing or operations assessment製造或業務評估 Detailed market studies詳細的市場研究 Resource and capabilities assessment資源和能力的評估 Financial and business analysis 金融和商業分析 Product definition and business case產品的定義和業務案例 Decision on business case決定商業案例
  30. 30. Nine integral and mandatory marketing actions Customer-based idea generation Preliminary market assessment Market research to determine user needs and wants Competitive analysis: an assessment of competitors Concept testing Customer reaction during development User tests Test market or trial sell Market launch
  31. 31. New Product Process PDMA Process Discovery Development Commercialization Phase Process Opportunity Identification/ Selection Concept Genera tion Concept/ Project Evaluation Develo pment Launch Stage-Gate Process Idea Discovery Screen Goto Testing Scop ing Testing and Validation 2nd Screen Build Business Case Goto Launch Go to Develop ment Launch Develop ment
  32. 32. Phase 1: Opportunity Identification and Selection Generate new product opportunities as spinouts of the ongoing business operation, new product suggestions, changes in marketing plan, resource changes, and new needs/wants in the marketplace. Research, evaluate, validate, and rank them (as opportunities, not specific product concepts). Give major ones a preliminary strategic statement to guide further work on them.
  33. 33. Phase 2: Concept Generation Select a high potential/urgency opportunity, and begin customer involvement. Collect available new product concepts that fit the opportunity and generate new ones as well.
  34. 34. Phase 3: Concept/Project Evaluation Evaluate new product concepts (as they begin to come in) on technical, marketing, and financial criteria. Rank them and select the best two or three. Request project proposal authorization when have product definition, team, budget, skeleton of development plan, and final PIC.
  35. 35. Phase 4: Development A. Technical tasks Specify the full development process and its deliverables. Undertake to design prototypes; test and validate prototypes against protocol; design and validate production process for the best prototype; slowly scale up production as necessary for product and market testing. • B. Marketing tasks • Prepare strategy, tactics, and launch details for marketing plan, prepare proposed business plan and get approval for it, stipulate product augmentation (service, packaging, branding, etc.) and prepare for it.
  36. 36. Phase 5: Launch Commercialize the plans and prototypes from development phase; begin distribution and sale of the new product (maybe on a limited basis); and manage the launch program to achieve the goals and objectives set in the PIC (as modified in the final business plan).
  37. 37. Phase Process
  38. 38. Funnel rather than tunnel
  39. 39. Gate The point is at which a management decision is made to allow the product development project to proceed to the next stage, to recycle back into the current stage to better complete some of the tasks, or to terminate. The number of gates varies by company.
  40. 40. Gate Input Gates serve as quality-control check points, as go/kill and prioritization decisions points. 1. A set of required deliverables :This is what the project leader and team must bring to the decision point (for example, the results of a set of completed activities). These deliverables are visible, are based on a standard menu for each gate, and are decided at the output of the previous gate. Management's expectations for project teams are thus made very clear.
  41. 41. Gate Criteria and Output 2.Criteria against which the project is judged: These include "must-meet" or "knock-out" questions (a checklist) designed to weed out misfit projects quickly. There are also "should-meet" criteria or desirable factors, which are scored (a point count) and used to prioritize projects. 3. Defined outputs: These include a decision (go/kill/hold/recycle), an approved action plan for the next stage (complete with people required, money and persondays committed, and an agreed time line), and a list of deliverables and date for the next gate.
  42. 42. Stage V.S. Gate
  43. 43. Gatekeeper The group of management serves as advisors, decision-makers and investors in a Stage-Gate process. Using established business criteria, this multifunctional group reviews new product opportunities and project progress, and allocates resources accordingly at each gate. This group is also commonly called a Product Approval Committee or Portfolio Management Team. Gatekeepers include Banker, Enforcer, Quality Assurors, Mentors and Godfather.
  44. 44. Stage 0: Discovery Discovery Stage builds in a defined, proactive idea generation and capture system. Activities in the Discovery Stage include undertaking directed but fundamental technical research, seeking new technological possibilities;
  45. 45. Gate 1: Idea Screen The first decision to commit resources to the project: The project is born at this point. Criteria often deal with strategic alignment策略, project feasibility可行性, magnitude of opportunity 市 場機會and market attractiveness市場吸引力, product advantage產品優勢, ability to leverage the firm's resources, and fit with company policies. Financial criteria are typically not part of this first screen
  46. 46. Stage 1: Scoping This first and inexpensive homework stage: objective of determining the project's technical and marketplace merits Concurrently a preliminary technical assessment is carried out, involving a quick and preliminary inhouse appraisal of the proposed product.
  47. 47. Gate 2: Second Screen Project is subjected to a second and somewhat more rigorous screen at Gate 2. The project is reevaluated in the light of the new information obtained in Stage 1.
  48. 48. Stage 2: Build Business Case opens the door to product development. It is also the critical homework stage The elements of this definition include target market definition; delineation of the product concept; specification of a product positioning strategy, the product benefits to be delivered, and the value proposition; and the spelling out of essential and desired product features, attributes, requirements, and specifications.
  49. 49. Business Case Business Case: The results of the market, technical and financial analyses, or up-front homework市場, 技術和財務分析,或前期功課的結果. Ideally defined just prior to the "go to development" decision (gate), the case defines the product and project, including the project justification and the action or business plan 構想的定義是在“走到發展”的決定(門)之前, 確定了專案的產品和項目,包括項目正當性和專案計 劃. Key deliverable to Gate 3, the decision point that opens the door to a full-fledged development project
  50. 50. Gate 3: Go to Development This is the final gate prior to the Development Stage, the last point at which the project can be killed before entering heavy spending. Once past Gate 3, financial commitments are substantial. In effect, Gate 3 means "go to a heavy spend." Gate 3 also yields a "sign off" of the product and project definition.
  51. 51. Stage 3: Development Witnesses the implementation of the development plan and the physical development of the product. Lab tests, in-house tests, or alpha tests ensure that the product meets requirements under controlled conditions. The emphasis in stage 3 is on technical work, but parallel marketing and operations activities are also undertaken.
  52. 52. Gate 4: Go to Testing This post-development review is a check on the progress and the continued attractiveness of the product and project. 開發階段後的檢視 Development work is reviewed and checked, ensuring that the work has been completed in a quality fashion and that the developed product is indeed consistent with the original definition specified at Gate 3. 確認開發工作的產出品質,及 符合原始設計規範。
  53. 53. Stage 4: Testing & Validation This stage tests and validates the entire viability of the project: the product itself, the production process, customer acceptance, and the economics of the project. Provide final and total validation of the entire project: the commercial product, production, and marketing.
  54. 54. Gate 5: Go to Launch This is the final gate opens the door to full commercialization-market launch and full production or operations start-up. It is the final point at which the project can still be killed.
  55. 55. Stage 5: Launch This final stage involves implementation of both the marketing launch plan and the production or operations plan. The post-Launch monitoring plan kicks in early in the Launch stage, while the project’s performance on key metrics takes place, and the project team responds with necessary action. 檢討產品上市後是否順利
  56. 56. Discovery Market Action Customer-based idea generation: working with lead users and key customers is to identify problems, and to conduct strategic planning exercises to uncover disruptions and gaps in the marketplace leading to significant and emerging opportunities for new solution. 從客戶觀點找出客戶的問題,成為自己的機會
  57. 57. Scope Market Action preliminary market assessment: an early, relatively inexpensive step design to assess market attractiveness and to test market acceptance for the proposed new product with an Internet search, a library search, contacting with key users, focus groups, and even a quick concept test with a handful of potential users. 透過市場研究 過濾出較有可能機會
  58. 58. Build Business Case Market Action market research to determine user needs, wants, and preferences: in-depth, face to face, and onsite interviews with customers to determine customer needs, wants, preference, likes, dislikes, and buying criteria, as input to the design of the new product. 透過市場研究找出需要,想要,和偏好, 寫成產品報告
  59. 59. Development Market Acton Customer reaction during development: Continuing concept and product testing through the development phase, using rapid prototypes, models, and partially completed products to gauge customer reaction and seek feedback. 提出快速原型給客戶,讓客戶反映其意見
  60. 60. Test & Validation Market Action User tests: Field trials or beta tests using the finished product (or commercial prototype) with users to verify the performance of the product under customer conditions and to confirm intent to purchase and market acceptance . 到使用者所在地真實測試看效能/市場接受度 Test market, or trial sells : A mini-launch or “soft launch” of the product is a limited geographic regions or single sales territory as a test of all elements of the marketing mix in a very controlled manner, and measuring consumer response to the product and its launch. 在特定/有限大小市場試著銷售看反應
  61. 61. Launch Market Action Market launch: a proficient launch, based on solid marketing plan, and backed up by sufficient resource. 在完善的上市計畫及足夠資源下上市
  62. 62. The lifecycle of a concept
  63. 63. Feature of 3rd Generation of stage-gate mechanism Flexibility Fuzzy (conditional) gates Fluidity Focus (project prioritization and portfolio management) Facilitation Forever green-always regenerating and improving
  64. 64. Nexgen Stage Gate
  65. 65. The Design and Implementation of A New Product Process Stage 1: The Foundation: Defining the Process Requirements Stage 2: Designing the Stage-Gate New Product Process Stage 3: Implementation of Stage-Gate
  66. 66. Stage 1: The Foundation: Defining the Process Requirements 1. Seek senior management commitment 2. Assemble a task force. 3. Hold a "kick-off" seminar/workshop. 4. Conduct an internal audit of current practices. 5. Benchmark other firms. 6. Conduct a thorough literature review. 7. Map the next steps. 8. Secure senior management sign-off.
  67. 67. Stage 2: Designing the Stage-Gate New Product Process addressed as your detailed Stage-Gate model takes shape 1. Stage descriptions 2. Deliverables 3. Gate descriptions 4. Gate procedures 5. Organization 6. What’s "in" the process?
  68. 68. Stage 3: Implementation Bringing Projects into the NPP Getting Commitment and Buy-In Communicating your NP Process Provide Training Develop IT Support for the Process Metrics-How Well Are You Doing? A Process Manager
  69. 69. 神達電腦的NPI流程 Disc over y 策略 R 會議 o a d m a p F e a s i b i l i t y EVT Review kickoff EVT DVT Review DVT PVT Review PVT MP
  70. 70. Reference: Cooper, Robert G., Winning at New Products Crawford, C. Merle and Anthony DiBenedetto, New Products Management McQuarrie, Edward F.: The Market Research Toolbox A concise Guide for Beginners