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Gilgamesh

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Pictures to drive the story of Gilgamesh

Pictures to drive the story of Gilgamesh

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  • Cuneiform discovered in 1853, first translated in 1870.
  • Tablet IXOver his friend, Enkidu, Gilgamesh cried bitterly, roaming the wilderness."I am going to die!--am I not like Enkidu?!Deep sadness penetrates my core,I fear death, and now roam the wilderness--I will set out to the region of Utanapishtim, son of Ubartutu,and will go with utmost dispatch!When I arrived at mountain passes at nightfall,'I saw lions, and I was terrified!I raised my head in prayer to Sin,to ... the Great Lady of the gods my supplications pouredforth, 'Save me from... !"'He was sleeping in the night, but awoke with a start with a dream:A warrior(!) enjoyed his life--he raised his axe in his hand,drew the dagger from his sheath,and fell into their midst like an arrow.He struck ... and he scattered them,The name of the former ...The name of the second ...(26 lines are missing here, telling of the beginning of his quest.]The Scorpion-BeingsThe mountain is called Mashu.Then he reached Mount Mashu,which daily guards the rising and setting of the Sun,above which only the dome of the heavens reaches,and whose flank reaches as far as the Netherworld below,there were Scorpion-beings watching over its gate.Trembling terror they inspire, the sight of them is death,their frightening aura sweeps over the mountains.At the rising and setting they watch over the Sun.When Gilgamesh saw them, trembling terror blanketed his face,but he pulled himself together and drew near to them.The scorpion-being called out to his female:"He who comes to us, his body is the flesh of gods!"The scorpion-being, his female, answered him:"(Only) two-thirds of him is a god, one-third is human."The male scorpion-being called out,saying to the offspring of the gods:"Why have you traveled so distant a journey?Why have you come here to me,over rivers whose crossing is treacherous!I want to learn your ...I want to learn ..."[16 lines are missing here. When the text resumes Gilgamesh is speaking.]"I have come on account of my ancestor Utanapishtim,who joined the Assembly of the Gods, and was given eternal life.About Death and Life I must ask him!"The scorpion-being spoke to Gilgamesh ..., saying:"Never has there been, Gilgamesh, a mortal man who could do that(?).No one has crossed through the mountains,for twelve leagues it is darkness throughout--dense is the darkness, and light there is none.To the rising of the sun ...To the setting of the sun ...To the setting of the sun ...They caused to go out..."[67 lines are missing, in which Gilgamesh convinces the scorpion-being to allow himpassage.]"Though it be in deep sadness and pain,in cold or heat ...gasping after breath ... I will go on!Now! Open the Gate!"The scorpion-being spoke to Gilgamesh, saying:"Go on, Gilgamesh, fear not!The Mashu mountains I give to you freely (!),the mountains, the ranges, you may traverse ...In safety may your feet carry you.The gate of the mountain ..."To the rising of the sun ...To the setting of the sun ...To the setting of the sun ...They caused to go out..."[67 lines are missing, in which Gilgamesh convinces the scorpion-being to allow himpassage.]"Though it be in deep sadness and pain,in cold or heat ...gasping after breath ... I will go on!Now! Open the Gate!"The scorpion-being spoke to Gilgamesh, saying:"Go on, Gilgamesh, fear not!The Mashu mountains I give to you freely (!),the mountains, the ranges, you may traverse ...In safety may your feet carry you.The gate of the mountain ..."As soon as Gilgamesh heard thishe heeded the utterances of the scorpion-being.Along the Road of the Sun L he journeyed--one league he traveled ...,dense was the darkness, light there was none.Neither what lies ahead nor behind does it allow him to see.Two leagues he traveled ...,dense was the darkness, light there was none,neither what lies ahead nor behind does it allow him to see.[22 lines are missing here.]Four leagues he traveled ...,dense was the darkness, light there was none,neither what lies ahead nor behind does it allow him to see.Five leagues he traveled ...,dense was the darkness, light there was none,neither what lies ahead nor behind does it allow him to see.Six leagues he traveled ...,dense was the darkness, light there was none,neither what lies ahead nor behind does it allow him to see.Seven leagues he traveled ..dense was the darkness, light there was none,neither what lies ahead nor behind does it allow him to see.Eight leagues he traveled and cried out (!),dense was the darkness, light there was none,neither what lies ahead nor behind does it allow him to see.Nine leagues he traveled ... the North Wind.It licked at his face,dense was the darkness, light there was none,neither what lies ahead nor behind does it allow him to see.Ten leagues he traveled ...... is near,... four leagues.Eleven leagues he traveled and came out before the sun(rise).Twelve leagues he traveled and it grew brilliant....it bears lapis lazuli as foliage,bearing fruit, a delight to look upon.
  • TheHanging Gardens of URUK
  • Tyrant and WunderMann und UberMensch.
  • Enkidu was formed out of clay. Aruru, goddess of beginnings, dipped dawn fingers into the sea and pinched off a knob of earth, smooting it into the shape of a man. And that was Enkidu.
  • “The Epic of Gilgamesh” is considered the oldest piece of literature in the world. Written nearly 4500 years ago on clay tablets in ancient Sumer, the epic tells the story of a great king named Gilgamesh. One of the many parts of the epic involves a wrestling match between Gilgamesh (on the right above) and Enkidu, a wild man from the forest. They wrestled for hours before the walls of the city Uruk, where Gilgamesh was the king. Who won is not clear but the two men became great friends afterwards. Today, Iraq occupies the land once known as Sumer.
  • ... They stood at the forest's edge,gazing at the top of the Cedar Tree,gazing at the entrance to the forest.Where Humbaba would walk there was a trail,the roads led straight on, the path was excellent.Then they saw the Cedar Mountain, the Dwelling of the Gods, thethrone dais of Imini.Across the face of the mountain the Cedar brought forth luxuriousfoliage,its shade was good, extremely pleasant.The thornbushes were matted together, the woods(?) were a thicket... among the Cedars,... the boxwood,the forest was surrounded by a ravine two leagues long,... and again for two-thirds (of that distance),...Suddenly the swords...,and after the sheaths ...,the axes were smeared...dagger and sword...alone ...Humbaba spoke to Gilgamesh saying:"He does not come (?) ......Enlil.. ."Enkidu spoke to Humbaba, saying:"Humbaba...'One alone..'Strangers ...'A slippery path is not feared by two people who help each other.'Twice three times...'A three-ply rope cannot be cut.'The mighty lion--two cubs can roll him over."'...Humbaba spoke to Gilgamesh, saying:..An idiot' and a moron should give advice to each other,but you, Gilgamesh, why have you come to me!Give advice, Enkidu, you 'son of a fish,' who does not evenknow his own father,to the large and small turtles which do not suck their mother's milk!When you were still young I saw you but did not go over to you;... you,... in my belly....,you have brought Gilgamesh into my presence,... you stand.., an enemy, a stranger.... Gilgamesh, throat and neck,I would feed your flesh to the screeching vulture, the eagle, andthe vulture!"Gilgamesh spoke to Enkidu, saying: "My Friend, Humbaba's face keeps changing!·Enkidu spoke to Gilgamesh, saying:'"Why, my friend, are you whining so pitiably, hiding behind your whimpering?Now there, my friend,...in the coppersmith's channel ...,again to blow (the bellows) for an hour, the glowing (metal)(?)...for an hour.To send the Flood, to crack the Whip."Do not snatch your feet away, do not turn your back,... strike even harder!"... may they be expelled.... head fell ... and it/he confronted him...The ground split open with the heels of their feet,as they whirled around in circles Mt. Hermon and Lebanon split.The white clouds darkened,death rained down on them like fog.Shamash raised up against Humbaba mighty tempests'--Southwind, Northwind, Eastwind, Westwind, Whistling Wind, Piercing Wind, Blizzard, Bad Wind, Wind of Simurru,Demon Wind, Ice Wind, Storm, Sandstorm--thirteen winds rose up against him and covered Humbaba's face.He could nor butt through the front, and could not scramble outthe back,so that Gilgamesh'a weapons were in reach of Humbaba.Humbaba begged for his life, saying to Gilgamesh:"You are young yet, Gilgamesh, your mother gave birth to you,and you are the offspring of Rimnt-Nlnsun (?) ...(It was) at the word of Shamash, Lord of the Mountain,that you were roused (to this expedition).O scion of the heart of Uruk, King Gilgamesh!... Gilgamesh...Gilgamesh, let me go (?), I will dwell with you as your servant (?)As many trees as you command me I will cut down for you,I will guard for you myrtle wood...,wood fine enough for your palace!"Enkidu addressed Gilgamesh, saying:"My friend, do not listen to Humbaba,[io lines are misring Apparently Humbaba sees tharGilgamrsh is influenced by Enkidu, and moves to dissuade Enkidu.]"You understand the rules of my forest, the rules...,further, you are aware of all the things so ordered (by Enlil)."I should have carried you up, and killed you at the very entrance to the branches of my forest.I should have fed your flesh to the screeching vulture, the eagle,and the vulture.So now, Enkidu, clemency is up to you.Speak to Gilgamesh to spare my life!"Enkidu addressed Gilgamesh, saying:My friend, Humbaba, Guardian of the Cedar Forest,grind up, kill, pulverize(?), and destroy him!Humbaba, Guardian of the Forest, grind up, kill, pulverize(?),and destroy him!Before the Preeminent God Enlil hears...and the ...gods be filled with rage against us.Enlil is in Nippur, Shamash is in Sippar.Erect an eternal monument proclaiming...how Gilgamesh killed(?) Humbaba."When Humbaba heard...[Abour l0 linrs are misiing.]... the forest.and denunciations(?) have been made.But you are sitting there like a shepherd...and like a 'hireling of his mouth.'Now, Enkidu, clemency is up to you.Speak to Gilgamesh that he spare my life!"Enkidu spoke to Gilgamesh, saying:"My friend, Humbaba, Guardian of the Forest,grind up, kill, pulverize(?), and destroy him!Before the Preeminent God Enlil hears,and the ... gods are full of rage at us.Enlil is in Nippur, Shamash is in Sippar.Erect an eternal monument proclaiming...how Gilgamesh killed(?) Humbaba."Humbaba heard ...[About 10 lines are missing.]"May he not live the longer of the two,may Enkidu not have any 'share'(?) more than his friendGilgamesh!"Enkidu spoke to Gilgamesh, saying:"My friend, 1 have been talking to you but you have not beenlistening to me,"You have been listening to the curse of Humbaba!"... his friend... by his side.. they pulled out his insides including his tongue.... he jumped(?)....abundance fell over the mountain,...abundance fell over the mountain.They cut through the Cedar,While Gilgamesh cuts down the trees, Enkidu searches throughthe urmazallu.Enkidu addressed Gilgamesh, saying:"My friend, we have cut down the towering Cedar whose topscrapes the sky.Make from it a door 72 cubits high, 24 cubits wide,one cubit thick, its fixture, its lower and upper pivots will be out of one piece.Let them carry it to Nippur, the Euphrates will carry it down, Nippur will rejoice...."They tied together a raft...Enkidu steered it...while Gilgamesh held the head of Humbaba.
  • “Gilgamesh! Gilgamesh! How well you look in my temple of love.”Gilgamesh spun around.
  • And high on her tower, Ishtar, alone and disregarded, chewed on her plait of hair and cursed Gilgamesh under her breath.“Death to Gilgamesh and Enkidu. A curse on their friendship and on their happiness! Justice on their mortal heads!”
  • And high on her tower, Ishtar, alone and disregarded, chewed on her plait of hair and cursed Gilgamesh under her breath.“Death to Gilgamesh and Enkidu. A curse on their friendship and on their happiness! Justice on their mortal heads!”
  • The Significance of the TravelogueIt seems as inevitable that voyaging should make men free in their minds as that settlement within a narrow horizon should make men timid and servile.HG Wells, 1922 The first men were wanderers and their lives, if brutish and short, were a journey too, marked by constant movement and discovery. Unsettled and unencumbered, early man explored the globe. He left Africa 70,000 years ago. Thirty thousand years later, he reached Australia, and by the time a new man – the farmer – was sowing the Fertile Crescent’s first crops, the wanderer was navigating the Amazon River in a dugout canoe.Agriculture brought settlement, cities and, six or seven thousand years ago, writing. Although man first wrote to keep account books, by 2600 BCE he was starting to inscribe his people’s tales in clay and stone, giving a stable, solid structure to narratives told loosely by earlier men. Writing made final what had been fluid before, which suited man’s new stability and the growing scale of his society, and like everybody who has sought a place in the world since, the first writers were primarily concerned with explaining their origins.The oldest story long enough to enter literature’s canon is The Epic of Gilgamesh, a legend written in cuneiform that was lost until 1853, when it was found amongst the ruins of Nineveh, in what is now Iraq. The epic has a cast of hideous, spiteful monsters, petty gods, whimpering mortals and, in the protagonist, a tyrant – Gilgamesh, the King of Uruk, who is only two-thirds divine and as a result must die. The tale legitimises the rule of a heroic, godly despot over sedentary men, but the wanderer is not far gone, and the world’s first work of literature is mostly a travelogue, describing a journey to the known world’s end in search of eternal life.Uruk’s citizens are treated badly by Gilgamesh at the start of the epic. He takes newlywed women to his bed by sovereign right and works the city’s men to the bone. Fed up, the people pray to the Mesopotamian gods and are heard: the gods distract the king by creating a companion for him – Enkidu, a primitive man covered in hair who “lives in the wild with the animals”. A man who is, in short, a wanderer. Enkidu is soon seduced by civilisation, quite literally: an accomplished temple prostitute is sent to him and after seven days of love making the two return to Uruk, where Enkidu becomes a shepherd. At his shepherds camp, Enkidu learns that Gilgamesh takes brides to his bed and, because he is still a man of pure, unfettered freedom – a symbol, in many ways, of the unbound people before civilisation – the practice enrages him. He goes to confront Gilgamesh and the two come to blows at the entrance to a wedding chamber. It is a fierce, close fought contest, but Enkidu is eventually bettered by the demigod. The tussle establishes mutual respect and the men become friends; later, after Gilgamesh’s mother adopts Enkidu, they become brothers. Together they travel to the Cedar Forest to kill its guardian, a hideous ogre who wears seven suits of armour, and together, by giving each other courage at critical moments, they succeed. As he lies dying, the ogre curses Enkidu. “Of you two,” he says, “may Enkidu not live the longer. May Enkidu not find any peace in this world!”<imgsrc="http://img3.oldworldwandering.com/http://www.oldworldwandering.com/wp-content/uploads/21157833-290x192.jpg&t=dbeded478b8fd3ee45f67acefeb74f00" alt="A depiction of Gilgamesh mourning Enkidu, from the cover of Gilgamesh: A Verse Play" title="A depiction of Gilgamesh mourning Enkidu, from the cover of Gilgamesh: A Verse Play" width="290" height="192" class="size-medium wp-image-2492 colorbox-2097" />A depiction of Gilgamesh mourning Enkidu, from the cover of 'Gilgamesh: A Verse Play'Enkidu is a creature of the gods, and for his temerity the gods take his life. He falls ill. Days later, he dies. Gilgamesh is left broken hearted and alone, but his short relationship with the wanderer has both ennobled the king and instilled in him an obsessive fear of death, and the rest of the epic is a description of Gilgamesh travelling, at first aimlessly through the wild clad in animal skins, while he mourns Enkidu, and later in search of Utnapishtim, the Mesopotamian equivalent of Noah, who was granted immortality for ensuring that life on land survived the deluge that is perhaps mankind’s most entrenched myth. Although Gilgamesh eventually finds Utnapishtim, he learns that his immortality was a once-off. Gilgamesh will die – but in the subtitle of the epic that is his story, He Who Saw the Deep, he lives on, and the Sumerians credited Gilgamesh with bringing back from his journey knowledge of how to worship the gods and how to be a just king, as well as an explanation for the mortality of men and the essence of living a good life.Almost 1,500 years later, in about 800 BCE, the blind poet Homer penned a story not unlike TheEpic of Gilgamesh called TheOdyssey, a story that, together with TheIliad, established the Western literary tradition. The Odyssey follows the Greek hero Odysseus on his difficult journey home after the fall of Troy. It takes the king of Ithaca ten years to return to his island, where he is presumed dead, and the trials and temptations he encounters – like siren song and lotus eaters – have lived on in our language. When Odysseus eventually makes it home, he arrives alone; none of the men who left Troy with him have survived.Early travelogues are mixed up with religion, and Odysseus’ story is no different. He is repeatedly obstructed by the sea god Poseidon and the last of his men perish after slaughtering the cattle of Hyperion, the sun god. Not all the gods persecute Odysseus: he is assisted by Athena, the daughter of Zeus, who appears at intervals throughout the narrative, but ultimately TheOdyssey is not a religious story. Odysseus is considered the “peer of Zeus in counsel” and his cunning is unrivalled. Homer repeatedly invokes the epithets “resourceful” and “wise” to describe him and, in the end, Odysseus survives in spite of the gods, among foreign people in hostile lands, because of his individual gifts. 
  • The Epic of Gilgameshhttp://www.onesmartthingaday.com/things/2011/12/24/world-literature-series-1-the-epic-of-gilgamesh.html
  • Transcript

    • 1. Gilgamesh and Enkidu The First Friends in Recorded History By Rich Junker Presented at Brandon Toastmasters April 16, 2012
    • 2. 3
    • 3. 7
    • 4. 8
    • 5. 9
    • 6. 11
    • 7. 13
    • 8. 14
    • 9. 15
    • 10. 16
    • 11. Read on, read on and on…• Video of The Epic of Gilgamesh http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHInCYIGq3E• The Epic of Gilgamesh - An Animation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oSZg5DTW7Hw&feature=related• FFXII Gilgamesh Battle http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=spoEbPV1sxc&feature=related• The Significance of the Travelogue http://www.oldworldwandering.com/on-the-travelogue/• Noah’s Ark and Utnapishtim http://www.noahs-ark.tv/noahs-ark-flood-creation-stories-myths-epic-of-gilgamesh-neo-babylonian- akkadian-cuneiform-ut-napistim-tablet11-1150bc.htm• E-notes, The Epic of Gilgamesh http://www.enotes.com/epic-gilgamesh/pictures• Gilgamesh the Hero, Amazon Bookshttp://www.amazon.com/Gilgamesh-Hero-Oxford-Myths-Legends/dp/0192741861/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1334769203&sr=1-1 21