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Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
Basic ecology notes
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Basic ecology notes

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  • What do you think about when I say ecology? Recycling? Acid rain?
  • What do you think about when I say ecology? Recycling? Acid rain?
  • When I say environment you think what—weather. Well Ok but it it much more than that
  • The lowest level is the individual. The organism. Here we see a salmon and a bear as examples of organisms. REMINDER: organisms die, species go extint
  • The next level is a population. A population consists of a single species living together and breeding. Give me an example of a population. Ex. large mouth bass living in Lake Meade. Beetles living under the same log. Here we have salmon spwning and two bears fishing.
  • Next level is a community which is several populations living together and depending on each other. What does interdependent mean? An example of a community is shown here with the bear and the salmon. They both live in a common environment and the bear needs the fish for food? How does the salmon need the bear?
  • Lets review. Organisms make up populations, populations make up communities, communities and abiotic factors make up ecosystems, and all of the ecosystems make up the biosphere. From one to many and each depending on the other.
  • Just like with classification, ecology is hierarchal. Each level builds on itself and they fit together like nesting boxes.
  • You don’t have to write this down!!
  • Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
  • Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
  • Although several species may share a habitat they each have their own niche. A niche is a very narrow range where a species fits within a habitat.
  • How do they trap the sun’s energy? Through what process? What is that process similar to in animal cells?
  • How do they trap the sun’s energy? Through what process? What is that process similar to in animal cells?
  • Energy moves up the food chain through the producer/consumer relationship.
  • Herbivores are the 1 st step up the food chain, they eat the producers
  • Scavengers are a type of carnivore that eat dead animals, or carrion. Vultures, hyenas, crabs, deep sea fish-talk about distance from the sun and must eat the dead things that sink to the bottom, bottom feeders
  • Scavengers are a type of carnivore that eat dead animals, or carrion. Vultures, hyenas, crabs, deep sea fish-talk about distance from the sun and must eat the dead things that sink to the bottom, bottom feeders
  • Humans and bears are omnivores but a large and important subset of omnivores are the decomposers. They breakdown dead producers and release the energy back into circulation.
  • Humans and bears are omnivores but a large and important subset of omnivores are the decomposers. They breakdown dead producers and release the energy back into circulation.
  • Cleaning shrimp
  • You can see here that this polar bear is no longer white.
  • The Egyptian plover takes insects from the backs of buffaloes, giraffes and rhinos. The plover has also been observed taking leeches from the open mouths of crocodiles! In this association the plover receives a supply of food and the other animal rids itself of unwelcome pests
  • The Egyptian plover takes insects from the backs of buffaloes, giraffes and rhinos. The plover has also been observed taking leeches from the open mouths of crocodiles! In this association the plover receives a supply of food and the other animal rids itself of unwelcome pests
  • Figure: 51.6a Caption: (a) Each trophic level in an ecosystem is defined by a distinct feeding strategy. The organisms illustrated in this table furnish an example for each trophic level in the grazing and decomposer food chains of a temperate-forest ecosystem. Many other species exist at each trophic level in this ecosystem.
  • Ecological pyramids show the decreasing amounts of energy, living tissue, or number of organisms at successive feeding levels. The pyramid is divided into sections that represent each trophic level. Because each trophic level harvests only about one tenth of the energy from the level below, it can support only about one tenth the amount of living tissue.
  • Ecological pyramids show the decreasing amounts of energy, living tissue, or number of organisms at successive feeding levels. The pyramid is divided into sections that represent each trophic level. Because each trophic level harvests only about one tenth of the energy from the level below, it can support only about one tenth the amount of living tissue.
  • Figure: 51.4 Caption: Very little of the energy consumed by chipmunks, a primary consumer (herbivore), is used for secondary production. Most of the energy is used for cellular respiration.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Ecology Unit
    • 2. The student will investigate and understand dynamic equilibria within populations, communities,and ecosystems. Key concepts include: • interactions within and among populations • nutrient cycling with energy flow through ecosystems; • the effects of natural events and human activities on ecosystems
    • 3. IMPORTANT Vocabulary 1. Biome 2. Species 3. Population 4. Community 5. Ecosystem 6. Niche 7. Food Chain 8. Trophic Level 9. Food Web 10. Biosphere
    • 4. What is ecology? Ecology- the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environments, focusing on energy transfer • It is a science of relationships.
    • 5. What Factors Make up the Environment?
    • 6. What do you mean by environment? The environment is made up of two factors: Biotic factors- all living organisms inhabiting the Earth Abiotic factors- nonliving parts of the environment (i.e. temperature, soil, light, moisture, air currents)
    • 7. Organism- any unicellular or multicellular form exhibiting all of the characteristics of life, an individual. •The lowest level of organization
    • 8. Population-a group of organisms of one species living in the same place at the same time that interbreed and compete with each other for resources (ex. food, mates, shelter) Bait Ball Video
    • 9. Community- several interacting populations that inhabit a common environment and are interdependent.
    • 10. Ecosystem- populations in a community and the abiotic factors with which they interact (ex. marine, terrestrial)
    • 11. Biosphere- life supporting portions of Earth composed of air, land, fresh water, and salt water. •The highest level of organization
    • 12. Organism Population Community Biosphere Ecosystem
    • 13. “The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organism's ‘address’, and the niche is its ‘profession’, biologically speaking.” Odum - Fundamentals of Ecology
    • 14. Habitat vs. Niche Niche - the role a species plays in a community (job) Habitat- the place in which an organism lives out its life (address)
    • 15. Habitat vs. Niche A niche is determined by the tolerance limitations of an organism, or a limiting factor. Limiting factor- any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence of organisms in a specific environment.
    • 16. Examples of limiting factors- •Amount of water •Amount of food •Temperature Habitat vs. Niche
    • 17. Feeding Relationships • There are 3 main types of feeding relationships 1. Producer- Consumer 2. Predator- Prey 3. Parasite- Host
    • 18. Feeding Relationships Producer- all autotrophs (plants), they trap energy from the sun • Bottom of the food chain
    • 19. Feeding Relationships Consumer- all heterotrophs: they ingest food containing the sun’s energy • Herbivores • Carnivores • Omnivores • Decomposers
    • 20. Feeding Relationships Consumer- Herbivores – Eat plants • Primary consumers • Prey animals
    • 21. Feeding Relationships Consumer-Carnivores-eat meat • Predators – Hunt prey animals for food.
    • 22. Feeding Relationships Consumer- • Scavengers – Feed on carrion, dead animals
    • 23. Feeding Relationships Consumer- Omnivores -eat both plants and animals
    • 24. Feeding Relationships Consumer- Decomposers • Breakdown the complex compounds of dead and decaying plants and animals into simpler molecules that can be absorbed
    • 25. Symbiotic Relationships Symbiosis- two species living together 3 Types of symbiosis: 1. Commensalism 2. Parasitism 3. Mutualism
    • 26. Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped Ex. orchids on a tree Epiphytes: A plant, such as a tropical orchid or a bromeliad, that grows on another plant upon which it depends for mechanical support but not for nutrients. Also called aerophyte, air plant.
    • 27. Symbiotic Relationships Commensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped Ex. polar bears and cyanobacteria
    • 28. Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism- one species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed (host) • Parasite-Host relationship
    • 29. Symbiotic Relationships Parasitism- parasite-host Ex. lampreys, leeches, fleas, ticks,tapeworm
    • 30. Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism- beneficial to both species Ex. cleaning birds and cleaner shrimp
    • 31. Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism- beneficial to both species Ex. lichen
    • 32. Type of relationship Species harmed Species benefits Species neutral Commensalism Parasitism Mutualism = 1 species
    • 33. Trophic Levels • Each link in a food chain is known as a trophic level. • Trophic levels represent a feeding step in the transfer of energy and matter in an ecosystem.
    • 34. Trophic Levels Biomass- the amount of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a habitat. • As you move up a food chain, both available energy and biomass decrease. • Energy is transferred upwards but is diminished with each transfer.
    • 35. Trophic Levels Producers- Autotrophs Primary consumers- Herbivores Secondary consumers- small carnivores Tertiary consumers- top carnivores E N E R G Y
    • 36. LE 54-11 1,000,000 J of sunlight 10,000 J 1,000 J 100 J 10 JTertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Primary producers
    • 37. Trophic level 4 3 2 1 Feeding strategy Secondary carnivore Carnivore Herbivore Autotroph Grazing food chain Decomposer food chain Cricket Maple tree leaves Owl Shrew Earthworm Dead maple leaves Cooper’s hawk Robin Figure 51.6a Trophic levels
    • 38. Ecological PyramidsPyramid of Numbers: Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level.
    • 39. Ecological Pyramids 0.1% Third-level consumers 1% Second-level consumers 10% First-level consumers 100% Producers Energy Pyramid: Shows the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level. Only part of the energy that is stored in one trophic level is passed on to the next level.
    • 40. Where does the other 90% go? • Remember the law of conservation of energy: energy cannot be created OR destroyed. • 90% of the energy stored in food is lost to the consumer, but it hasn’t been destroyed. • Some leaves the body as chemical energy in bodily wastes, but most is radiated out into the space around our bodies as heat
    • 41. 80.7% respiration 17.7% excretion1.6% growth and reproduction Energy derived from plants Figure 51.4
    • 42. Trophic Levels Food chain- simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem
    • 43. Trophic Levels Food web- shows all possible feeding relationships in a community at each trophic level • Represents a network of interconnected food chains
    • 44. Food chain Food web (just 1 path of energy) (all possible energy paths)
    • 45. Nutrient Cycles Cycling maintains homeostasis (balance) in the environment. •3 cycles to investigate: 1. Water cycle 2. Carbon cycle 3. Nitrogen cycle
    • 46. Water cycle- •Evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation
    • 47. Water cycle-
    • 48. Carbon cycle- •Photosynthesis and respiration cycle carbon and oxygen through the environment.
    • 49. Carbon cycle-
    • 50. Nitrogen cycle- Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) makes up nearly 78%-80% of air. Organisms can not use it in that form. Lightning and bacteria convert nitrogen into usable forms.
    • 51. Nitrogen cycle- Only in certain bacteria and industrial technologies can fix nitrogen. Nitrogen fixation-convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonium (NH4 + ) which can be used to make organic compounds like amino acids. N2 NH4 +
    • 52. Nitrogen cycle- Nitrogen-fixing bacteria: Some live in a symbiotic relationship with plants of the legume family (e.g., soybeans, clover, peanuts).
    • 53. Nitrogen cycle- •Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria live free in the soil. •Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are essential to maintaining the fertility of semi-aquatic environments like rice paddies.
    • 54. Atmospheric nitrogenLightning Nitrogen fixing bacteria Ammonium Nitrification by bacteria Nitrites Nitrates Denitrification by bacteria Plants Animals Decomposers Nitrogen Cycle
    • 55. Toxins in food chains- While energy decreases as it moves up the food chain, toxins increase in potency. •This is called biological magnification Ex: DDT & Bald Eagles

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