Ecr Cellulose Ethanol Catalysis[1][1]
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Ecr Cellulose Ethanol Catalysis[1][1]

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This presentation shows the GAF process for producing ethanol from cellulose.

This presentation shows the GAF process for producing ethanol from cellulose.

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Ecr Cellulose Ethanol Catalysis[1][1] Ecr Cellulose Ethanol Catalysis[1][1] Presentation Transcript

  • ECR BIODIESEL ATLANTA, LLC CELLULOSE ETHANOL CATALYSIS REACTION PROCESS •Project Fundamentals – –Dilute Hydrolysis •Project, “solve existing problems” •Why try and solve these problems?
  • PROJECT GOALS • Improve Cellulose to sugar conversion yield into fermentable sugars • Lower operating and capital costs • Generally improve Fermentation economics and yield • Scope of significance to the Ethanol Industry in general
  • HOW MUCH OF THIS OCCURS WORLDWIDE EACH YEAR?
  • CAN THIS BE CONVERTED INTO A VALUABLE PRODUCT COST EFFECTIVELY?
  • WHAT DO WE NORMALLY DO WITH THIS STUFF? ADD VALUE, EVER? • Turning these wood scraps into electricity will
  • IS THIS GOOD USE OF A RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCE?
  • WHAT IS CELLULOSE ETHANOL? • Cellulose comes from plant matter, any plant matter, wood or agricultural waste for example. • Has chemical formula (C6H10O5)x, and is a polymer • Cellulose (C6H10O5)x is very similar to Starch (C6 H10O5)x • Starch can form Dextrin (C6H10O5)x-x1 a shorter molecule • Starch is well known to be hydrolyzed into sugar for fermentation to alcohol, (ethanol). • Fermentable Sugar, Glucose (C6 H12O6) is derived from starchy materials • Cellulose produces some Xylose (C5 H10O5) sugars as well as Glucose and is also fermentable • Fermentation of sugar produces Ethanol, the process is based on Biological methods, suitable for the type sugars present
  • WHAT IS CELLULOSE ETHANOL? • Cellulose comes from plant matter, any plant matter, is converted to sugars, and can be a complex of sugar molecules. • Types of sugar molecules can vary, most are easily fermentable. • Fermentation converts (C6H12O6) into (C2H5OH) or better known as Ethanol • One Glucose molecule is broken into three molecules of alcohol • The catalysis energy for the conversion is provided by enzymes of fermentation origin
  • CONVERSION EFFICIENCIES • Many studies have been conducted to determine cellulose sugar conversion to ethanol, and range from 60 gallons per ton of cellulose waste to 110 gallons per ton. • Maximum theoretical Ethanol conversion per dry ton of wood waste, 134 gallons – And can have an Ethanol value of +$350 per dry ton – If wood/agriculture/paper mill sludge waste is used, adds significant value for a waste stream • Much of the conversion efficiency is based on producing fermentable sugars. • Successful projects must consider conversion efficiency as important. • How can conversion efficiency be improved?
  • DILUTE HYDROLYSIS • Conversion of cellulose into fermentable sugars was first developed by USDA in 1957, but encountered several major problems • These problems have hindered development to this day. • What are the hindrances? – The conversion energy of traditional methods, breaks; Xylose (C5H10O5) sugars into Furfural - (C5 H4O2) and is not fermentable – As the Xylose content increases, yield efficiency drops proportionally and costs increase – All cellulose contains at least 20% (C5 H10 O5) Xylose sugars. – Furfural - (C5 H4O2) hinders fermentation and raises costs – Corn Stover and Cobb materials have 26% Hemi-Cellulose, thereby having a low fermentable sugar yield – Dilute hydrolysis can only produce est. 60-90 gallons Ethanol per dry ton of Corn Stover waste, about 50% efficiency
  • DILUTE HYDROLYSIS WHAT CAN BE DONE? • Change the energy used in cellulose conversion to lower the bond energy of cellulose conversion to sugar. – How? • Use a catalysis reactor that is well proven to lower bond energy conversions for Cellulose to Glucose and Xylose • The bond reactions for conversion require 156 to 190 kcal/mole energy • ECR’s reactor may lower this energy value to 90 kcal/mole or less and prevent Xylose (C5H10O5) conversion to Furfural - (C 5H4O2) • The net affect would be, increase fermentable sugar conversion and drastically lower costs, improving margin. • Energy bonds of importance, carbon-hydrogen, hydrogen- oxygen
  • PROJECT GOALS • Improve Cellulose to sugar conversion yield into fermentable sugars. • Lower operating and capital costs. • Generally improve Fermentation economics and yield. • Verify Heat/Mass Balance calculations against theoretical. • Determine ECR technology costs match theory, ~$0.42 per gallon verses other methods at $1.87 per gallon. • ECR expects to reduce Cellulose Ethanol costs by a factor of Four (4). • Raise thermal conversion efficiency by +200%
  • ECR PROJECT OVERVIEW SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF ECR PROCESS ELEMENTS
  • ECR ENERGY CALCULATOR – BTU’s per Gallon • ECR Energy calculations summary – Each Gallon of Ethanol requires 17,000 – 30,000 btu’s – Energy is derived - 100% from lignin waste stream with 50% excess energy available for sale outside the operation – Ethanol has 18,250 Btu/lb = 120,000 Btu/gallon – Energy input verses output, 120,000/30,000 = 400% net energy gain, not including reduction for energy sale of excess btu’s, making project about a net 600-800% gain in energy from waste sources. • Conventional Industry Projections – 49,000 process steam – 11,000 other – 60,000 to 70,000 btu/gallon – Net energy gain 120,000/70,000 = 171% • ECR is projected to be 228% more efficient than conventional wood waste processes