ECR BIODIESEL ATLANTA, LLC
     CELLULOSE ETHANOL

CATALYSIS REACTION PROCESS




•Project Fundamentals –
   –Dilute Hydro...
PROJECT GOALS


• Improve Cellulose to sugar conversion yield into
  fermentable sugars
• Lower operating and capital cost...
HOW MUCH OF THIS OCCURS WORLDWIDE
            EACH YEAR?
CAN THIS BE CONVERTED INTO A VALUABLE
      PRODUCT COST EFFECTIVELY?
WHAT DO WE NORMALLY DO WITH
 THIS STUFF? ADD VALUE, EVER?


       •




       Turning these wood scraps into electricity...
IS THIS GOOD USE OF A RENEWABLE
       NATURAL RESOURCE?
WHAT IS CELLULOSE ETHANOL?

• Cellulose comes from plant matter, any plant matter, wood
  or agricultural waste for exampl...
WHAT IS CELLULOSE ETHANOL?


• Cellulose comes from plant matter, any plant matter, is
  converted to sugars, and can be a...
CONVERSION EFFICIENCIES


• Many studies have been conducted to determine cellulose
  sugar conversion to ethanol, and ran...
DILUTE HYDROLYSIS
• Conversion of cellulose into fermentable sugars was first
  developed by USDA in 1957, but encountered...
DILUTE HYDROLYSIS
                   WHAT CAN BE DONE?

• Change the energy used in cellulose conversion to lower the
  bo...
PROJECT GOALS


• Improve Cellulose to sugar conversion yield into
  fermentable sugars.
• Lower operating and capital cos...
ECR PROJECT OVERVIEW
SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF ECR PROCESS ELEMENTS
ECR ENERGY CALCULATOR – BTU’s per Gallon

• ECR Energy calculations summary
   – Each Gallon of Ethanol requires 17,000 – ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Ecr Cellulose Ethanol Catalysis[1][1]

1,981 views
1,828 views

Published on

This presentation shows the GAF process for producing ethanol from cellulose.

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,981
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ecr Cellulose Ethanol Catalysis[1][1]

  1. 1. ECR BIODIESEL ATLANTA, LLC CELLULOSE ETHANOL CATALYSIS REACTION PROCESS •Project Fundamentals – –Dilute Hydrolysis •Project, “solve existing problems” •Why try and solve these problems?
  2. 2. PROJECT GOALS • Improve Cellulose to sugar conversion yield into fermentable sugars • Lower operating and capital costs • Generally improve Fermentation economics and yield • Scope of significance to the Ethanol Industry in general
  3. 3. HOW MUCH OF THIS OCCURS WORLDWIDE EACH YEAR?
  4. 4. CAN THIS BE CONVERTED INTO A VALUABLE PRODUCT COST EFFECTIVELY?
  5. 5. WHAT DO WE NORMALLY DO WITH THIS STUFF? ADD VALUE, EVER? • Turning these wood scraps into electricity will
  6. 6. IS THIS GOOD USE OF A RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCE?
  7. 7. WHAT IS CELLULOSE ETHANOL? • Cellulose comes from plant matter, any plant matter, wood or agricultural waste for example. • Has chemical formula (C6H10O5)x, and is a polymer • Cellulose (C6H10O5)x is very similar to Starch (C6 H10O5)x • Starch can form Dextrin (C6H10O5)x-x1 a shorter molecule • Starch is well known to be hydrolyzed into sugar for fermentation to alcohol, (ethanol). • Fermentable Sugar, Glucose (C6 H12O6) is derived from starchy materials • Cellulose produces some Xylose (C5 H10O5) sugars as well as Glucose and is also fermentable • Fermentation of sugar produces Ethanol, the process is based on Biological methods, suitable for the type sugars present
  8. 8. WHAT IS CELLULOSE ETHANOL? • Cellulose comes from plant matter, any plant matter, is converted to sugars, and can be a complex of sugar molecules. • Types of sugar molecules can vary, most are easily fermentable. • Fermentation converts (C6H12O6) into (C2H5OH) or better known as Ethanol • One Glucose molecule is broken into three molecules of alcohol • The catalysis energy for the conversion is provided by enzymes of fermentation origin
  9. 9. CONVERSION EFFICIENCIES • Many studies have been conducted to determine cellulose sugar conversion to ethanol, and range from 60 gallons per ton of cellulose waste to 110 gallons per ton. • Maximum theoretical Ethanol conversion per dry ton of wood waste, 134 gallons – And can have an Ethanol value of +$350 per dry ton – If wood/agriculture/paper mill sludge waste is used, adds significant value for a waste stream • Much of the conversion efficiency is based on producing fermentable sugars. • Successful projects must consider conversion efficiency as important. • How can conversion efficiency be improved?
  10. 10. DILUTE HYDROLYSIS • Conversion of cellulose into fermentable sugars was first developed by USDA in 1957, but encountered several major problems • These problems have hindered development to this day. • What are the hindrances? – The conversion energy of traditional methods, breaks; Xylose (C5H10O5) sugars into Furfural - (C5 H4O2) and is not fermentable – As the Xylose content increases, yield efficiency drops proportionally and costs increase – All cellulose contains at least 20% (C5 H10 O5) Xylose sugars. – Furfural - (C5 H4O2) hinders fermentation and raises costs – Corn Stover and Cobb materials have 26% Hemi-Cellulose, thereby having a low fermentable sugar yield – Dilute hydrolysis can only produce est. 60-90 gallons Ethanol per dry ton of Corn Stover waste, about 50% efficiency
  11. 11. DILUTE HYDROLYSIS WHAT CAN BE DONE? • Change the energy used in cellulose conversion to lower the bond energy of cellulose conversion to sugar. – How? • Use a catalysis reactor that is well proven to lower bond energy conversions for Cellulose to Glucose and Xylose • The bond reactions for conversion require 156 to 190 kcal/mole energy • ECR’s reactor may lower this energy value to 90 kcal/mole or less and prevent Xylose (C5H10O5) conversion to Furfural - (C 5H4O2) • The net affect would be, increase fermentable sugar conversion and drastically lower costs, improving margin. • Energy bonds of importance, carbon-hydrogen, hydrogen- oxygen
  12. 12. PROJECT GOALS • Improve Cellulose to sugar conversion yield into fermentable sugars. • Lower operating and capital costs. • Generally improve Fermentation economics and yield. • Verify Heat/Mass Balance calculations against theoretical. • Determine ECR technology costs match theory, ~$0.42 per gallon verses other methods at $1.87 per gallon. • ECR expects to reduce Cellulose Ethanol costs by a factor of Four (4). • Raise thermal conversion efficiency by +200%
  13. 13. ECR PROJECT OVERVIEW SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF ECR PROCESS ELEMENTS
  14. 14. ECR ENERGY CALCULATOR – BTU’s per Gallon • ECR Energy calculations summary – Each Gallon of Ethanol requires 17,000 – 30,000 btu’s – Energy is derived - 100% from lignin waste stream with 50% excess energy available for sale outside the operation – Ethanol has 18,250 Btu/lb = 120,000 Btu/gallon – Energy input verses output, 120,000/30,000 = 400% net energy gain, not including reduction for energy sale of excess btu’s, making project about a net 600-800% gain in energy from waste sources. • Conventional Industry Projections – 49,000 process steam – 11,000 other – 60,000 to 70,000 btu/gallon – Net energy gain 120,000/70,000 = 171% • ECR is projected to be 228% more efficient than conventional wood waste processes

×