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Framing and Reframing

Framing and Reframing






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    Framing and Reframing Framing and Reframing Presentation Transcript

    • Ecological Anthropology: Framing and Reframing
      • Part 3 number 2 pages 177-193; A Theory of Play and Fantasy in Steps to an Ecology of Mind by Gregory Bateson, 1972 [2000]
        • Originally presented at the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Regional Research Conference, Mexico City, March 11, 1954
    • A Theory of Play and Fantasy
      • Research on the hypothesis or tentative explanation regarding the epistemological base for psychiatric theory led to the following generalizations:
    • Psychiatric Theory: Generalizations
        • Human Verbal Communication Operates at Many Levels of Abstraction
        • Metalinguistic: subject of the discourse is language, communication is about language, e.g., “The word ‘cat’ has no fur and cannot scratch”
        • Metacommunicative: subject of the discourse is the relationship of the speakers, communication is about communication, e.g., “ This is play ” or “My telling you where to find the cat was friendly”
    • Psychiatric Theory: Generalizations
      • Communication Evolves When
      • A Sign is Recognized as a Signal
      • Organisms cease to automatically respond to physiologically based “mood signs”
        • Signs become signal s when interpreted to have varied complex “abstract” meanings
    • Psychiatric Theory: Generalizations
          • Signals: can be trusted, distrusted, falsified, denied, amplified, corrected e.g., “ This is play, not combat”
            • Sequence or pattern of signals as a whole are similar to, but not the same as combat
              • Play demonstrates the organism is capable of metacommunication, the exchanging of signals that carry a message about the communication
    • Psychiatric Theory: Generalizations
      • Play and Fantasy: generate paradoxes , or self-contradictions that express possible truths
        • “The playful nip denotes the bite, but it does not denote what would be denoted by the bite”
        • “The clenched fist” of threat is like play, it denotes a punch but it does not denote what would be denoted by the punch
        • “The metaphor that is meant, ” the flag which men will die to save,” blurs the distinction between what is denoted, the cultural map and what is not denoted, the actual territory
    • Psychological Frames
      • Frames: are labile localized expressions of cultural maps that organize perceptions around shared premises in the active interpretive process of perception
          • Conceptual filter for identifying relevance
          • Typically unconscious
          • Both inclusive and exclusive Figure Frame
          • Y
      • Map
      • Re-framing or frame alteration : changing a conceptual viewpoint or context so that the meaning or significance of perceptions are altered
        • Psychotherapy utilizes play and fantasy to change “metacommunicative habits” or rules of interpretation that govern the making and understanding of perceptual messages
          • E.G., the not real pseudo-love and pseudo-hate of psychotherapy foster an “as if” learning process similar to pseudo-combat