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Ecological Anthropology: Framing and  Reframing <ul><li>Part 3 number 2 pages 177-193;  A Theory of Play and Fantasy  in  ...
A Theory of Play and Fantasy <ul><li>Research on the hypothesis or tentative explanation regarding the  epistemological ba...
Psychiatric Theory: Generalizations <ul><ul><li>Human Verbal Communication Operates at Many Levels of Abstraction </li></u...
Psychiatric Theory: Generalizations <ul><li>Communication Evolves When </li></ul><ul><li>A Sign is Recognized as a Signal ...
Psychiatric Theory: Generalizations <ul><ul><ul><li>Signals:  can be trusted, distrusted, falsified, denied, amplified, co...
Psychiatric Theory: Generalizations <ul><li>Play and Fantasy:  generate  paradoxes , or self-contradictions that express p...
Psychological Frames <ul><li>Frames:   are labile localized expressions of cultural maps that organize perceptions around ...
<ul><li>Re-framing or frame alteration :  changing a conceptual viewpoint or context  so that the meaning or significance ...
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Framing and Reframing

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Transcript of "Framing and Reframing"

  1. 1. Ecological Anthropology: Framing and Reframing <ul><li>Part 3 number 2 pages 177-193; A Theory of Play and Fantasy in Steps to an Ecology of Mind by Gregory Bateson, 1972 [2000] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally presented at the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Regional Research Conference, Mexico City, March 11, 1954 </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. A Theory of Play and Fantasy <ul><li>Research on the hypothesis or tentative explanation regarding the epistemological base for psychiatric theory led to the following generalizations: </li></ul>
  3. 3. Psychiatric Theory: Generalizations <ul><ul><li>Human Verbal Communication Operates at Many Levels of Abstraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metalinguistic: subject of the discourse is language, communication is about language, e.g., “The word ‘cat’ has no fur and cannot scratch” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacommunicative: subject of the discourse is the relationship of the speakers, communication is about communication, e.g., “ This is play ” or “My telling you where to find the cat was friendly” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Psychiatric Theory: Generalizations <ul><li>Communication Evolves When </li></ul><ul><li>A Sign is Recognized as a Signal </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms cease to automatically respond to physiologically based “mood signs” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs become signal s when interpreted to have varied complex “abstract” meanings </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Psychiatric Theory: Generalizations <ul><ul><ul><li>Signals: can be trusted, distrusted, falsified, denied, amplified, corrected e.g., “ This is play, not combat” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence or pattern of signals as a whole are similar to, but not the same as combat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Play demonstrates the organism is capable of metacommunication, the exchanging of signals that carry a message about the communication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Psychiatric Theory: Generalizations <ul><li>Play and Fantasy: generate paradoxes , or self-contradictions that express possible truths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“The playful nip denotes the bite, but it does not denote what would be denoted by the bite” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“The clenched fist” of threat is like play, it denotes a punch but it does not denote what would be denoted by the punch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“The metaphor that is meant, ” the flag which men will die to save,” blurs the distinction between what is denoted, the cultural map and what is not denoted, the actual territory </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Psychological Frames <ul><li>Frames: are labile localized expressions of cultural maps that organize perceptions around shared premises in the active interpretive process of perception </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual filter for identifying relevance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically unconscious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both inclusive and exclusive Figure Frame </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Y </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> Map </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Re-framing or frame alteration : changing a conceptual viewpoint or context so that the meaning or significance of perceptions are altered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy utilizes play and fantasy to change “metacommunicative habits” or rules of interpretation that govern the making and understanding of perceptual messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.G., the not real pseudo-love and pseudo-hate of psychotherapy foster an “as if” learning process similar to pseudo-combat </li></ul></ul></ul>Re-Framing
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