Paget high 25 oct 2012
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  • Provide each person with a sheet of newspaper (as it can get sticky!), 5 marshmallows and 12 sticks of spaghetti. After a couple of minutes give some really bland random feedback e.g. “that’s really good”, “you could work on that a bit more” etc. After 4 minutes show the success criteria. Alternative activity: Make potato animals – provide each participant with a potato 6 cocktail sticks and a choice of beads, pipe cleaners etc. Success criteria: 2 = it has a face, 4 = it also has ears, 6 = it also has a tail.
  • Make sure you remove this slide from participants handouts! Once participants have levelled their work, ask them why you did the task in the way that you did it – they are likely to feel cheated by the task as they didn’t know what they were aiming for – it’s good for them to feel what this is like.
  • More time spent on preparatory work of an assignment can reduce the need for remedial work

Paget high 25 oct 2012 Paget high 25 oct 2012 Presentation Transcript

  • Outstanding teaching and learning for the 21st Century: Practical strategies for developing independent learners Paget High School 2012 Prepared and presented by Claire Gadsby
  • Your starter for 10 …. Where does one find the mostindependent learners?
  • It is fundamentally important to keep talking about teaching and learning even if you are a successful school
  • It is fundamentally important to keep talking about teaching and learning even if you are a successful school because ....
  • As many as 26,000 students (5%) leaveschool without any GCSEs and over75,000 (17%) of 15-year-olds have lowlevels of literacy, despite ostensibly goingthrough eleven years of compulsoryeducation (Educational Working Group,2006).
  • “Pick a card, any card ....”
  • T-Shirt time ....
  • The World is changing…Women at the Cadbury factory in Bournville in the 1950s
  • picture hereCurrent Chocolate Production Cadbury factory in Bournville now
  • The world is changing…
  • or is it?
  • “The world our kids are going to live in is changing four times faster than our schools” Dr William Daggett, 1992
  • “The illiterate of the 21st century will not be thosewho cannot read and write,but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.” Alvin Toffler – American author of Science Fiction born 1928
  • What kind of teacher is needed to support this new kind of learner?
  • Beware grandmothers and eggs
  • “Fresh Eyes”: What does this mean for me?
  • “Outstanding” descriptor for quality of teaching in the school 2012Much of the teaching in all key stages and most subjects isoutstanding and never less than consistently good. As aresult, almost all pupils are making rapid and sustainedprogress. All teachers have consistently high expectations ofall pupils. Drawing on excellent subject knowledge, teachersplan astutely and set challenging tasks based on systematic,accurate assessment of pupils’ prior skills, knowledge andunderstanding. They use well judged and often imaginativeteaching strategies that, together with sharply focused andtimely support and intervention, match individual needsaccurately. Consequently, pupils learn exceptionally wellacross the curriculum. The teaching of reading, writing,communication and mathematics is highly effective. Teachersand other adults generate high levels of enthusiasm for,participation in and commitment to learning.
  • “Outstanding” descriptor for quality of teaching in the school 2012 Teaching promotes pupils’ high levels of resilience, confidence and independence when they tackle challenging activities. Teachers systematically and effectively check pupils’ understanding throughout lessons, anticipating where they may need to intervene and doing so with notable impact on the quality of learning. Time is used very well and every opportunity is taken to successfully develop crucial skills, including being able to use their literacy and numeracy skills in other subjects. Appropriate and regular homework contributes very well to pupils’ learning. Marking and constructive feedback from teachers and pupils are frequent and of a consistently high quality, leading to high levels of engagement and interest.
  • “self-sabotaging” teacher .....
  • Dance Egyptians Magnetism Sex Education The Tudors Macbeth Sikhism Physical Sc ien t if ic ral ltu Picasso Cu Friction Experiences LeaningTeam Self-managers Independent enquirersworkers Reflective Creative learners participators
  • It is all about the appropriatelearning culture in the classroom ...
  • What’s the difference?
  • Carol Dweck’s theories of motivation, abilityand intelligence offer important insights forteaching. She describes two mindsets orbeliefs about our learning ability that affecthow we respond to challenges:the fixed mindset and the growthmindset. While both mindsets are normal, ifwe believe that intelligence is fixed and can’tchange, this can limit and undermine ourmotivation and learning; believing thatwe are no good or hopeless at somethinggets in the way of learning.
  • Fixed (Performance) Mindset: valuing looking goodHaving a fixed mindset is about believing that:• learning potential and ability are fixed and canbe measured, andthe goal is performance; and• ability, not effort, is the way to overcomechallenges and setbacks.Pupils with a fixed mindset think they’ve either‘got it’ or they haven’t.
  • When they are faced with challenge they believe thattheir ability, not effort, should help them overcome thesetback. So they can get used to coasting along on theirtalents and the idea that good grades provetheir ability.When these pupils experience failure, they see it assomething deficient or lacking in themselves. They cancrumble, showing a helpless response because of thisnegative ‘I am just this smart and that is it’ mindset(Perkins). Linking failure to their own lack of ability canmake them lack persistence, opt out of difficult learningand be reluctant to try new things. They can becomeoverly concerned with looking good and feel bad if theydon’t look smart
  • Growth (Mastery) Mindset: valuing learningHaving a growth mindset is about:• being resilient in the face of frustration andfailure; and• having the ability to respond well to challenges,believing that effort can lead to success.A growth mindset enables pupils to create andwork towards learning goals because they believein themselves as learners with the capacity toimprove. It’s about having a robust self-efficacythat shapes attitude, motivation and commitmentto learning.
  • Pupils with a growth mindset tend to respond tofailure by redoubling their efforts, because theyhave hope that they will succeed. The harder it gets,the harder they try. Seeing effort as the path tomastery, they persevere when the going gets toughand often talk themselves through difficulties. Theyhave a positive, can-do, bit-by-bit mindset.The mastery response means that these pupils aremore attentive to what they can learn than to howgood they look or how bad they feel.
  • Eye of the Tiger!
  • It is time to take the stabilisers off…
  • “If you spoon-feed achild, all he learns is the shape of the spoon”
  • The million dollar question …. How do you cultivate growth mindsets?
  • The B strategy ... Board Book Brain Buddy “Big Boss”
  • How we learn .... • As passive learners, we remember only 10% of what we read, • 20% of what we hear, • and 30% of what we see. • When you teach someone else, you retain 70 % of what you teach. • When you tell and show someone you retain 90% of what you say and do!
  • “Failure is a great teacher”
  • Challenges for teachers?
  • Key message 1 ...Pupils tend to know far more thanwe think. We can help them to bemore independent by harnessingwhat they know already andavoiding the tendency to re-teachwhat they may already know
  • Hole in the wall ...
  • Dr. Sugata Mitra, Chief Scientist at NIIT, is credited with thediscovery of Hole-in-the-Wall. As early as 1982, he had beentoying with the idea of unsupervised learning and computers.Finally, in 1999, he decided to test his ideas in the field. On26th January, Dr. Mitras team carved a "hole in the wall" thatseparated the NIIT premises from the adjoining slum in Kalkaji,New Delhi. Through this hole, a freely accessible computer wasput up for use. This computer proved to be an instant hit amongthe slum dwellers, especially the children. With no priorexperience, the children learnt to use the computer on theirown. This prompted Dr. Mitra to propose the followinghypothesis:The acquisition of basic computing skills by any set of childrencan be achieved through incidental learning provided thelearners are given access to a suitable computing facility, withentertaining and motivating content and some minimal (human)guidance.
  • New ofsted: inspectors will consider ... the extent to which teachers’ questioning and use of discussion promote learning the extent to which the pace and depth of learning are maximised as a result of teachers’ monitoring of learning during lessons and any consequent actions in response to pupils’ feedback
  • From rhetoric to reality ...Rhetoric Reality
  • Stage 1Planning for progress
  • OFSTED’s commonest finding:Assessmentdoes notsufficientlyinform teachingand learning.
  • “The agile teacher” Showing awareness of L M H pupils within a class Responding directly to the needs of these pupils within one lesson
  • How are you, as a teacher,showing that you are aware ofprior learning and building onthat?
  • What are you doing differentlyin the lesson as a result ofknowledge gained through theassessment of your pupils?
  • ClassroomsCurrent research suggests… Classrooms have 4x more influence on pupils than anything that happens at whole school level 60% of pupils in secondary schools never have a conversation with an adult whilst in school The average length of a pupil response is 5 words
  • Teacher input currentlyaccounts for approximately ?% of each lesson
  • Current research suggests thatthe single biggest cause ofacademic underachievement is ?
  • “The Big 5”
  • So, what are the techniques we should be using in the classroom?Dylan Wiliam has clarified the important elements as: Sharing learning intentions, engineering effective classroom discussions, formative feedback, activating learners as resources for each other activating learners as owners of their own learning
  • Some practical strategies ....“Tap into the talent in the room” – instead of the facilitator providing input in the early stages, begin by drawing out what learners already know by getting them to seek out information from each other (e.g. trio discussion).
  • 8 schools project – key message 1It is fundamental that pupils have a clearunderstanding of what they are trying tolearn (learning objectives), how they canrecognise achievement (learningoutcomes), what good looks like(success criteria) and why they arelearning this in the first place (that is, thebigger picture)
  • Fascinators ...
  • The pen of power ‘Pen of power’ technique – select a pupil to come to the front and use the ‘pen of power’ to highlight key words within the objective and to explain their choices.
  • Evaluate howwriters use linguisticand structuraldevices to achieveparticular effects.
  • “The Rolf Harris” Ask the pupils to suggest what the learning objective is before revealing it (e.g. could be completely concealed beneath sugar paper or possibly with some words visible). Discuss differences/commonalities.
  • Delete Petite Delete objective word by word during the lesson. Challenge pupils to remember correctly by the end.
  • The Red Herring Add an extra learning objective and ask pupils at the end of the lesson to identify which one has not been covered and how they know (a red herring!)
  • Guess who ? Distribute a range of learning objectives to pupils individually and, at the end of the lesson, ask them to work in groups to discuss who thinks that they have that lesson’s correct objective in front of them and how they know.
  • “Cloze but no cigar ...” Present the learning objectives as acloze activity where pupils are encouraged to fill in the missing words before the completed learning objective is revealed.
  • “Place your bets” Get pupils to speculate(bid) for verbs that could complete a learning objective (e.g. using plenary placemat/Bloom’s sentence stems).
  • And what else ....?
  • Now for the spaghetti .....
  • GCSE in Construction!TASK You have 2 minutes to build a structure using marshmallows and spaghetti you have been provided with.
  • Success Criteria Level 2 – if it will stand on its own and it includes horizontal and vertical struts. Level 4 – if it goes up to two ‘floors’ and it includes diagonal struts Level 6 – if it goes up higher than two floors and can support an apple.
  • 8 Schools Project ReportKey message 2 Pupils’ progress is accelerated when they are clear about the success criteria for the intended outcomes and are able to judge the quality of their work and know how to improve it. This requires teachers having a good understanding of progression in the key concepts and skills in their subject.
  • The ideal ….“Teachers assess pupils’ progressregularly and accurately anddiscuss assessments with themso that pupils know how well theyhave done and what they need todo to improve”. (Ofsted descriptor of “good” teaching andlearning 2012)
  • The reality …Ofsted findings report that studentsare often unclear about what theyare learning and why
  • “Lost in a sea of learning ....”(or, beware the “happy, busy, good” pupil )
  • Success criteria: The Cinderella aspect
  • Success Criteria--------The Missing LinkPossible use of………………..Must Should Could
  • The Holy Grail of AfL =Genuine co-construction of learning
  • 1. I have used the PEE chain in each paragraph, talking about why certain words areimportant.2. In at least two of my paragraphs I have talked about the importance of when the play waswritten.3. In each paragraph I have talked about a particular technique used by the playwright andits effect o the audience.4. I have written about characters and why their actions are important.5. I have discussed the main ideas and themes of the play in some detail.6. I have explained clearly and in some detail what is implied/suggested rather than told tome.7. I have tried to suggest some different possible interpretations about what things mightmean.8. I have used formal essay language and linked my paragraphs using connectives e.g.secondly, furthermore etc You’ve used most of these key ingredients really well – 2 and 7 are missing. Can you re-write paragraph 3 to include these?
  • Extra Extra ... Give pupils a list of possible success criteria plus extras. Ask them which should be deleted and why
  • The competition Use group work – each group generates a list of possible success criteria. These can then be critiqued by the class and the “best” ones used
  • “2 for True” Teacher (or even better, pupils) call out a selection of possible success criteria. Pupils raise 2 hands if it is “true” (a good suggestion) or 1 hand if it is false (not suitable)
  • Pupil generated success criteria1.Teacher “doing it wrong”2.Presenting something wrong or incomplete3. An excellent example4. Products5. Sloppy success criteria6. Uplevelling7. Demonstrate (visualiser)8.Retrospective generalisation
  • WMG“What makes good”
  • WMG Bingo ....
  • As adults, when we are engaged in a taskwe are continually, and instinctively,reviewing and adapting as we go along.Pupils don’t automatically do this – howcan we encourage this behaviour?
  • “Cream of the crop?” Come to a stop Read what you have produced so far Evaluate your work against the success criteria Ask yourself - “Is this my best effort?” Make one small change before carrying on
  • After the task, always ensurethat you go back to thesuccess criteria and critique“Are we happy that we don’tuse yellow?”
  • And what else ....?
  • Classroomdialogue and questioning
  • “Word Poverty”By the age of just three children fromimpoverished environments use less thanhalf the number of words spoken by theirmore advantaged peers.
  • What else might be causing“word poverty”?
  • What does teacher- student dialogue usually look like?
  • Whole class discussion 1Teacher: Remember the bell. Theres the bell [holding up a bell in front of the class]. You did the experiment. If you held onto this bit here where the wires were [indicating], did you notice anything there?Jason: There were sparks there.Teacher: Heat, did you notice some heat?Jason: There were sparks from there.Teacher: There were?Jason: Sparks.Teacher: There were some sparks, yes. Lets just ignore the sparks a minute...some heat. There was a little bit of heat there with that one. Neil Mercer
  • Whole class discussion: Example 2Teacher: Those of you that think he should not have changed his name, Id like to hear your reasons, some of your reasons. Matthew?Matthew: One reason is because Chang is part of his history, his life, his um culture, like if, he, just cause he changed schools he didnt have to change his name, and even if theyre all American, he lives in a Chinese part of town, and uh, its his culture, all behind him, what, he does Chinese ceremonies and stuff, and um, he just shouldnt have changed his name, cause all his culture and stuff. Neil Mercer
  • Ceri Morgan HMIThe magical momentof interaction betweenteacher and learner ....
  • Personalisation“ Taking a highly structured and responsive approach to each child’s learning, in order that all are able to progress, achieve and participate. It means strengthening the link between learning and teaching by engaging pupils – and their parents – as partners in learning.” Christine Gilbert 2007
  • Questioning needs to become discussion
  • So what makes agood discussion?
  • Through an emotionalhook ....A Thunk is a beguilingly simple-lookingquestion about everyday things that stopsyou in your tracks and helps you start tolook at the world in a whole new light.
  • Would you rather ..... Have foil teeth or Feather fingers?
  • What if .....Rubbish bins gave you £1back for every sack ofrubbish?
  • What seemspuzzling in thispicture?What key questionscould be asked tohelp explore themeaning of what yousee?
  • Try “who could disapprove of this picture?”
  • Try inverting questions Inverting a question requires reasoning to be employed in the answer Instead of asking “Is Claudius a good king?” ask “What qualities might you expect to see in a good king?”
  • Sorting and classifying tasks These allow students to explore assumptions and investigate ideas without having to commit themselves to a single “solution”
  • De Bono’s direct thinking toolsTool 2 -- Plus, Minus, Interesting Ensure that all sides of a matter have been considered before a decision or commitment is made. Tool 4 -- Consider All Factors Explore all factors related to an action, decision, plan, judgment, or conclusion. Tool 6 -- Alternatives, Possibilities, Choices Deliberately try to find other ways. Tool 7 -- Other Peoples Views Put yourself in others shoes.
  • Tony Ryan’s Thinker’s Keys2. The WHAT IFYou can ask virtually any What If question. They can be either serious or frivolous. One excellent means of displaying ideas from this key is to draw up an Ideas Wheel.THE EXAMPLE:1. What if the price of petrol was immediately doubled?2. What if all cars turned into skateboards?
  • Tony Ryan Key 17 The alternative Work out 3 ways to:record a visual image of aspecial eventwithout a camera ordrawing implements
  • Most teachers questions are answered in less than two seconds: just not by the students ….
  • Research shows …. Teachers typically use 300-400 questions everyday. Most are lower order, functional requests Increasing higher order questions to around 50% of the total can raise attainment and improve pupil attitudes
  • Key message – use WAIT TIME In the 1970s, Mary Rudd Rowe videotaped hours of elementary science classes, and noticed how teachers generally waited only one second before answering or repeating a question. After teachers were trained to allow 3 – 5 seconds of wait time, the following effects were noticed …
  •  DECREASED  INCREASED Students who failed to  Unsolicited but answer when called appropriate on responses  Length of responses  Responses from less able students  Number of student questions  Student to student interactions
  • Some golden rules …. Beware run-on questions but don’t be afraid of “off-piste” questioning Don’t always use hands down questioning. Research suggests that active student response can be helpful in promoting participation amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged students The best way to cut down your questioning is to increase the questions students ask of you
  • ...the way to secure performance at the highest levels is to create a system that expects significantly more from more pupils; in so doing, we would succeed in raising the performance of the whole school population Summarised from Deborah Eyre
  • Real questions ....“So, in your opinion, how effective is the author in conveying character so far?”“Why might that dialogue have been added?”“Ryan, can you think of a less cliched word for the lion’s noise than roaring?”
  • From a year 4 primary classroom in Oxfordshire ......
  • Classroom dialogue How much of the classroom dialogue is about learning and progress as opposed to content? Do pupils get to ask questions as well as answer them? Where are your pupils actively taught how to use talk as a tool for thinking and learning? What are you doing to encourage “basketball” dialogue as opposed to “ping pong”?
  • Feedback and feed- forward: Howformative feedback contribute to independence
  • Professor John Hattie’s research ... Looked at 50,000 studies..... Reminds us that effective feedback has the largest effect size of all Talks about the importance of “assessment literate pupils”
  • Question .....What do you think Hattiemeans by “assessment literate” pupils?
  • The ideal ….“Teachers assess pupils’ progressregularly and accurately anddiscuss assessments with themso that pupils know how well theyhave done and what they need todo to improve”. (Ofsted descriptor of “good” teaching andlearning 2012)
  • Some issues with feedback ….
  • “Well done. Next time expand your ideas in more detail.”“Very good effort. Have another look at how the last paragraph - could you develop your idea further by introducing another quote from the play?”“This is a very interesting story James, but remember to check your spellings!”
  • More issues with feedbackHow clear is the feedback we give the students? ‘you must try harder’ ‘develop these ideas further’ ‘good work keep it up’ ‘more detail needed here’ ‘Use paragraphs’How does the student interpret feedback? ‘This is one of my best because my hand writing is neat, I checked my spellings and I put in the date’ How? ‘A tick means he probably likes it’ ‘there is a lot of writing at the end—this means it’s bad’ What sort of detail? If I knew how to use paragraphs I would have used them
  • We need more DIRT in lessons ....(Dedicated Improvement and Reflection Time)
  • Feedback frames Read feedback carefully Ask if you don’t understand what is written down Decide which improvement you are going to make first Indicate which success criteria you are working on Colour of progress is purple – remember your purple pen! Ask your partner to look at your improvements and to give you honest feedback Link your work to the feedback given by your teachers by telling them what you have done and why
  • The “purple pen of progress”
  • “Buy one, Get one free” ...Pupil annotation of their own work
  • “Post it and plant it” feedback ….
  • Guided work: A missing piece of the jigsaw?
  • Demonstrating learning and progress within the lesson: Activating learners as resources for themselves and others
  • “Take over the Teacher ...”
  • Teacher as “guide on the side”rather than “sage on the stage” (.e.g. Yes/no mode)
  • “Spot-lighting”
  • “Spot-lighting”Is a particularly powerful way of evaluating the collaborative work happening in the classroom. When pupils are engaged in group work periodically ask them to pause, signal that it is “spotlighting time”, and then ask one group to resume its work while a metaphorical spotlight is shone on them. The role of the rest of the class is to observe and be prepared to offer formative feedback as required.
  • “Film stars”
  • “Film stars”Experiment with filming learning as itunfolds in the classroom. This footageprovides brilliant opportunities for pupils toevaluate each other’s work and can beused to show the difference before andafter feedback has been given.Photographs can be used in much thesame way.
  • Dictogloss Make them work for it ……
  • Public peer assessment …
  • Making definitions live …
  • Visual impact ….
  • Progress points ...
  • Competition and challenge …
  • Make them find the connections…
  • They don’t need to ask you …
  • Put the tools in their hands ….
  • Tantalisers ….
  • ‘Progress bite’ – in other words, a quick implementation/application task to demonstrate that pupils have grasped the main learning point. This could be one timed paragraph/equation/question which, again, can be dropped into a lesson at any point and would serve to provide a ‘portable plenary’.
  • “Portable plenaries"
  • Teach the tiger ….
  •  ‘Explain it to a five year old’ – asking pupils to simplify and synthesise their learning in order to explain it to a much younger pupil really exposes any gaps in their learning.
  • “Prove It Tasks”
  • Collaborative lessonplanning activity: from theory to practice
  • Dr Spencer Kagan’sCooperative Learning Structures
  • Jot thoughts ....
  • Rally Robin
  • The Showdown
  • Rally Coach
  • Collective round table ....
  • Stand up, Hand up, Pair up …`
  • Talking chips ....
  • All too often we give children cut flowers when weshould be teaching them to grow
  • Contact details…Claire Gadsby , Teaching and Learning Consultant Email: Claire.gadsby@hotmail.co.uk Mobile: 07983 993777 www.clairegadsby.com