World Tunnel Conference 2014

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Closing Lecture: World Tunnel Congress 2014, Iguassu Falls, Brazil …

Closing Lecture: World Tunnel Congress 2014, Iguassu Falls, Brazil

Quo Vadis Tunnel Engineering? Predicting the Unpredictable
by Z T Richard Bieniawski v. Preinl

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  • 1. Quo Vadis Tunnel Engineering? Predicting the Unpredictable Z T Richard Bieniawski v. Preinl Closing Lecture: World Tunnel Congress 2014, Iguassu Falls, Brazil
  • 2. "With so many congresses and symposia taking place every year, I demand of the people that I send to attend: bring me back just one and only one good idea which I can use and I will pay ALL of your travelling expenses plus throw in a bottle of wine'!"
  • 3. Quo Vadis Tunnel Engineering? Predicting the Unpredictable “Quo Vadis” - from Latin - “Where are you going?” After the book by Polish Nobel winner Henryk Sienkiewicz
  • 4. “The Illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn and relearn” Futurist Alvin Toffler
  • 5. 1. Tunnel design methodologies 2. Education for new cadres of tunnel engineers and planners 3. Site investigation expenditures needed for effective tunnel design and construction
  • 6. Publications about predictions
  • 7. Emerging Methodologies and Principles of Tunnel Design “It is not the things we don’t know that cause us problems but the things we think we know for sure” General Dwight Eisehower
  • 8. Books about Tunnel Design Methodologies (1)
  • 9. Books about Tunnel Design Methodologies (2)
  • 10. From X.Feng and J. Hudson: Rock Engineering Design (2011) The subject of Design Methodology is now experiencing and will continue to experience major developments in the future because of new capabilities provided by the use of computer programs that can model the rock behavior in new and more insightful ways. 11
  • 11. The concept of D E A: Diseño Estructural Activo Celada et al, 2010 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design
  • 12. In the spirit of Alan Muir Wood: Best idea #1 Be specific when describing the chosen tunnel design methodology and use it as a check-list (similar to what a pilot does prior to take off) to ensure that all aspects of the undertaking are incorporated. 14
  • 13. Training Tunnel Engineers and Educating Planners/Owners "Each modern profession worthy of its name requires three elements: Theory, Education and Practice. The reason: they are needed to guarantee its capacity for renewal and development." Philosopher Herbert Simon (1969)
  • 14. Education of new tunnel engineers and engineering geologists ”Among the approximately 200 civil engineering departments studied, less than 10% have substantial graduate programs in rock mechanics; those with geotechnical programs are mainly focused on soil mechanics. Most universities with mining departments do have rock mechanics, those are few in number and departments tend to be small." 16
  • 15. Challenges before us: •Challenge to educate new tunnel engineers and engineering geologists, both men and women; •Challenge to educate non-technical persons involved in planning tunneling projects or administering underground projects. 17
  • 16. In the spirit of Alan Muir Wood: Best idea #2 • If you are a professor or a teacher, take initiative at your institution of higher learning; *If you are in the tunneling business, help secure funds for a new industrial course; *If you are neither: write articles to the press and the media suggesting action for the benefit of the society. *For all of us at this Congress: let us support the concept of "continuing education" for tunnel engineers and "short courses" for the non-technical tunnel planners and administrators. 18
  • 17. When is Enough sufficiently enough for Tunnel Site Investigations? "Not all experience is necessarily good. We must learn only the best practices – those used most widely in the most successfully competitive firms" John Dixon (1991)
  • 18. In Tunnel Design Practice note this current shortcoming: Sophistication of numerical methods of analysis far exceeds the levels of reliability of the input data on rock mass properties from limited field testing 21
  • 19. U.S. National Committee on Tunneling Technology, 1984: Geotechnical Site Investigations for Underground Projects: Overview of Practice and Recommendations: Expenditures for geotechnical site exploration should be 3%of estimated project cost; today typical levels of less than 1% are incompatible with over 10% costs paid out for legal disputes.
  • 20. 23
  • 21. Large Flat Jack (LFJ) test 24
  • 22. Tri-axial block test Mine pillar test 25
  • 23. In the spirit of Alan Muir Wood: Best idea #3 We must ensure that sophistication of analytical modeling matches the reliability of the input data on rock mass properties – best determined from reliable in situ tests! 26
  • 24. Quo Vadis Tunnel Engineering?
  • 25. Tunnels for a Better Life
  • 26. Predictions “The Illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn and relearn” Futurist Alvin Toffler
  • 27. Predictions •Something Expected •Something New 30
  • 28. Potential Challenges - TBMs: High pressure due to pre-existing stress and their changes during excavation; The phenomenon of rock bursts High water pressures Need for better modeling configurations
  • 29. CONCLUSION -1 We need: (1) better implemented tunnel design methodologies, (2) better educated tunnel engineers, planners and administrators, (3) better executed site characterization programs
  • 30. In Conclusion - 2 Sharing with you a Secret (!) for a successful and enjoyable tunnelling career The secret is simply….
  • 31. In Conclusion - 3 In the spirit of Alan Muir Wood: What is that ONE best idea that you have acquired at this Congress?
  • 32. “Enthusiasm is the greatest asset in the world; it beats money, and power, and influence!” Henri Chester
  • 33. Muitíssimo obrigado pela boa atenção !