Supporting adequate nutrition

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Supporting adequate nutrition

  1. 1. SupportingAdequateNutritionBy Richard Araneta
  2. 2. Supporting Adequate Nutrition Refers to the processes by which nutrients are used in the body
  3. 3. Nutrients Essential nutrients are  Water  CHO  CHON  Fats  Vitamins  Minerals
  4. 4. Calorie Unitof energy measurement The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of H2O to 1°C or 1 gram to 15° - 16°C  1 gram of CHO = 4 calories  1 gram of CHON = 4 calories  1 gram of fat = 9 calories
  5. 5. Metabolism The process by which absorbed nutrients are used by the body for energy and to form and maintain body structures and functions  Anabolism: a process in which simple substances are converted by the body cells into a more complex substances  Catabolism: breakdown of food components into smaller particles, causing the release of energy as heat and chemical energy
  6. 6. Nitrogen Balance Refers to sufficient amount of CHON intake to provide for body needs Nitrogen intake = Nitrogen output
  7. 7. BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) Rateat which the body metabolizes food to maintain the energy requirement of a person who is awake or at rest
  8. 8. Principles in the Promotion ofGood Nutrition The body requires food to  Provide energy  Maintain body temperature  Regulate body processes  Growth, repair, and replacement of cells
  9. 9. Principles in the Promotion ofGood Nutrition Man’s energy requirement vary and is influenced by many factors such as  Age  Body size  Activity/ occupation  Climate  Sleep  Lifestyle  Physiological stresses (pregnancy, lactation)
  10. 10. Principles in the Promotion ofGood Nutrition Foodsare described according to the density of their nutrients  Nutrient density – the proportion of essential nutrients to the number of calories Whenenergy requirements are completely met by caloric intake, people maintain their activity level without weight change
  11. 11. Principles in the Promotion ofGood Nutrition An adequate diet is the foundation of good nutrition and it should consist of a wide variety of foods Measures for improvement of nutritional status are  Nutrition education  Abundant food supply  Use of various resources
  12. 12. Assessing Nutritional Status Physical/Instrument Method (Anthropometry) (A) 1. Weight – reflects body mass 2. Height for age – helpful in diagnosing chronic under nutrition  Weight for height  Used for adults, useful in assessing acute malnutrition
  13. 13. Assessing Nutritional Status Body mass index = weight (kg)/ (height in meters)2  20-24.9 – Normal  25-29.9 – Mild Obesity  30-39.9 – Moderate Obesity  Above 40 – Severe Obesity
  14. 14. Assessing Nutritional Status 3. Mid upper arm circumference  Estimates muscle mass hence the protein the energy reserves at the mid-arm area 4. Triceps skin fold  Measures the amount of subcutaneous fat; used for adults only  Normal valve is 1 inch
  15. 15. Assessing Nutritional Status Biochemical Tests (B)  Blood  Urine – creatinine excretions Clinical Examination (C)  Detects physical symptoms associated with malnutrition  Hair, skin, eyes, tongue, etc
  16. 16. Assessing Nutritional Status Medical history  Reveals secondary factors to malnutrition Dietary Survey (D)  Food recall  Food frequency record (how often)  Food inventory/ diary (measured amounts)  Dietary history
  17. 17. The Micronutrients - Vitamins Fat soluble vitamins (ADEK)  Vitamin A  Vitamin D  Vitamin E  Vitamin K
  18. 18. The Micronutrients - Minerals Macro  Micro  Calcium  Iron  Phosphorus  Iodine  Potassium  Fluorine  Sodium  Magnesium  Sulfur  Chlorine
  19. 19. Common Problems of Nutrition 1. Anorexia – loss of appetite  Causes: physiological or psychological 2. Bulemia – “Binge – purge syndrome”  An abnormal craving for food accompanied by desire to remain slender 3. Retching  Vomiting without vomitus
  20. 20. Common Problems of Nutrition 4. Regurgitation  Bringing of stomach contents into mouth without vomiting effort 5. Eructation (belching)  Discharge of gas from the stomach through the mouth
  21. 21. Common Problems of Nutrition 6. Malnutrition  Overnutrition  Overweight – when weight is 10% greater than IBW  Obesity – when weight is 20% greater than IBW  Undernutrition  Kwashiorkor – protein deficiency  Marasinus – calorie deficiency
  22. 22. Marasinus Calorie deficiency affects vary young children Emaciated, no edema, hair is dull and dry skin, thin, and wrinkled
  23. 23. Improving Appetite Relieve illness symptoms that depress appetite prior to mealtime Provide familiar foods that the person likes Select small portions so as not to discourage the anorexic client Avoid unpleasant or uncomfortable treatments immediately before or after meals Reduce psychologic stress  Give information and assistance

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