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11 million people were exterminated
6 million Jews                                1933-5 million others (homosexuals, the mentally   1945and physically handic...
They were shot,starved, gassed and     burned…
Defining the Holocaust    HOLOCAUST - originally meant a sacrifice totally burned by fire    the annihilation of the Jews...
Casualties of the Holocaust: 63% of Jewish population in Europe killed 91% of Jewish population in Poland killed   Ausc...
European Jewish Population in 1933          was 9,508,340
Estimated Jewish survivors of    Holocaust: 3,546,211
How did the Holocaust Happen?   The Power of Words   Anti-Semitism   The Stages of Isolation
The Power of Words…   “The great masses of the people will more easily fall    victims to a big lie than a small one”   ...
All belong to Adolf Hitler…
Europe’s age-old Anti-Semitism   the hatred of or prejudice    against Jews   common since the Middle Ages    when the C...
Anti-Semitism                  pogroms took place in Russia                  towards the end of the 19th century,       ...
The Stages of Isolation (The Holocaust)The Holocaust was a progression of acts leading to the annihilation of millions:  ...
1935Stage 1: Stripping of Rights            Nuremberg Laws (1935)stated that all German JEWS were : stripped of German c...
Passports to be       Seat Restrictions on Streetcarscarried at all times:  “J” for “Juden”Identification and Registration
Identifying Jewish Businesses             Boycott       Boycotting Jewish Shops
Kristallnacht - 1938• the Nazis began deporting Polish Jews living in Germany• Herschel Grynszpan had been sent by his par...
“International Jewishconspiracy”• on the “Night of Broken Glass” Jewish shops and synagogues aredamaged, destroyed and loo...
Treatment of Jews during the 1930s                                  Public mistreatment                               Burn...
Emigration   early on the Nazi state    offered its Jews a way out:    voluntary emigration   faced with discriminatory ...
 this “First Solution” offered by the Nazis met with little success Canada, for instance, accepted very few Jews in 193...
1939Stage 2: Segregation                                                    GHETTOS                     Jews were forced...
The Ghetto         Warsaw, the largest                       ghetto, held 500,000                       people and was 3....
Life in the ghettos                           Ghetto Ration Card   disease was rampant and food was in such short    supp...
Nazi ghettos were a preliminary step in the annihilation of the Jews,eventually becoming transition areas and collection p...
Oskar Schindler“Whoever saves one life,saves the entire world”• Oskar Schindler, a vain and greedy German businessman, bec...
1943The Ghettos are emptied…
1940Stage 3: Concentration Camps                                         camps had existed in Germany since 1933, yet pr...
Heinrich                                                                       Himmler• beginning in 19 38 , J were target...
WHO ?JewsPolitical adversaries(Communists &Social Democrats)The socially andracially undesirable(homosexuals,Jehovah’s Wit...
Forced Labour in QuarrySlave Labour in Factories
Life in the Camps   possessions were confiscated   arms tattooed   men, women and children were    separated
 prison uniformswere provided heads were shaved
Guards     Camps              random acts of             violence were common              survival based on trade      ...
Inside the concentration camps unsanitary, disease- ridden, and liceinfested barracks were the norm overcrowding was a m...
   Yellow: J {Star of David}              ews   Red: P  olitical dissidents   Green: Common criminals   Purple: R elig...
HumanExperimentation inhumane medical experimentswere conducted freezing starvation exposure to chemicals             ...
1942Stage 4: Extermination                        Euthanasia program: Nazi    policy to eliminate those    “unworthy of ...
Einsatzgruppen            ranks composed largely of highly educated and motivated men            many of its leaders rep...
Death Camps—Arrival               DEATH FACTORIES:                Nazi extermination                camps fulfilled the  ...
 Sorting and classification of new arrivals
Death Camps — Selection and                     Processing   in the extermination camps, large detention    centres creat...
Death Camps—Final Outcome   called for the complete and mass    annihilation and extermination of    the Jews as well as ...
Gas Chambers & Crematoriums              prisoners were sent to gas chambers               disguised as showers          ...
Chamber Openings to drop in                              Empty Zyklon B Canisters   Gas Canisters (Pellets)               ...
Nearing the End                                                1945   By 1945, as Allied troops closed in, the Nazis bega...
1945• in January the Soviet army enteredAuschwitz (the largest camp) andliberated the more than 7,000 mostly illand dying ...
• while rumours of the camps had leaked out, few peoplerealized the full extent of the slaughter taking place
Liberation: theAmericans andBritish arrive
DachauApril ‘45
“Kanada”•storeroom housing confiscated property of prisoners: the sheeramount of loot stored there was associated with the...
Holocaust Art
1945-1949Aftermath: Nuremberg  Nuremberg Trials: lasting four years, war crimes   trials for Nazi officials began (24 Naz...
Pastor Martin Niemoller spent  eight years in the camps(Dachau and Sachsenhausen)
Oskar SchindlerHeroes who savedJewish lives...       Raoul Wallenberg Swedish diplomat stationed inHungary. He helped 95...
STUDENT NOTESPoints to better understand the Holocaust:• anti-Semitism had long been present in Europe and Hitler made use...
Swastika: A Symbol of Good or Evil?      • the swastika is an ancient Indian symbol (Sanskrit)      that is over 3,000 yea...
The Financial Link• in Europe, the Medieval Christian Church forbade usury (lending money forprofit) by Christians• Jews w...
Ww2 holocaust
Ww2 holocaust
Ww2 holocaust
Ww2 holocaust
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  • “ Work will make you free” Auschwitz main gate message; population of Ontario is around 11 million; pronounced “fry”;
  • Sign: “Jews are not Welcome Here”
  • “ death gate” at Auschwitz;
  • Eugene Delacroix- Columbus before Ferdinand and Isabella;
  • The eternal Jew; The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is a fraudulent antisemitic text purporting to describe a Jewish plan to achieve global domination, first published in 1903 in Russia (published in USA by Henry Ford);
  • Photo: Mass Killing in Western Russia
  • Reparations of 1 billion Reichmarks after Kristallnacht; Radios and telephones were removed from Jews ;
  • S.A. enforcing the boycott (bottom right) ; sign in 1933 (bottom left);
  • Sent to paris while awaiting exile to Palestine where his parents wanted to send him for safety; had received a letter from his family describing the horrible conditions they experienced in their deportation. Seeking to alleviate their situation, he tried to talk with an uncooperative Ernst vom Rath, secretary of the German Embassy in Paris; Herschel Grynszpan (Greenspan) would be seized by the nazis when they invaded France ‘40 and returned to Germany for trial (he lived in camps until 1944 perhaps when he was probably killed); takes place November 9-10; Ernst vom Rath was the official and even Hitler’s personal physician was involved in the attempt to keep him alive (he had a state funeral); he died on the 9 th (just happened to be the fifteenth anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch – greatest day of Nazi calendar) and Goebbels gave an inflammatory speech against the Jews and within hours the pogrom had begun;
  • 91 Jews killed , 26000 Jews arrested , 7500 Jewish business destroyed; 101 synagogues destroyed
  • Video clip for liquidation of Warsaw ghetto = Schindler’s List [disc 1] Chapter 14 - 7 min duration, from 58 min-1:03 or 1:10; within Germany this begins in ’38 with Jews placed in camps and then once war starts in ’39 outside Germany in both camps and ghettos;
  • Ration card: Allows Bearer 300 Calories per Day; Boundary Wall, Warsaw Ghetto; Registration Card in Warsaw Ghetto. Top Half Gives Personal Details, Bottom Half Records Death in Ghetto;
  • Video clip for entering ghetto = Schindler’s List [disc 1] Chapter 5 - 5 min from start of chapter to 24 min mark; Oskar and Emilie in ‘46 and his enamel factory pictured; Oscar grew wealthy initially but then began to shield his workers from the horrors, moving them to Brunnlitz in Czechoslovakia in Oct 1944 (it was liberated in Oct ‘45); he would go to Argentina after the war (went bankrupt there, came back to Germany where he had many failed business ventures;
  • In the Boer War the British had done this to the Boer women and children; The first two concentration camps established were Dachau (near Munich) and Buchenwald in ‘33;
  • Sobibor (Poland) founded 1942; Gross-Rosen (Poland) 1940; Auschwitz-Birkenau (Poland) 1940; Bergen-Belsen (Germany) ‘43; Buchenwald (Germany) 1937; Dachau (Germany) ‘33; Treblinka (Poland) ’42; Himmler was a close devotee of Hitler and was a former chicken farmer;
  • Jews Loaded Onto Trains Heading to Death Camps
  • Prisoner Jacket of a Jehovah’s Witness (purple triangle);
  • Lower right (used in human experiments);
  • Building at Auschwitz filled with clothes; Disc 1 Chapter 17 (concentration camps / factory)- 4 min duration from start of Chap 17; Elie Wiesel in Buchenwald
  • Electrified Fence at Birkenau ; they got 200 calories per day (to have a healthy diet, one needs 2000-2500 calories/ day);
  • two triangles overlaid to form a Star of David, with the word "Jude" (Jew) inscribed; mischlings, i.e., those who were deemed to be only part Jewish, often wore a single yellow triangle; pictured: Adolf Eichmann—SS Specialist in Zionist Affairs
  • Children at Auschwitz; Mengele- a German SS officer and a physician in Auschwitz; fled to Argentina after the war;
  • Euthanasia refers primarily to acts perpetrated against German citizens; Einsatzgruppen followed the German army and wiped out Jewish communities along the way (this was found to be stressful on the executioners so the camps were devised as a solution);
  • Of the 25 Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommando leaders, 15 of them bore the title of PhD, most of them doctors of jurisprudence or philosophy; Romanian allies wiped out thousands in Odessa;
  • Adolf Eichmann & Reinhard Heydrich = Chief architects of the Final Solution ;
  • Extermination camps (other camps were labour / concentration); interactive map link (http://www.the-map-as-history.com/demos/tome08/05a-final_solution_holocaust_demo.php ) shows Holocaust from einsatzgruppen stage through to Auschwitz (about 8 min); Auschwitz gets busy in 1942...
  • Video clip for Auschwitz entry by train and showers = Schindler’s List [disc 2] Chapter 3 (or Chap 30) 5 min duration from 17:30-24:00 min mark; BOTTOM PHOTO- on April 14, 1945 Bodies are found Still Inside ovens;
  • From 1942-1945, over 3 million Jews and hundreds of thousands of other groups were murdered in the gas chamber & crematorium system established in the extermination camps ;
  • Video clip for dismantling of camps & burning of bodies = Schindler’s List [disc 2] Chapter 1 (or 28) 3 min; Video clip for liberation of camps = Schindler’s List [disc 2] Chapter 11 (or Chap 38) from start of chapter lasting 2 min;
  • In Russia
  • Crate Full of Wedding Rings From Buchenwald
  • Survivors greet American liberators, Dachau, April 29, 1945
  • Female SS Guards Forced to Bury Camp Victims After the War ;
  • A German Civilian views the result;
  • The indictments were for: Participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of crime against peace War crimes (Planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression and other crimes against peace; Crimes against humanity; Hitler’s Deputy Fuehrer, Hermann Goering, was found guilty but committed suicide before he could be hanged (founded the Gestapo secret police) [ Von Ribbentrop: Foreign Minister; found guilty and hung] ; Heinrich Himmler (pictured) committed suicide before he could stand trial by taking cyanide; propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels killed himself and family before he could be tried; Hideki Tojo was also hanged;
  • Dante had a special place in hell (Inferno) for usurers; individual lenders (loan sharks) were not acceptable either (as they had to be mean in order to survive = disreputable) so the Medici formed banks (era of Machiavelli ; the Medici bankrolled the Renaissance) and these Florentine bankers made money on int’l trade and received a commission (compensation) on currency exchange (hence the interest was hidden) and in time; the Americans further encouraged business by legalizing bankruptcy (Henry Ford was twice bankrupt) – the Brits for years put their debtors in prison; IMAGES – Dante’s Inferno + Jesus cleansing the temple of merchants and money traders;
  • Transcript of "Ww2 holocaust"

    1. 1. 11 million people were exterminated
    2. 2. 6 million Jews 1933-5 million others (homosexuals, the mentally 1945and physically handicapped, prisoners ofwar, and Gypsies)
    3. 3. They were shot,starved, gassed and burned…
    4. 4. Defining the Holocaust HOLOCAUST - originally meant a sacrifice totally burned by fire the annihilation of the Jews and other groups of European people under the Nazi regime during World War II GENOCIDE: the systematic extermination of a nationality or group “Jews are not welcome here”
    5. 5. Casualties of the Holocaust: 63% of Jewish population in Europe killed 91% of Jewish population in Poland killed Auschwitz-Birkenau was liberated by Soviet troops on Jan. 27, 1945. The Soviets found 836, 255 women’s dresses, 348, 000 men’s suits, 38, 000 pairs of men’s shoes and 14, 000 pounds of human hair. But only… 7, 650 live prisoners
    6. 6. European Jewish Population in 1933 was 9,508,340
    7. 7. Estimated Jewish survivors of Holocaust: 3,546,211
    8. 8. How did the Holocaust Happen? The Power of Words Anti-Semitism The Stages of Isolation
    9. 9. The Power of Words… “The great masses of the people will more easily fall victims to a big lie than a small one” “How fortunate for leaders that men do not think” “The victor will never be asked if he told the truth” “The personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew” What do all these quotes have in common?
    10. 10. All belong to Adolf Hitler…
    11. 11. Europe’s age-old Anti-Semitism the hatred of or prejudice against Jews common since the Middle Ages when the Catholic Church taught that Jews were responsible for killing Jesus Jews were expelled for a time from France (1254), England (1290), and Spain (1492)  people blamed the Jews for the Black Death  hundreds were burned at the stake amidst general persecution and murder of Jews {16th century drawing }
    12. 12. Anti-Semitism  pogroms took place in Russia  towards the end of the 19th century, Jewish bankers were blamed for Henry Ford Germany’s economic woes. The Jews were seen as evil and greedy capitalists  Jewish Conspiracy  The Protocols of the Elders of Zion  after the defeat in WWI, German anti- Semitism reached new heights as Jews were blamed for the loss
    13. 13. The Stages of Isolation (The Holocaust)The Holocaust was a progression of acts leading to the annihilation of millions: 1: Stripping of Rights 2: Segregation 3: Concentration 4: Extermination
    14. 14. 1935Stage 1: Stripping of Rights Nuremberg Laws (1935)stated that all German JEWS were : stripped of German citizenship fired from jobs & businesses boycotted banned from schools & universities marriages between Jews and Aryans forbidden forced to carry ID cards Passports stamped with a “J” forced to wear the arm band of the Yellow “Star of David” Jewish synagogues destroyed forced to pay reparations and a special income tax
    15. 15. Passports to be Seat Restrictions on Streetcarscarried at all times: “J” for “Juden”Identification and Registration
    16. 16. Identifying Jewish Businesses Boycott Boycotting Jewish Shops
    17. 17. Kristallnacht - 1938• the Nazis began deporting Polish Jews living in Germany• Herschel Grynszpan had been sent by his parents to Paris• when his family was deported, Grynszpan, by way ofprotest, attempts to assassinate a German diplomat in theParis embassy (the official dies two days later)• Nazi hierarchy suggests an international Jewish conspiracyexists• back in Germany (and Austria) anti-Semitic pogroms break out
    18. 18. “International Jewishconspiracy”• on the “Night of Broken Glass” Jewish shops and synagogues aredamaged, destroyed and looted• 26,000 Jews are arrested, 91 die• further economic and political persecution of Jews would follow• it marks the ominous beginning of the Holocaust
    19. 19. Treatment of Jews during the 1930s Public mistreatment Burnt synagogues Looted stores
    20. 20. Emigration early on the Nazi state offered its Jews a way out: voluntary emigration faced with discriminatory laws and policies, many Jews felt they had no choice but to leave the problem was finding nations that would take the Jewish refugees German Jewish Immigrants reach Montreal in November 1938.
    21. 21.  this “First Solution” offered by the Nazis met with little success Canada, for instance, accepted very few Jews in 1939, The St. Louis, with 900 Jewish refugees, was turned away. Theship returned to Europe where 3/4 of the refugees died in concentrationcamps
    22. 22. 1939Stage 2: Segregation  GHETTOS  Jews were forced to live in designated areas called “ghettos” to isolate them from the rest of society  these enclosed and fortified areas would become home to the Jews of occupied Europe   Nazis established 356 ghettos in Poland, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Hungary during WWII  ghettos were filthy, with poor sanitation and extreme overcrowding  Warsaw, the largest ghetto, held 500,000 people and was 3.5 square miles in size (It was liquidated in April 1943)
    23. 23. The Ghetto  Warsaw, the largest ghetto, held 500,000 people and was 3.5 square miles in size  it was liquidated in April 1943 Registration CardMoving in… Warsaw Ghetto
    24. 24. Life in the ghettos Ghetto Ration Card disease was rampant and food was in such short supply that many slowly starved to death ghettos were located both outside of and inside the cities
    25. 25. Nazi ghettos were a preliminary step in the annihilation of the Jews,eventually becoming transition areas and collection points for deportation to concentration & death camps
    26. 26. Oskar Schindler“Whoever saves one life,saves the entire world”• Oskar Schindler, a vain and greedy German businessman, becomes an unlikelyhumanitarian amid the barbaric Nazi reign• having initially moved to Poland to profit from Jewish slave labour available fromthe ghetto, Schindler in time feels compelled to turn his factory into a refuge for Jews• Schindler managed to save about 1,100 Jews from being gassed at the Auschwitzconcentration camp
    27. 27. 1943The Ghettos are emptied…
    28. 28. 1940Stage 3: Concentration Camps  camps had existed in Germany since 1933, yet proliferate after 1940 essential to Nazi’s systematic oppression and eventual murder of its enemies slave labor is used: “annihilation by work” prisoners faced undernourishment and starvation prisoners transported in freight cars designed for cattle camps built along railroad lines for efficient transportation
    29. 29. Heinrich Himmler• beginning in 19 38 , J were targeted for internment solely because ewsthey were Jews• before then, only J who fit one of the earlier categories faced ewsinternment in the camps• the camps were run by the S. S.• they used the camps to make money and rented out labour toindustrialists like Krupp
    30. 30. WHO ?JewsPolitical adversaries(Communists &Social Democrats)The socially andracially undesirable(homosexuals,Jehovah’s Witnesses,Gypsies, thehandicapped)Prisoners of war
    31. 31. Forced Labour in QuarrySlave Labour in Factories
    32. 32. Life in the Camps possessions were confiscated arms tattooed men, women and children were separated
    33. 33.  prison uniformswere provided heads were shaved
    34. 34. Guards Camps  random acts of violence were common  survival based on trade skills / physical strength  the food was terrible and insufficientBirkenau
    35. 35. Inside the concentration camps unsanitary, disease- ridden, and liceinfested barracks were the norm overcrowding was a major problem andcontributed to the spread of diseases (suchas typhus)
    36. 36.  Yellow: J {Star of David} ews Red: P olitical dissidents Green: Common criminals Purple: R eligious fundamentalists Blue: Immigrants Brown: R and Sinti (Gypsies) oma Black: L esbians and " anti-socials" Pink: Gay men Eichmann
    37. 37. HumanExperimentation inhumane medical experimentswere conducted freezing starvation exposure to chemicals Freezing Experiment- Dachau Josef Mengele “The Angel of Death”
    38. 38. 1942Stage 4: Extermination  Euthanasia program: Nazi policy to eliminate those “unworthy of life” (mentally or physically challenged, the ill) to promote Aryan “racial integrity” [perhaps 75,000 died in this way] Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units) had begun operations aimed at killing entire Jewish communities in occupied Eastern Europe (1939-1941) special action groups that followed the advancing army to cleanse conquered areas
    39. 39. Einsatzgruppen  ranks composed largely of highly educated and motivated men  many of its leaders represented Nazi intellectual elite  round up local J ews, leaving mass graves in their wake
    40. 40. Death Camps—Arrival  DEATH FACTORIES: Nazi extermination camps fulfilled the singular function of mass murder
    41. 41.  Sorting and classification of new arrivals
    42. 42. Death Camps — Selection and Processing in the extermination camps, large detention centres created for the confinement, slave labour, and mass executions of prisoners, the “Final Solution” would take place Jewish children were specifically targeted (kill the next generation)
    43. 43. Death Camps—Final Outcome called for the complete and mass annihilation and extermination of the Jews as well as other groups Zyklon B gas became the agent used in the mass extermination
    44. 44. Gas Chambers & Crematoriums  prisoners were sent to gas chambers disguised as showers  Zyklon B gas used to gas people in 3 – 15 minutes  up to 8,000 people were gassed per day at Auschwitz-Birkenau, the largest death camp with four operating gas chambers  Gold fillings from victim’s teeth were melted down to make gold bars  prisoners moved dead bodies to massive crematoriums
    45. 45. Chamber Openings to drop in Empty Zyklon B Canisters Gas Canisters (Pellets) Birkenau Crematorium
    46. 46. Nearing the End 1945 By 1945, as Allied troops closed in, the Nazis began destroying the crematoriums and camps between 1944-1945, the Nazis ordered the prisoners to undertake long distance death marches (Todesmarsche) over 300,000 prisoners perished on these marches
    47. 47. 1945• in January the Soviet army enteredAuschwitz (the largest camp) andliberated the more than 7,000 mostly illand dying prisoners that remained
    48. 48. • while rumours of the camps had leaked out, few peoplerealized the full extent of the slaughter taking place
    49. 49. Liberation: theAmericans andBritish arrive
    50. 50. DachauApril ‘45
    51. 51. “Kanada”•storeroom housing confiscated property of prisoners: the sheeramount of loot stored there was associated with the riches of Canada
    52. 52. Holocaust Art
    53. 53. 1945-1949Aftermath: Nuremberg Nuremberg Trials: lasting four years, war crimes trials for Nazi officials began (24 Nazi leaders were tried; 11 death penalties; three life sentences; four 10- 20 year sentences) State of Israel created in 1947 due to world sympathy Yom ha-Shoah: Holocaust Remembrance Day established in 1951 German government offers pensionsby way of compensation to Holocaustsurvivors (of death camps and later theGhettos) Himmler
    54. 54. Pastor Martin Niemoller spent eight years in the camps(Dachau and Sachsenhausen)
    55. 55. Oskar SchindlerHeroes who savedJewish lives... Raoul Wallenberg Swedish diplomat stationed inHungary. He helped 95,000 Hungarian Jewsescape by providing them with fakepassports which claimed that the bearerswere Swedish subjects. He was later arrested by the USSR as aspy and may have died in a Soviet prisoncamp. It is not known for certain. He was made an honorary citizen ofCanada, the US and Israel.
    56. 56. STUDENT NOTESPoints to better understand the Holocaust:• anti-Semitism had long been present in Europe and Hitler made use of these feelings• the first stage of the Holocaust involved Stripping away the Rights of Germany’s Jews• the Nuremberg Laws forced Jews to carry IDs and wear arm bands with the “Star ofDavid”, forbade intermarriage, and boycotted Jewish businesses• Kristallnacht in 1938 (when a Jew killed a German diplomat) marked a change in attitudetoward the Jews (synagogues were burned and Jews arrested): the Holocaust had trulybegun• the second stage of the Holocaust involved segregating the Jews from the rest of thepopulation and placing them in overcrowded ghettos (the most famous being Warsaw)• the third stage of the Holocaust placed the Jews into camps where they would be workedand starved to death (slave labour to support the German military machine)• Oskar Schindler for a time exploited this source of labour• Jews would be joined here by homosexuals, Communists, the disabled, Gypsies & others• the fourth stage of the Holocaust was one of extermination (in areas of recent conquestby the Einsatzgruppen killing units or in the death camps- like Auschwitz) MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND: Nuremberg Laws / Kristallnacht / ghettos / camps Auschwitz / Oskar Schindler / Einsatzgruppen
    57. 57. Swastika: A Symbol of Good or Evil? • the swastika is an ancient Indian symbol (Sanskrit) that is over 3,000 years old meaning well being, life and good luck, prosperity • the swastika is sacred religious symbol for Hindus, Jains and Buddhists •Common symbol in ancient civilizations (Mesopotamia, India, China, Central and South America (Maya) •In 1920, Adolf Hitler decided that the Nazi Party needed its own insignia and flag and chose the swastika to represent the mission of the struggle for the victory of the Aryan man •Because of the Nazis flag, the swastika soon became a symbol of hate, anti-Semitism, violence, death, and murder.
    58. 58. The Financial Link• in Europe, the Medieval Christian Church forbade usury (lending money forprofit) by Christians• Jews were, however, free to loan money to Gentiles (Christians) but NOT to fellowJews (the Old Testament did not permit such charging of interest to Jews)• the result was Jews came to dominate the money lending business• in Europe’s cities they were forced to live in ghettos (Social Exclusion)• in time Christians (during Italy’s Renaissance) would legitimize the lending ofmoney through the creation of banks, thus making it respectable
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