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Semantische Interoperatibiliteit Ngi 2008(Final)
 

Semantische Interoperatibiliteit Ngi 2008(Final)

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Presentatie 12 juni 2008 bij het NGI afdeling architectuur

Presentatie 12 juni 2008 bij het NGI afdeling architectuur

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    Semantische Interoperatibiliteit Ngi 2008(Final) Semantische Interoperatibiliteit Ngi 2008(Final) Presentation Transcript

    • Semantische Interoperabiliteit binnen het bedrijf Voor Nederlands Genootschap voor Informatica Afdeling architectuur 12 juni 2008 Spreker : Ing. Richard Claassens MIM Bedrijf : SNS Bank Afdeling : SNS IT - Architectuur Functie : Informatie Architect
    • Down- load file Down- load file Down- load file Screen scrape Screen scrape Browser HTTP/XML Trans- action file Trans- action file Trans- action file Trans- action file Message queue Message queue Message queue FTP Sockets E-mail Message XML/ HTTP Gateway RPC CICS gateway APPC SMTP CICS gateway ORB Applications From Mergers and Acquisitions Legacy Applications Purchased Packages Applications in Trading Partners E-Marketplaces End-User Development Autonomous Divisions Outsourced and ASP Applications Probleemstelling “ Jaguar” “ Geautomatiseerde systemen worden steeds meer samengesteld uit delen gedistribueerde functionaliteit die vaak onafhankelijk van elkaar ontwikkeld zijn, die zich op verschillende platforms bevinden en die zich in principe overal kunnen bevinden. Focus : semantische interoperabiliteit/integratie binnen het bedrijf Jaguar?
    • De lezing is gebaseerd op
      • Paper: Semantische interoperabiliteit met behulp van een bedrijfsbrede taxonomie, Richard Claassens, februari 2007
        • http://www.via-nova-architectura.org/magazine/reviewed/semantische-interoperabiliteit-met-behulp-van-een-bedrijfsbrede-taxo.html
      • Verkenning op het gebied van Web2.0 en Enterprise2.0
        • http://architectureren.wetpaint.com/
    • Agenda
      • Probleemstelling
      • Wat is semantische interoperabiliteit ?
      • Hulpmiddelen om semantiek te beschrijven en structureren
          • Ontologie
          • Tagging
          • Classificatieschema|Taxonomie
          • Faceted Approach
      • Bedrijfsbrede hulpmiddelen
          • Enterprise ontologie
          • Zachman framework
          • IBM IFW
      • Twee componenten
        • Interoperabiliteit
          • wisselwerking met één of meer andere autonome operatoren
        • Semantiek
          • speelt pas wanneer er bij die wisselwerking tekens betrokken zijn.
      Semantische Interoperabiliteit Gebaseerd op : Pieter Wisse, Semantiek, interoperabiliteit en infrastructuur, http://www.informationdynamics.nl/pwisse/htm/semantiek_interoperabiliteit_infrastructuur.htm
    • Stands for Refers to Symbolize
      • Concept(s) (in mind)
      • – or
      • thought
      • idea
      • intension
      “ Jaguar” ( Odgen, Richards, 1923) 2) Example of the ambiguity of symbols
      • Symbol(s) –or
      • term
      • label
      • code
      • Referent(s) -or
      • thing
      • object
      • extension
      (Based on Ogden & Richards, 1923) Een basismodel van semantiek: “ The Meaning Triangle” before: Frege, Peirce; see (Sowa 2000)
    • Semantic origination H 2 H H 2 A A 2 H A 2 A Human Human Application Application H 2 A 2 H Semantic interpretation Een bedrijfssysteem bestaat uit mensen, applicaties, verschillende typen van interactie en de bijbehorende semantische stromen Semantische stromen in bedrijfssystemen Gebaseerd op : Dave McComb, Semantics in Business systems, The savvy manager’s guide, 2004, p. 23.
      • ...
      Human Agent 1 (HA1) Human Agent 2 (HA2) exchange signs, e.g. nat. language ‘‘ JAGUAR“ Internal models Formal models exchange signs, e.g. protocols MA1 HA1 HA2 MA2 a specific domain, e.g. animals Machine Agent 1 (MA1) Machine Agent 2 (MA2) (H2H) (H2A),(H2A2H),(A2H) (A2A) = flow of communication and also the flow of semantics (H2H) (H2A),(H2A2H),(A2H) (A2A) Human to human Human to application Application to human Application to application Things in the real world Concepts / Semantic structures Symbols / Syntactic structures The Meaning Triangle & (Based on Maedche, 2002) “ The Meaning Triangle” afgebeeld op een bedrijfssysteem Stands for Refers to Symbolize Symbol Referent Concept
      • ...
      Human Agent 1 (HA1) Human Agent 2 (HA2) exchange signs, e.g. nat. language ‘‘ JAGUAR“ Internal models Formal models exchange signs, e.g. protocols HA1 MA2 a specific domain, e.g. animals Machine Agent 1 (MA1) Machine Agent 2 (MA2) Ontology Description Ontology Formal Semantics =The ontological commitment refers to agreements on the use of the shared vocabulary by the agents committed to the ontology Things in the real world Concepts / Semantic structures Symbols / Syntactic structures The Meaning Triangle commit MA1 commit commit commit HA2 commit (Based on Maedche, 2002) Oplossingsrichting : ontologie Stands for Refers to Symbolize Symbol Referent Concept
      • a philosophical discipline
      • The Science of Being
      • Aristotle, Metaphysics.
        • Immanuel Kant, Charles Sanders Pierce
      Ontology Comes from Borrowed by Used in Welke Ontologie ? (Based on Guarino, 1998) Research fields Information systems Enterprise integration Natural language translation Medicine Mechanical engineering Standardization of product knowledge Electronic commerce Geographic information systems Legal information systems Biological information systems Knowledge engineering Knowledge representation Qualitative modeling Language engineering Information modeling Information integration Knowledge management and organization Database design Agent based system design
    • Stands for Refers to Symbolize Symbol Referent Concept 1)The Meaning Triangle Philosophical viewpoint Computer science viewpoint An ontology is an explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation (Gruber 1995) An ontology is a shared understanding of some domain of interest. (Uschold et al. 1996) ... philosophical discipline, branch of philosophy that deals with the nature and the organisation of reality.” (Guarino 1998) 2) Utmost views on ontology Welke Ontologie ? twee uiterste invalshoeken
    • philoso-phical ontology pragmatic ontology top level ontology universal ontology domain specific ontology general ontology task specific ontology task inde-pendant ontology language de-pendant ontology language inde- pendant ontology formal ontology not formal onto-logy VIEW specific ontology LEVEL SUBJECT PURPOSE LANGUAGE FORMALIZING application specific ontology Guarino, Nicola (1998). Formal Ontology and Information Systems,. In: Formal Ontology in Information Systems, Proceedings of the First International Conference (FOIS'98) , June 6-8, Trento, Italy, 3-15. Ed. Nicola Guarino. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Bodil Nistrup Madsen (2002), based on a.o.: ontology Welke Ontologie ?
    • Natural language Formal, standardized language Term Lists (flat) Weakly structured Strongly structured Classification and categorization (hierarchical) Ontologies (associative) Controlled Vocabulary Authority List Synonym rings Subjects headings Classification schemes Taxonomies Mind Maps Faceted classification Thesauri TAO topics maps Full topic maps position paper by Tore Hoel, Oslo University College, 2007 Technieken voor het beschrijven van semantiek (op een logaritmische schaal)
    • Natural language Formal, standardized language Term Lists (flat) Weakly structured Strongly structured Classification and categorization (hierarchical) Ontologies (associative) Controlled Vocabulary Authority List Synonym rings Subjects headings Classification schemes Taxonomies Mind Maps Faceted classification Thesauri TAO topics maps Full topic maps ..verschillende bedrijfsbrede hulpmiddelen er op afgebeeld 2) Tag Cloud 3)Zachman Framework 1) Enterprise ontology 4) IBM IFW
    • Enterprise Purpose Time Action Inter-context relationship Object Actor Facility Location (1) Voorbeeld: topniveau van een enterprise ontologie Somebody (actor) does Something (action), for Some reasons (purpose), for Someone (object), with the help of Something (facility), Somewhere (location) and Sometimes (time) Mauri Leppänen, A Contextual-Based Enterprise Ontology, 2007 Context
    • Communities of interests and boundary objects 3) Boundary objects Distributed Intelligence: From Reflective Practitioners to Reflective Communities, Gerhard Fischer. Center for LifeLong Learning & Design (L3D) Department of Computer Science and Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, http://l3d.cs.colorado.edu/~gerhard/ , may 2005. Artifacts, documents and perhaps even vocabulary that can help people from different communities build a shared understanding. Boundary objects will be interpreted differently by the different communities, and it is an acknowledgement and discussion of these differences that enables a shared understanding to be formed. 1) A community of practice is a group of people who do a certain type of work, talk to each other about their work, and derive some measure of their identity from that work. 2) A community of interest involves members of distinct communities of practice coming together to solve a particular problem of common concern (Arias and Fischer 2000). 1) 2) 3)
    • (2) Van persoonlijke tagging naar sociale tagging Informatie objecten Persoonlijke tags een gebruiker organiseert eigen data en data van anderen Tekstueel & Niet- tekstueel Tag Cloud: A visual representation of social tags , organized into paragraph -style layout , usually in alphabetical order , where the relative size and weight of the font for each tag corresponds to the relative frequency of its use. Publiekelijk toegankelijk Match? Gebaseerd op presentatie: Digital categorization , 2005, Rashmi Sinha = voorbeeld van een boundary object
    • Een informatie(object) dat de moeite waard is om terug te halen: een artikel, afbeelding, enz. Fase 0 Fase 1 Meerdere concepten worden geactiveerd Fase 2 Een van de concepten wordt gekozen Categoriseer Registreer het gekozen concept Een informatie(object) dat de moeite waard is om terug te halen: een artikel, afbeelding, enz. Fase 0 Fase 1 Meerdere concepten worden geactiveerd Tagging Registreer alle geactiveerde concepten Het cognitieve proces achter digitale categorisatie (1) en tagging (2) Analysis-Paralysis! 1) Categorisatie 2) Tagging Gebaseerd op presentatie: Digital categorization , 2005, Rashmi Sinha
    • 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 (3)
    • The Information Framework
      • Three views
      • Three levels
      • Ten columns
      • Five rows
      • Fifty cells
      (Modelware International, 1999) III) Technical View II) Business View I) Organisation View Structure Skills Strategy Data Functions Workflow Solutions Interface Networks Platform Domain Concept (A-level) Domain Classification (B-level) Generic Template (C-level) Design Context (C’-level) Operational Bound (D-level) Deconstruction level Composition level Implementation level Types of infomation of constraint Business Data Concepts Classification = (4) Level
    • English Prose Poetry Sonnet Ballad German Prose Poetry Sonnet Ballad French Prose Poetry Sonnet Ballad   To illustrate the differences between faceted and enumerative classifications, consider the class Literature. In an enumerative scheme we might have the following subclasses: Language facet : English German French Form facet : Prose Poetry Sonnet Ballad In a faceted scheme we might have the following instructions and subclasses: Language facet is cited before form facet Citation order: Faceted classification a Library discipline Ranganathan 1939
    • Involved Party(IP) INVOLVED PARTY TYPE Individual INDIVIDUAL GENDER Female Male Organization ORGANIZATION LEGAL STRUCTURE TYPE Corporation Partnership IP Descriptor IP DESCRIPTOR TYPE IPName component IP NAME COMPONENT TYPE Given Name Name Initial Family name IP Relationship IP RELATIONSHIP TYPE IP/IP-relationship IP/IP RELATIONSHIP TYPE IP is spouse of IP IP is employee of IP IP is customer of IP INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT STATUS Working Individual Not Employed Individual 1. Fundamental hierarchy 2. Descriptive hierarchy 3. Relationship hierarchy Answer(s) Question = + scheme Explanation of the B-level - Concept Involved party (IP) (Modelware International, 1999)
    • IFW Framework -3 Layers of the data column Deconstruction level Composition level Implementation level Conceptual Logical Physical A-level B-level C-level & C’-level D-level 9 data concepts 27 classification hierarchies 54 business objects (Modelware International, 1999)
    • Semantische Interoperabiliteit binnen het bedrijf
      • Bedrijfsbrede taxonomieën met de volgende karakteristieken:
        • Een ‘ boundary object’ voor de diverse ‘communities’, die met het bedrijfsinformatiesysteem te maken hebben
          • als communicatiemiddel dat effectieve en efficiënte samenwerking ondersteunt
        • Een middel om standaardisatieprocessen te ondersteunen
          • Voor efficiënte ontwikkeling van applicaties en koppelingen tussen geautomatiseerde systemen
          • Vermindering van fouten in de gegevensverwerking
        • Initieel ontwikkeld op basis van ontologieën, die het relevante deel van de realiteit zo goed mogelijk beschrijven
          • Om te komen tot een stabiele basisstructuur, die met minimale impact aanpasbaar en uitbreidbaar is