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Requirements Engineering for Services
 

Requirements Engineering for Services

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New methods for incorporating experience requirements into sevice design

New methods for incorporating experience requirements into sevice design

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    Requirements Engineering for Services Requirements Engineering for Services Presentation Transcript

    • Requirements Engineering for Services New methods for incorporating experience requirements into sevice design
    • The new service environment
      • The need for multidisciplinary approaches
        • Infusion of technology into services
        • Service activities as a wide area of application fot technology solutions
      • The need for better addressing customer experience requirements
      • The need for integrating the design of multi-interface services
      • The need for better accommodating the interactive nature of service experiences
      © Lia Patrício
    • Service Science Management and Engineering
      • The infusion of technology into services calls for multidisciplinary approaches.
      • The emergence of multi-interface offerings increases the complexity of service systems.
      • Existing service design methods do not address these challenges.
      • Service Science, Management and Engineering is emerging (Chesbrough and Spohrer 2006) .
      © Lia Patrício
    • The new service centered paradigm
      • A new service centered paradigm is emerging (Vargo and Lusch 2004)
        • Value is no longer embedded in tangible products, but is co-created by customers through interaction and usage.
        • Interaction experiences become crucial as a source of value creation (Pine and Gilmore 1998).
      © Lia Patrício
    • Requirements
      • Functional requirements
        • What the system has to do (ex: providing current account information)
      • Non-functional requirements
        • How the system will do it, such as security
      • Customer experience requirements (Patrício et al 2004)
        • Perceived attributes of interaction with the service provider that contribute to a satisfying experience, such as efficiency, usefulness, personal contact
      © Lia Patrício
    • Service experiences (Berry et. al 2002)
      • Service experiences result from customer contact with service clues:
        • Functional – what is provided
        • Emotional – how the service is provided
          • Mechanic – tangible aspects of the service environment
          • Humanic – the way people look and behave
      © Lia Patrício
    • Challenges for Requirements Engineering for Services
      • How can technology enabled service design better incorporate experience requirements?
      • What new methods and tools are needed to help multidisciplinary teams work together?
      • How can multi-interface service systems be better integrated to enhance overall customer experience across channels?
      © Lia Patrício
    • Service Experience Blueprint (Patrício, Fisk, Cunha 2008)
      • A new approach to multi-interface service design
        • Designing multi-interfaces service experiences
        • Service Experience Blueprint
      • The study
        • Qualitative and quantitative studies of two online stock trading services
      • Redesign of the multi-interface stock trading experience
      • Conclusion
      © Lia Patrício
    • Previous research
      • Multi-interface services
        • Rayport and Jaworski 2004; Montoya-Weiss et al. 2003; Meuter et al. 2000, Rangaswamy and Van Bruggen 2005.
      • Experience design
        • Haeckel et al. 2003; Berry et al. 2002; Shaw and Ivens 2002.
      • The need for a multidisciplinary approach
        • Parasuraman and Zinkhan 2002.
      © Lia Patrício
    • Methods used in service marketing and requirements engineering
      • Services marketing
        • Service Blueprint (Shostack 1984, 1985)
        • Quality Function Deployment (Houser 1988, Stuart and Tax 1996, Tax 1997)
      • Requirements engineering
        • Unified Modeling Language – UML (Booch, Rambaugh, Jacobson 1999)
          • Use case diagrams
          • Activity diagrams
        • Goal-Oriented Requirements Analysis (Mylopoulos, Chung, Yu 1999, 2001)
      © Lia Patrício
    • Service Experience Blueprint Method
      • SEB Stage I: Map the customer experience across channels
        • Identification and assessment of customer experience requirements at the multi-interface level, independently of the interface used, as well as the performance of each service interface in satisfying those requirements.
      • SEB stage II: Service Experience Design at the Essential Use Case Level
        • Identify which service interfaces are best suited to provide the desired service experiences, from a multi-interface perspective.
      • SEB stage III: Service Experience Design at the Concrete Use Case Level
        • Design each concrete service interface with the SEB diagram, establishing links between service interfaces whenever it enhances the overall experience.
      © Lia Patrício
    • Service Experience Blueprint (SEB) diagram
      • A representation technique that maps the service experience at each service interface.
        • SEB blends technology and service design issues, integrating interaction diagrams with service blueprint.
        • Customer experience requirements are used to evaluate service interface design alternatives.
        • SEB integrates each channel into the multi-interface service, explicitly designing links between interfaces whenever it enhances overall experience.
      © Lia Patrício
    • Redesign of banking service interaction experiences
    • SEB stage I: Map the customer experience across the different service interfaces
    • Study to map customer interaction experiences
      • Qualitative studies
        • Interviews and focus groups with 36 bank customers
        • Usability testing and focus group with 23 customers
      • Quantitative studies
        • Telephone survey with 2142 customers
        • E-mail survey with 1934 customers
        • E-mail survey with 425 customers
      © Lia Patrício
    • Service interface relative performance in the three dimensions analyzed © Lia Patrício
    • Customer experience requirements for different essential use cases © Lia Patrício Construct means (summated scales) in a 0-10 scale; ** statistically significant at p<0.01 Importance of CERs: 0 - not at all important; 10 – extremely important IB and BB satisfaction: 0 - totally unsatisfied; 10 – totally satisfied IB and BB usage: 0 – never use this service interface for this financial activity; 10 always use this service interface Importance given to CERs Current account Mortgage loan Mean difference usefulness 8.94 9.04 -0.10 efficiency 9.37 8.76 0.61** personal contact 8.07 9.10 -1.02** IB satisfaction 8.90 4.27 4.64** usage 8.85 3.27 5.59** BB satisfaction 6.11 7.92 -1.81** usage 2.51 8.19 -5.68**
    • Study results and implications
      • Each service interface has its advantages and disadvantages, and no one is best in every dimension.
      • Customers use a mix of service interfaces in their general relationship with the bank, and then choose the one that best satisfies the needs generated by each financial activity at hand.
      • Service interfaces are substitutes for each service activity, but complement each other in offering an overall satisfying experience.
      © Lia Patrício
    • SEB Stage II: Service experience design at the Essential Use Case level
    • Current account information gathering
    • Essential use case and experience requirements for current account information © Lia Patrício Construct means (summated scales) in a 0-10 scale Importance of CERs: 0 - not at all important; 10 – extremely important IB and BB satisfaction: 0 - totally unsatisfied; 10 – totally satisfied IB and BB usage: 0 – never use this service interface for this financial activity; 10 always use this service interface Basic functional-requirements Customer Bank Intentions responsibilities Importance of experience requirements Service interface satisfaction and usage Request information of account balance Provide information of account balance 1.efficiency 9.4 2. usefulness 8.9 3. personal contact 8.1 IB satisfaction 8.9 IB usage 8.9 BB satisfaction 6.1 BB usage 2.5
    • Goal-oriented analysis © Lia Patrício Branch Banking Satisfaction for current account information gathering Efficiency Usefulness P. Contact ! Current account information Internet Banking Specialized personnel Limited Opening hours Physical branch Internet access Self- service 24 hours service + - + + - - + softgoal or experience requirement goal or functional requirement
    • Use case diagram for multi-interface service design © Lia Patrício
    • Mortgage loan application
    • Essential use case and experience requirements for mortgage loan application © Lia Patrício Construct means (summated scales) in a 0-10 scale Importance of CERs: 0 - not at all important; 10 – extremely important IB and BB satisfaction: 0 - totally unsatisfied; 10 – totally satisfied IB and BB usage: 0 – never use this service interface for this financial activity; 10 always use this service interface Basic functional-requirements Customer Bank Intentions responsibilities Importance of experience requirements Service interface satisfaction and usage Request loan Request formal and informal information about customer Provide information requested Analyze information Approve/reject loan Propose loan conditions (amount, price, term…) Accept/reject/negotiate loan conditions 1. personal contact 9.1 2. usefulness 9.0 3. efficiency 8.8 BB satisfaction 7.9 BB usage 8.2 IB satisfaction 4.3 IB usage 3.3
    • © Lia Patrício Efficiency Usefulness P. Contact Satisfaction with mortgage application ! Mortgage application Internet Banking by Branch Banking Account manager Specialized personnel Physical branch Internet access Self- service No personal advice + - - + + + + -
    • SEB Stage III: Service experience design at the Concrete Use Case level
    • Current account information gathering
    • © Lia Patrício
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    • Mortgage loan application
    • © Lia Patrício
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    • Stock trading
    • © Lia Patrício
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    • Conclusion and future work
      • The SEB method contributes to improve service interaction design:
        • SEB provides a common language and tool to help interaction designers and service managers work together.
        • It carefully incorporates customer experience requirements and interactivity into design.
        • It makes an integrated design of the multi-interface offering.
      • Future work
        • Better integration of SEB with existing interaction design and software development methods, languages and tools.
        • Better integration with backstage components of service interaction design.
      © Lia Patrício