business process is a recipe for achieving a commercial result. Each business process has inputs, method and outputs. The inputs are a pre-requisite that must be in place before the method can be put into practice. When the method is applied to the inputs then certain outputs will be created.
A business process is a collection of related structural activities that produce a specific outcome for a particular customer.
A business process can be part of a larger, encompassing process and can include other business processes that have to be included in its method.
The business process can be thought of as a cookbook for running a business ; "Answer the phone", "place an order", "produce and invoice" might all be examples of a Business Process.
BPM “ BPM is the general term for the services and tools that support explicit process management (such as process analysis, definition, execution, monitoring and administration), including support for human and application-level interaction.” ( Gartner, 2003) “ Supporting business processes using methods, techniques, and software to design, enact, control, and analyze operational processes involving humans, organizations, applications, documents and other sources of information.” (W.M.P. van der Aalst , A. H.M. ter Hofstede , M. Weske, 2003) “ BPM is not a new discussion, but rather a fundamental shift in the availability of integrated tools by which to enable many of the BPM concepts that have been heretofore nothing but pages in a textbook." (Delphi, 2001)
transformed or consumed to produce outputs specify conditions to produce correct means that support execution Inputs outputs controls mechanisms Data or object Produced
A Process Place Transition Place Petrinets Petrinets
IDEF0/ICOM-diagram versus Petrinets
Inputs outputs controls mechanisms Semi-formal: Abstraction of the real world Formal: A further Abstraction of the real world specify conditions to produce correct data or object produced transformed or consumed to produce outputs means that support execution
Business process expert or end user Business process modeling expert S5 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 t12 t13 t14 t15 t16 t17 t18 O2 P19 t' t" p" A formal Process model : Petrinet
The model (& tool) supply:
Validation and Verification
Validation of test sets
Analyses en simulation
Stepwise process simulation
Critical path analysis
Process cost analysis
Completion time analyses
Quantitative stochastic simulation
Analyses of resource utilization
The model is:
Hard to read and understand
There are no relations with the
The data flows
The information systems
The business rules
Sales department Shipment planning department Order planning department Should (also) help the client to better understand his process Business Process Analyses tools
A Process Human resource software application Human resource software application Human resource software application Human resource software application ------ ------ Physical Transport ------ ------ Physical Transport ------ ------ Physical Transport ------ ------ Physical Transport Physical Transport
An ordinary process in an administrative environment
Human resource software application Human resource software application Human resource software application Human resource software application ------ ------ Scan index ------ ------ Human readable Physical document Human readable Electronic Image Electronic transport And automated routing Image viewer Image viewer Image viewer Image viewer archive
Human resource software Application UI WFM-UI WFM-UI Human resource WFM-UI Human resource software Application UI WFM-UI WFM Application Workflow control data & Workflow relevant data WFM-UI Human resource Work List Form Process definitions Work List Work List Work List
Mismatch between the human tasks and the workflow concept of the tools
The straitjacket of the formalized navigation and user interaction
Mismatch between reality and modeled workflow
Incomplete and unreliable input data
Exceptions in the standard flow
Application integration issues
Many existing applications are hard to open up
Unreliable communication and transaction protocols
Integration constraint between various BPM-tools
Source: WfMC reference model Worklist Handler Generates References Manipulate Interact via Invokes Invokes Definition Tool Interpreted by External product/data Software component System control data maintain use update (Supervisor) Organisation/ Role Model Workflow control data Workflow Relevant Data Data Build Time Run Time WfMC Workflow Reference Model User Interface Process Definition Work List Application(s) May reference Workflow Application Data WFM Engine(s) Application(s) may refer to Workflow Enactment Service Administration & Control
Workflow concepts : View 2 Low value processes High Value Business processes Production Collaborative Administrative Ad Hoc Loan Origination Insurance claims Accounting Tech doc creation Expense reports Purchase approvals Budgeting “ Transaction workflow” “ Process management” “ E - Forms” “ Groupware” FYI Routing Review and Approve Product brand mgmt. Software development Repetitive process Unique processes Source: BIS Strategic Decisions Workflow Application Segments
A d-hoc workflows do not have a well-defined process model to follow. The execution path is more or less determined at runtime, and is basically controlled by humans. These are generally not mission critical, and accomplish the flow of information among people within the organization.
Production workflows are also predictable and repetitive. They have well defined process models. These usually involve a number of information systems that may be heterogeneous and distributed. Production workflow management systems are thus, more complex and critical than ad-hoc or administrative.
Administrative workflows are based on simple, repetitive and predictable processes. The ordering and coordination of tasks can thus be automated. However, these too, like ad-hoc workflows, do not involve complex information processing systems, and are generally not mission critical.
Collaborative workflows are characterized by high mission criticality. They are mostly controlled by humans, and lack a well-defined process model. Thus most of the task ordering and coordination is determined at runtime by the workflow participants.
1. Written request 2. Search name Data entry Under- Writer 3 WFM activity Role Role 1 3. Register request 4. Check blacklist 2 4 5. BKR-check 6. VIS-check 6. 2 time name entry 7. Print 8. Produce label 5 6 7
The large amount of transfers results into an inefficient proces with relative long duration
Exception handling is hard to implement
Transfer to WFM-engine Production Workflow
1.Writen request 2. Register request 3. Check 2.1. Search name 2.2. Register request 2.3. Check black list 3.1. BKR-check 3.2. VIS-check Data entry Under- writer 4. Final check and completions 2 4.1.2 time name entry 4.2.Print 4.3.Produce label 1 WFM activity Rol Case steps Rol Case steps
A small amount of transfers results in a efficient process with a relative short duration
Human resource software Application API Human resource software Application API Human resource software Application API The availability and performance becomes highly depended on the participating applications and the network Centralized control for a short period of time
Human resource software Application API Human resource software Application API Human resource software Application API The state of the total system becomes fuzzy and unpredictable Broker application Control in respect to routing and not in respect to the actual overall state
Human resource software Application API Human resource software Application API Human resource software Application API More overview and coordination over a long period of time Broker application Overall control
Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL4WS)
Define flow as abstract series of activities
Each activity is implemented by a WSDL interface
Provides means for handling shared state, compensations, faults etc.
Expose a process as a web service
Web Service Orchestration Activity 1 Shared state and context Public Private Web Service Web Service WSDL Interface WSDL Interface WSDL Interface Activity 2 Activity 3 Individual application transactions
Partner Interface ERP EJB/JMS RDBMS Conversation Transformations State-/ Document Mgmt Business Process Management System Service Interface Business Document XML XML XML Process EAI connectors Interfacing with partners