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  1. 1. EnglishProficiency
  2. 2. What is GRAMMAR?Grammar is thefundamental andbasic of EnglishLanguage.Basic Grammar has
  4. 4. SYNOPSIS• Every NAME is a NOUN.• In place of NOUN, PRONOUNSare used like HE, she, it, etc…• The Adjectives tells usabout the QUALITY of the Noun like GOOD Boy, BESTstudent.• The VERB describes the
  5. 5. • The ADVERB tells us about theQUALITY of the verb i.e. that how the ACTION is being donelike reading SLOWLY, Writing QUICKLY and swimmingSLOWLY etc…•THE PREPOSITION Shows theRELATION like in, At, on etc…• The CONJUCTION is used to join thetwo or more words/
  6. 6. Usage Of CAPITALletters…Capital letter is sometimescalled BIG letters or theUPPER CASE..A B C D E F G HI J K L M N O PQ R S T U V W X Y Z
  7. 7. • Always use FIRST letter of thesentence as the CAPITAL letter. The student is studying.• Always use the capital letter forthe letter “i "no matter wherever it isused. Sunny and I are good friends.• Always use capital letter for theNames of the PEOPLE. Alice, Robin, Alex, Mr. David.• Always use capital letter for theNames of the PLACES. Amritsar, Delhi, London,
  8. 8. nouns… NOUNS are used forPEOPLE,ANIMALS,PLACES or THINGS.common nouns… COMMON NOUNS are the commonlyused words to address the people,animals, places or things (not specificto anybody).Name of the PEOPLE Actor,Lawyer, Baker, Baby, Doctor etc.Name of the ANIMALS Eagle, Zebra,
  9. 9. proper nouns… PROPER NOUNS are the names of theparticular person, people, places or things.They always begin with Capital letters.Name of the PEOPLE Sunny, Alice, Santa Clause, Harryetc.Name of the COUNTRIES and their PEOPLE NAMES . America, India, Japanese, Canadianetc.Name of the TOWNS, CITIES, BUILDINGS andLANDMARKS Amritsar, Sydney, National Museum,Lawrence Road etc.Days of WEEK and Months of YEAR
  10. 10. NOUNS are oftwo types…oSINGULARNOUNS.oPLURAL
  11. 11. singulAr nouns…• Singular Nouns describes only oneperson, place , animal or thing. E.g.- A Women, An hour, An Owl, Atrain , A Car etc.• We always use A or AN beforeSingular Nouns.• AN is used before the wordsbeginning with VOWELS. VOWELS are A,E,I ,O and U. (5
  12. 12. plurAl nouns…Plural Nouns describes two or morepeople, animals, places or things.•Most nouns are made plurals byadding –s at the end. Cat- Cats Game-Games. Pencil-Pencils Photo-Photos• When the last letter of singularnoun is ch, sh,ss,s or x they are made plural usually by adding –es
  13. 13. •Some Singular Nouns which ends with –y aremade plural by adding –ies Butterfly-Butterflies Story-Stories Candy- Candies Lady-Ladies•But if there is a VOWEL before –y, then theyare made plural by adding –s. Key-Keys Day-Days Tray-Trays Toy-Toys•Singular Nouns ending with –f are madeplural by replacing –f with –ves. Half- Halves Wolf-Wolves Leaf-Leaves Shelf-Shelves
  14. 14. • Some Singular nouns that ends with –feare made plural by replacing –fe with –ves. Knife-Knives Life-Lives Wife-Wives• Some plural Nouns do not follow -s, -esor -ves rule instead the word changes. Man-Men Mouse-Mice Tooth-Teeth Woman-WomenChild-Children Foot-Feet• Some nouns are same as singular aswell as plural.
  15. 15. COLLECTIVE NOUNS… Collective Nouns are the wordsused for the groups of the people,animals or things. A family A crew Ateam A group A gang Aclass•Most of the collective noun takesingular verb My family is happy to see me. My group is brilliant.•But few collective nouns always takeplural verb
  16. 16. Masculine andfeminine noun…•Masculine Nouns aremeant for MALES (Man, Boyetc).•Feminine Nouns aremeant for
  17. 17. Masculine NounFeminine Noun Bridegroom Bride King Queen Boy Girl Man Women Waiter Waitress Mr. Mrs. Brother Sister Father Mother Son Daughter Uncle Aunt Lion Lioness
  18. 18. •Many nouns are used for bothmales and females. They are called commongender nouns. Doctor, Nurse, Scientist,Lawyer, Teacher, Engineer.•Many nouns which are neithermale or female are
  20. 20. pronouns… PRONOUNS are the words which areused in the place of nouns.•PERSONAL Pronouns are used for theperson.•I, YOU, SHE, HE, IT, WE, THEY are calledPERSONAL Pronouns.•They are used in place of noun wherethe noun is SUBJECT. I like you. He is my father. It is my dog.
  22. 22. Groups ofpronoun… The person speaking isFIRST PERSON :-called the first person. I ME WE US (Plural)SECOND PERSON :- The person spoken to iscalled the second person. YOU YOUTHIRD PERSON :- The person spoken to or theperson for whom the FIRST and SECOND person aretalking is called third person. HE HIM SHE HER
  23. 23. reflexes pronoun… REFLEXES PRONOUNSreflects to subjectbackwards. In this case,subject and the object of thesentence are same. I shall make cakemyself.
  24. 24. interrogAtive pronouns… INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS are usedto ask QUESTIONS like WHO, WHOM, WHICH,WHOSE, WHAT are InterrogativePronouns.•WHO is usually used for Subject. If thequestion indicates HE, SHE, it then Who is used.•WHOM is used only for the object. If thequestion indicates HIM,HER then whom is used.•WHICH is used for the things.
  25. 25. demonstrAtive pronouns… The words like THIS, THAT, THESE,THOSE are called Demonstrative Pronouns.They are the indicating words. THIS is my house. thAt is john‟s house. THESE are my clothes. THOSE are horses. What are THOSE.•The words THIS and THESE are used when weare pointing things near to us.(THIS is for Singular. THOSE is for Plural)•The word THAT and THOSE are used when we
  26. 26. Adjective… An ADJECTIVE is the describingword. It tells us about thequality of noun. It usuallyappear before the noun itdescribes. Sometimes, it appearsafter the noun, later in thesentence. A deep sea. Abeautiful girl.
  27. 27. ADJECTIVE have differentendings…• Some adjective ends with –ful or –less A beautiful dress Ahomeless person. A careful driver A carelessdriver.• Usually an adjective ending with –fuland less are Antonyms (opposite to each other)• Often adjectives ending with –ful
  28. 28. •some Adjectives ends with “y” Dirty Sleepy Oily Sunny•some Adjectives ends with “-ive” Attractive Creative Active Attentive•some Adjective end with “-ing” Caring Loving Interesting Exciting
  29. 29. types of Adjectives…• Mostof the adjectives describethe quality of the noun. They are called adjective ofquality. A cold drink Abeautiful girl. A faithful dog A hotcoffee.
  30. 30. •Some adjectives describe thecolour of the noun. White shoes A redrose. A blue sea A greenapple.• Some adjectives describe thesize of the noun. A large castle Abig tray.
  31. 31. forms of Adjectives…ADJECTIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVEFast Faster FasterBig Bigger BiggestBeautiful More beautiful Most BeautifulIntelligent More intelligent MostintelligentActive More active Most
  32. 32. •In case of Comparative adjective ,the word „thAn‟ is used. He runs faster than you. I am more active than you. Allen speaks louder thanall.•In case of Superlative ofAdjective, the word “the” is used before the adjective. This is the longest route.
  33. 33. determiners…….. DETERMINERS are the wordssuch as THIS, THOSE, MY, THEIR,WHICH. They are the specialadjectives that are used beforethe nouns.DETERMINERS are of four kinds:-•DEMONSTRATIVE DETERMINERS.•INTERROGATIVE DETERMINERS.•POSSESSIVE DETERMINERS.
  34. 34. DEMONSTRATIVEdeterminers… DEMONSTRATIVE DETERMINERS areused to demonstrate, describe or tellwhich thing or person (noun, pronoun),you mean.The word THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE aredemonstrative determiners.• THIS as singular form and THESE asplural form are used to point people or things near to us. I am buying this book. I wantto purchase this house.
  35. 35. INTERROGATIVEdeterminers… INTERROGATIVE DETERMINERS areused before nouns to ask the questionabout people or things. They are alsocalled INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVE.•The word WHICH, WHAT and WHOSE arecalled Interrogative determiners. What is your name? What time is this? Whose dog is barking in
  36. 36. possessive determiners… POSSESSIVE DETERMINERS are thewords which are used before the noun todefine or determine the possession of thenoun. The words likeMY,OUR,YOUR,HIS,HER,ITS, THEIR arepossessive determiners. SINGULAR PLURALFIRST PERSON MY OURSECOND PERSON YOU YOURSTHIRD PERSON HIS THEIR HER THEIR ITS THEIRMy book is very interesting. Your
  37. 37. QUANTIFYING DETERMINERSThey tell us about the quantity ofthe nouns. Such asMany, much, several: Tell about thequantity without giving the numbers.few, A few, the few…….little, A little, the little….All, half, some, enough, a lot of, more,most, other, plenty ofmuch, less, much more….Another, every and each: they are usedonly with singular nouns.
  38. 38. the Articles… The words A, AN and THE arecalled ARTICLES.A and AN are indefinite articles.They do not define any particularnoun or used with common singularnoun. They are used before thesingular nouns.•AN is used before the VOWELS(A,E,I,O,U). I am reading a book.
  39. 39. •the word “the” is cAlled A definitearticle. It is used before a particular person or thing(particular noun) The telephone bell isringing. I need your help in the bookof Shakespeare. He has won the race. Thomson is sitting in thedrawing room.
  40. 40. verbs And tenses…verbs… Most verbs are action words.They tells us that what people,animals or things are doing orabout the action of the noun like ACT BUY RENT CROSStenses… FALL FLY GO Tenses are the feature of COMEverb indicating when actiontook place.
  41. 41. TENSESPRESENT PAST FUTURESimple Present Simple Past Simple FuturePresent Past Futurecontinuous continuous continuousPresent Past Perfect FuturePerfect Past Perfect PerfectPresent Continuous FuturePerfect PerfectContinuous Continuous
  42. 42. SIMPLE :- It depicts general oruniversal truth or situations existing for aperiod of time or non- continuousaction occurring oraction occurring at regularintervals.CONTINOUS :-Its depicts continuousor ongoing actions.
  43. 43. PRESENT TENSESIMPLE PRESENT TENSE express the generaltruth, universal truth or the action orsituation existing for the period of time oraction occurring at regular intervals. Alice wears glasses. The sun sets in the west. The children go to school bybus. Father takes the dog for awalk every morning.•Usage of –s with first form of verb is done incase of he, she and it. With rest only firstform of the verb is used You do your work.
  44. 44. USE OF IS, AM AND AREThe word IS, Am and ARE are also verbof present tense, but they are notaction words. They are simple presenttense of verb BE.•`is‟ is used with he, she, it.•`Am‟ is used with i.•`Are‟ is used with you, we, they etc. It is very hot today. I am Peter. My brother isJohn. His father is a teacher.
  45. 45. •IS and ARE are used with the word`there‟ or `this‟ to sAy what you can see or hear. Theplural of this is THESE. There is a fence aroundthe house. this is A pArrot‟s voice. There are two guardsat the gate.
  46. 46. USE OF HAS AND HAVEUse of HAS and HAVE in simple presenttense shows possession. They areused to talk about things thatpeople do or get.•HAS is used with HE, SHE, IT(singularthird person)•HAVE is used with I,WE, THEY etc. Alice has fever. Alex has my pen. Smith has a bike and a very good
  47. 47. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE ORCONTINUOUS TENSEThis tense is used when the actionis still going on or happening‟s A continuous or on goingactivity.•In this IS, AM and ARE are used asauxiliary verbs.•First form of verb with –ing isused. I am writing.
  48. 48. •In interrogative tense, the auxiliaryverb will come before subject. Am I writing neat and clean? Is the phone bell ringing? Is he driving a car? Are they swimming in thepool?•The present progressive tense isalso used to talk about the things you have planned to do or for thethings that are going to happen in the future. His parents are going to take him
  49. 49. PRESENT PERFECTTENSEPRESENT PERFECT TENSE is used forthe non-continuous actionscompleted before a certain time.It is used to talk about thehappenings in the past thatexplain or effects the present.•HAS and HAVE are used as theauxiliary verbs.•Third form of verb is used. Alice has got full
  50. 50. USE OF SINCE AND FOR•SINCE is used to depict the point oftime. I have been working on thisproject since morning. It has been raining sincemorning.•FOR is used to portray period oftime.
  51. 51. PRESENT PERFECTCONTINUOUS TENSEPRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUSTENSE is used when continuous oron going action is completedbefore a certain time.•HAS BEEN and HAVE BEEN areused as auxiliary verbs.•First form of verb with –ing isused.
  52. 52. PAST TENSEsimple pAst tense…•It is used for the thing that happenedin past.•It is also used to talk about thethings that happened in the stories.•In Simple Past Tense, second form ofverb is used. He gave me an apple. He completed his work. I went to hospital to see
  53. 53. USE OF DID• Did is the helping verb in thepast tense.•We can make negative sentenceby using did not. When did is used,the first form of verb is used inthe past tense. I did not go to school. He did not attend the class.
  54. 54. USE OF WAS AND WERE•Was and Were are the verbs of in the PastTense.• WAS is used with I,HE,SHE and IT (Singularnouns and pronouns)• WERE is used with WE,THEY and YOU(Plural nouns and pronouns)• Use of WAS and WERE is very similar tothe use of IS, AM and ARE in simple present tense. Einstein was a greatscientist. It was very cold on
  55. 55. PAST PROGRESSIVE ORCONTINUOUStalk about the things or • It is used to TENSE action that were happening at a certain moment in the past. • In this auxiliary verb WAS or WERE is used. • In this first form of verb and –ing is used. Alice was suffering from fever yesterday.
  56. 56. PAST PERFECTTENSE•PAST PERFECT TENSE is used forthe non- continuous actions completed before acertain time in the past.• In this HAD is used as theauxiliary verb.• And third form of verb is used. He had completed his job . You had passed university
  57. 57. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSTENSEPAST PERFECT TENSE is used for thecontinuous action completedbefore a certain time in the past.•In this HAD BEEN is used as anauxiliary verb.•First form of verb and –ing is usedas the verb form. He had been crossing the river,
  58. 58. FUTURE TENSEFUTURE TENSE is used for the things thatare going to happen in the future.•SHALL and WILL are used as auxiliaryverbs.•First form of verb is used.•SHALL is used with I and WE.•WILL is used with YOU, HE, SHE, IT and THEY.•The use of WILL is also acceptablewith I and WE. I shall go to school next week. He will come to collect the feestomorrow.
  59. 59. •There is also an another way toexpress the things or future actions that are going to happenby using “going to” The winter is going to start inthe month of November. They are going to come for thedinner tonight. Tomorrow, he is going to bakethe cake.•We can also use simple presenttense to talk about the things
  60. 60. FUTURE CONTINUOUSTENSE CONTINUOUS TENSE is usedFUTUREto talk about the continuous orongoing actions that will behappening in the future.•WILL BE and SHALL BE are usedas auxiliary verbs.•First form of verb with –ing isused. He will be coming
  61. 61. FUTURE PERFECTTENSEFUTURE PERFECT TENSE is usedto talk about non-continuousaction completed before acertain time in future.•WILL HAVE is used as theauxiliary verb.•Third form of verb is used. He will have completedhis job.
  62. 62. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUSTENSE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE isFUTUREused to talk about the continuous,ongoing actions which arecompleted before a certain time.•WILL HAVE BEEN and SHALL HAVEBEEN are used as auxiliary/helping verbs.•First form of verb is used with –ing.The school will have been opening
  63. 63. USE OF CAN ANDCOULDCAN and COULD both are auxiliary verbs.they Are used to tAlk About people‟sability to do things.•COULD is the past tense of CAN. He can run faster than me. Alice can well afford anexpensive car. He can hold me. Some birds cannot fly. Alice could not comebecause he was ill. Alice said we could go home
  64. 64. USE OF MAY AND MIGHT MAY and MIGHT are also helping orauxiliary verbs.•MAY is used to sought or give permissionto do something. May I ride your bicycle. You may come in. May I come in.•MAY and MIGHT are also used to talkabout the things that are going to happen but the probability ofhappening in MIGHT is quite less than MAY.
  65. 65. USE OF DO, DOES AND DIDDO and DOES are used in present tenseto talk about the actions.DO is used with I,WE and THEY etc.DOES is used with HE,SHE and IT(Singular noun and pronouns of thirdperson). SINGULAR PLURALFIRST PERSON I DO WE DOSECOND PERSON YOU DO YOU DOTHIRD PERSON HE DOES THEY DO SHE DOES
  66. 66. Example:- Dad does his work. We do exercise together. They do amazing games.•DO and DOES are also used as helpingverbs to ask and answer questions.•DID is the past form of DO and DOES. Dad did his work. We did exercisetogether. They did amazing games. Did you find an answer. Did you like an ice-cream.
  67. 67. Example:- Do you like mango. Does it rain today. Do you enjoy music.•DO and DOES along with negativelike do not and does not is used to make negative verbsor answers. We do not exercisetogether. They do not do
  68. 68. USE OF Will and wouldThe word WILL is used when youask someone to do something.Will you please stop making noise. Will you close the door.The word WILL is also used tooffer something or suggestsomething.Will I drive the car for you? Will Ihelp you in this matter.
  69. 69. USE OF WOULD LIKEWe use WOULD LIKE when we areoffering people things or asking forsomething. Would you like to have acup of coffee? I would like to take rest.•When people are accepting thingsthey often use WOULD LOVE instead of WOULD LIKE. Would you like to have tohave a cup of tea?
  70. 70. USE OF SHOULD, Ought to &SHOULD is also a helping or Mustauxiliary verb. It is used to talkabout actions that arenecessary or for the things weshould ought to do. We should respect our country. You should not talk loudly in thelibrary.Ought to: - The usage of ought tovery similar to the usage ofshould, but it is considered to be
  71. 71. SUBJECT-VERBAGREEMENTWhen we write a sentence, subjectand verb must agree with eachother. If we are using singularnoun or pronoun as a subject, thenwe must use singular verb.•If we use plural noun/ pronoun asa subject, then we must use plural verb. Sally enjoys jazz music. Alice like mangoes.
  72. 72. COLLECTIVE NOUNSCOLLECTIVE NOUNS may usesingular or plural verbs. The class is studying. The family is going toAmerica.•Some plural nouns such aspeople, cattle, police always take plural verb. People are going to run a
  73. 73. ADVERBAn ADVERB is a word that tells usabout the quality of verb. It tellsabout the way the action is beingdone.Most of the adverbs end with –ly Quickly Firstly Happily Beautifully Slowly Loudly Bravely HeavilyEXAMPLE: He is driving
  74. 74. VERBS/ADJECTIVE ADVERBS Quick Quickly Slow Slowly Loud Loudly Beautiful Beautifully
  75. 75. •Some adverb describe the wayin which something is done. The driver brakedsuddenly. He is driving safely.•Some adverbs describe whensomething is done. Paul has just
  76. 76. •Some adverbs tell you wheresomething happens.Upstairs Inside Here Next-doorDownstairs Outside There AwayEXAMPLE:- They are playing outside. it is rAining . let‟s goinside. The children are going
  77. 77. PREPOSITIONSA PREPOSITION is the word thatconnects one thing with anothershowing how they are related. Apreposition is usually followed by anoun or a pronoun.•Some prepositions tells us about theposition or place like IN, INTO,ON and OFF. There is a rainbow in thesky. A book fells off the shell.
  78. 78. Some prepositions are used totalk about the time. Like ON,UNTIL, DURING, BEFORE, AFTERand IN. Many shops are closedon Sunday. I am going to Delhiduring winter.
  79. 79. USAGE OF OF, FOR ANDWITH of “of”•usAge I will buy a packet of milkand a bottle of coke. Alice is a member of tennisteam. I need two volumes of book. Most of my classmates aregoing for picnic.•usAge of “for” I made this card for my mom. Is there any room for both
  80. 80. •usAge of “with” Mix the milk with honey. Allen painted the picturewith his new brush. Cross the lane with care. Dad is angry with me. I went for a movie with myfriend.
  81. 81. USAGE OF EXCEPT ANDINSTEAD OF I like everybody in theclass except John. I will give you notes on allsubjects except Maths. You used this route insteadof that route.
  82. 82. use of “on” And “in”•USE OF ON ON is used for the things lyingoutside.Example:- The papers are lying on thetable. The cup of tea is kept on thetable.•USE OF IN IN is used for the things insidethe object.
  83. 83. USE OF BEHIND ANDAFTERBEHIND•USE OF BEHIND is used when we need totell about the location.Example:- You meet me behind theclass. My house is behind the river.•USE OF AFTER AFTER is used when we need totell about the time.Example:-
  84. 84. use of “At” or “in”•USE OF AT AT is used for small locationsor particular point.Example:- I reside at LawrenceRoad in Amritsar. let‟s meet up At indiAgate.•USE OF IN In is used for bigger location
  85. 85. USE OF INSIDE ANDBESIDE•INSIDE is used when the nounis in the object. John is hiding insidethe wardrobe. Fruits are kept insidethe basket.•BESIDE means along or
  86. 86. USEOF LIKE, AS AND THAN•The word LIKE is used to tell thesimilarity between the two things or people. Alice looks like his dad. Allen smiles like hismother. My car is like your car.•The word AS and THAN are used tocompare things. Michael is as tall as hisfather. Susan is as pettier as the
  87. 87. POSITION OF VERB The cat jumped on thetop of the car. The boy is standing atthe front of the gate. He is sitting in themiddle of the park.•Some prepositions are alsoused to indicate the direction.
  88. 88. OTHER COMMONLY USED WORDS ORPREPOSITIONS angry with you. I was I am pleased with your work. I am interested in your work. I am very good at drawing. whAt‟s wrong with you. I agree with your idea. This book belongs to that rack.
  89. 89. CONJUCTIONS CONJUCTIONS are the words whichare used to link or connect words orsentences. the words Are “ And”,“but” And “or”.•AND is used to link words that aresimilar. I bought fruits and vegetablesfrom the market. I am going to buy books andstationery.
  90. 90. •BUT is used to link words that aredifferent and normally do not go together. He is a gentleman but sometimesvery short tempered. The room is very cool butuncomfortable. I am going to buy books andstationery but not vegetables. He works quickly but notaccurately.
  91. 91. CONSECUTIVE EXAMPLE OF AND, OR,BUT The room is cool andcomfortable. The room is cool but notcomfortable. Do you want room cool orcomfortable.Conjunction of Time: - before, after,since, until, when, while, as soon asetc. ( Tells about the time)Conjunction of Place: - where,
  92. 92. CONJUCTIONS are also used tojoin two sentences. is working on•Mom is cooking food. Dadaccounts. Mom is cooking food and dad isworking on accounts.•Sam is playing football. George isalso playing football. Sam and George are playingfootball.•Sam called up George. George wasnot at home. Sam called up George but he was
  93. 93. USE OF EITHER ANDORThey are used to givechoice between the twoitems.You can choose either penor pencil to write.You can buy eitherclothes or shoes.
  94. 94. USE OF NEITHER AND NORThey are used to expressthat none is to be used.You can choose neither pennor pencil to write.You can buy neither clothes
  95. 95. INTERJECTIONSInterjection is the word thatexpress sudden, strong feelingsuch as SURPRISE, PAIN andPLEASURE..An Exclamation sign (!) is usedwith these words.Example:- HURRAY! WELLDONE!
  96. 96. SENTENCESentence is a group of words thatexpress a complete thought ormeaning. SUBJECT VERB OBJECTA sentence must have subject andverb, but it may or may not haveobject. SUBJECT VERB OBJECT HE GOES ALICE IS MAKING
  97. 97. Other Form S V OOther Usual Form S A V A O AdjectiveAdverbThere are four types of sentences. Declarative Sentence. InterrogativeSentence.
  98. 98. DECLARATIVESENTENCES.Declarative Sentences areused to make statement. The children aregoing to the school.INTERROGATIVEwork He does hisSENTENCES.well.Interrogativewent to Alice Sentences arelibraryask questions.used to to buy books. Alice will come to Are you going toIndia next
  99. 99. exclAmAtory sentences…Exclamatory Sentencesexpress a strong emotion. Asigh of exclamation (!) isused at the end of thesestatements. What a lovelyweather! You Stupid man!
  100. 100. imperAtive sentences…IMPERATIVE SENTENCE is used to giveorder. Standup everyone! Ok, open the page 25 of yourbooklet! Sit down!Imperative sentences are very directway of telling people to dosomething. Use of DO or PLEASE beforean imperative is more polite. Please, standup everyone.
  101. 101. Some sentences have two objects.The direct object receives theaction and the indirect objecttells to whom or for whom theaction is done.•Dad bought James a bike. Dad bought a bike for James.•The bank lends people money. The bank lends money to people.•Alice gave his dog a bone. Alice gave a bone to his dog.•Alice is showing us his stamp
  102. 102. negAtive sentences…A Negative Sentence tells us thatsomething is not done. It contains aword like NOT, NO, NO ONE, NOBODY,NEVER,NONE or a negative verb like ISNOT, DOES NOT, WAS/WERE NOT, CAN/MAYNOT, WILL/SHALL NOT. He never tells a lie. I do not have arequired document.
  103. 103. questions… There are two types of questions. •YES or NO Question. •WH- Questions.•YES or NO Questions Can you swim? Yes/ No Are you Coming? Yes/No Is it dark there? Yes/No May I come in?
  104. 104. wh questions…WHAT, WHICH,who,whom,when,where,how, whose … Where are you? What are you doing? Why are you going? Which is your pen? How many boys arethere?
  105. 105. punctuAtion mArks…PUNCTUATION MARKS are signs suchas FULL STOP, COMMAS andQUESTIONS MARKS. These are usedto make meanings of thefull stop…sentences clear.At the end of one sentence,full stop (.) is used. I am going to beach. I am feeling verygood.
  106. 106. commA…•COMMA is used to give a pause in thestatement.•They are used between nouns andnoun phrases in the list. I brought three apples, two oranges, five mangoes and a dozen bananas from the market.•Commas are used between adjectiveswhen you use several of them to describe something. She is tall, fair coloured andbeautiful girl.
  107. 107. EXCLAMATION MARK (!)An Exclamation mark is oftenused after a command , aninterjection or a word thatshows surprise or anger. Please, sit down! Hurray! We won thematch. Keep quiet!Quotation Mark: Use quotation
  108. 108. QUESTION MARK (?)QUESTION MARK is used at theend of the statement wherequestion is being asked. How are you? What is the time? Do you want to go tothe party? Are you cominghere?
  109. 109. Apostrophe („s)Apostrophe („s) is used to show whoowns the thing.the „s is used After singulAr noun ornames. peter‟s Alice‟s mike‟s this is peter‟s bike. we like mom‟s cooking. this is princess‟s bAll.For the plural nouns that end with - s,apostrophe is used after – s.
  110. 110. •For some plural nouns that do not endwith –s, apostrophe is put As „s. the men‟s chAnging room isoccupied. the people‟s benefit lies with theclearance of the constitutionalbill.•we cAn Also use the person‟s office orshop by using a possessive form with an apostrophe. the bAker‟s shop.
  111. 111. •We can make a possessive form of twopeople joined by and, such as Peter and John or Margaret and Susanby putting „s only After the second name. peter And john‟s home Are very closeto the supermarket. mArgAret And susAn‟s dress Are notsuitable for the wedding party.• Apostrophe can also be used to showedin words contractions.• Some Contractions are :-