Cmc chapter 06 edited


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Cmc chapter 06 edited

  1. 1. Development of the Periodic Table <ul><li>1700s - Lavoisier compiled a list of all the known elements of the time. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Section 6-1 <ul><li>Newlands noticed when the elements were arranged by increasing atomic mass, their properties repeated every eighth element. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1800s brought more information and scientists needed a way to organize knowledge about elements. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Section 6-1 <ul><li>Periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when they are arranged by increasing atomic number is called periodic law. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Section 6-1
  5. 5. Section 6-3 Ionization Energy (cont.) <ul><li>The octet rule states that atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for predicting what types of ions an element is likely to form. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Section 6-1 <ul><li>Columns are called groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Rows are called periods. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements in groups 1,2, and 13-18 are called the representative elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements in groups 3-12 are known as the transition metals. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Section 6-1 <ul><li>Elements are classified as metals, non-metals, and metalloids. </li></ul><ul><li>Metals are generally shiny when smooth and clean, solid at room temperature, and good conductors of heat and electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Alkali metals are all the elements in group 1 except hydrogen, and are very reactive. </li></ul><ul><li>Alkaline earth metals are in group 2, and are also highly reactive. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Section 6-1 <ul><li>The transition elements are divided into transition metals and inner transition metals. </li></ul><ul><li>The two sets of inner transition metals are called the lanthanide series and actinide series and are located at the bottom of the periodic table. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Section 6-1 <ul><li>Non-metals generally gases or brittle, dull-looking solids, and poor conductors of heat and electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Group 17 is composed of highly reactive elements called halogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Group 18 gases are extremely unreactive and commonly called noble gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Metalloids have physical and chemical properties of both metals and non-metals, such as silicon and germanium. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Recall electrons in the highest principal energy level are called valence electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>All group 1 elements have one valence electron. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Section 6-2 <ul><li>The energy level of an element’s valence electrons indicates the period on the periodic table in which it is found. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of valence electrons for elements in groups 13-18 is ten less than their group number. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Section 6-2 Organizing the Elements by Electron Configuration (cont.)
  13. 13. Section 6-2
  14. 14. Section 6-2 <ul><li>s-block elements consist of group 1 and 2, and the element helium. </li></ul><ul><li>Group 1 elements have a partially filled s orbital with one electron. </li></ul><ul><li>Group 2 elements have a completely filled s orbital with two electrons. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Section 6-2 The s-, p-, d-, and f-Block Elements (cont.) <ul><li>After the s-orbital is filled, valence electrons occupy the p-orbital. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups 13-18 contain elements with completely or partially filled p orbitals. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Section 6-2 The s-, p-, d-, and f-Block Elements (cont.) <ul><li>The d-block contains the transition metals and is the largest block. </li></ul><ul><li>There are exceptions, but d-block elements usually have filled outermost s orbital, and filled or partially filled d orbital. </li></ul><ul><li>The five d orbitals can hold 10 electrons, so the d-block spans ten groups on the periodic table. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Section 6-2 The s-, p-, d-, and f-Block Elements (cont.) <ul><li>The f-block contains the inner transition metals. </li></ul><ul><li>f-block elements have filled or partially filled outermost s orbitals and filled or partially filled 4f and 5f orbitals. </li></ul><ul><li>The 7 f orbitals hold 14 electrons, and the inner transition metals span 14 groups. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Section 6-3 Atomic Radius <ul><li>Atomic size is a periodic trend influenced by electron configuration. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Section 6-3 Atomic Radius (cont.) <ul><li>General decrease in atomic radius from left to right, caused by increasing positive charge in the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Valence electrons are not shielded from the increasing nuclear charge because no additional electrons come between the nucleus and the valence electrons. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Section 6-3 Atomic Radius (cont.)
  21. 21. Section 6-3 Atomic Radius (cont.) <ul><li>Atomic radius generally increases as you move down a group. </li></ul><ul><li>The outermost orbital size increases down a group, making the atom larger. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Section 6-3 Ionic Radius <ul><li>An ion is an atom or bonded group of atoms with a positive or negative charge. </li></ul><ul><li>When atoms lose electrons and form positively charged ions, they always become smaller for two reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>The loss of a valence electron can leave an empty outer orbital resulting in a small radius. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrostatic repulsion decreases allowing the electrons to be pulled closer to the radius. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Section 6-3 <ul><li>When atoms gain electrons, they can become larger, because the addition of an electron increases electrostatic repulsion. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Section 6-3 <ul><li>Both positive and negative ions increase in size moving down a group. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Section 6-3 Ionization Energy <ul><li>Ionization energy - the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom. </li></ul><ul><li>The energy required to remove the first electron is called the first ionization energy. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Section 6-3 <ul><li>Removing the second electron requires more energy, and is called the second ionization energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Each successive ionization requires more energy, but it is not a steady increase. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Section 6-3 Ionization Energy (cont.)
  28. 28. Section 6-3 <ul><li>Electronegativity - indicates its relative ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronegativity decreases down a group and increases left to right across a period. </li></ul>