1. Aspiration is characteristic of voiceless stops consonants /p/,/t/, /k/ in English. Aspirated and unaspirated versions are positional variants. Substituting one for the other does not cause change of meaning of a word- it is merely an incorrect pronunciation.
In some languages the difference between the aspirated and unaspirated can cause a difference in meaning just like Vietnamese:
[tua] tassel [thua] lose
[tu] repair [thu] mackerel
[tin] smart [thin] silent
Hence, aspirated and unaspirated sounds in Vietnamese are contrastive sounds (perceived as different sounds)
2. Flapping- the tongue touches the tooth ridge and is quickly pulled back. The phonetic symbol used for a flap is /D/. When /t/ is pronounced as a flap, it is a positional variant of the /t/ sound. It only occurs between vowels when the preceding vowel is stressed: patio, platter The flap is also a positional variant of /d/ sound when it occurs between the stressed and an unstressed vowel:
4. Velarization- light and dark /l/. The /l/ before a vowel is light; the tip of the tongue should be the touching the tooth ridge. The /l/ before a vowel is dark; the tip of the tongue need not touch the tooth ridge. The back of the tongue is raised so that it is near the soft palate.
5. Assimilation causes a sound to become more like a neighboring sound with respect to some feature. Ex: vowel nasalization [~] , liquid and glide devoicing. LIQUIDS [l,r] and glides [w,w,y] become voiceless when they occur following a voiceless OBSTRRUENTS [ p, t, k, ?, f, s, h, c, s,].
pang + dikdik+pandikdik; pang +basa=pambansa; pang + luto +panluto
Insertion is the addition of one or more sounds to a word.
Prothesis the addition of a sound to the start of a word or the prepending of phonemes at the beginning of a word without changing its morphological structure. This often happens in language learning when the language which is being learned has different combinations of vowels or consonant from the learner’s first language. For example, Spanish learners of English often say /espi:k/ for speak as Spanish does not have words starting with the consonant cluster /sp/.
8. Apophony (also ablaut , gradation , alternation , internal modification , stem modification , stem alternation , replacive morphology , stem mutation , internal inflection ) is the alternation of sounds within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional ). Apophony is exemplified in English as the internal vowel alternations that produce such related words as
The difference in these vowels marks variously a difference in tense or aspect (e.g. sing/sang/sung ), transitivity ( rise/raise ), part of speech ( sing/song , bind/bound ), or grammatical number ( goose/geese ). Similarly, there are consonant alternations which are also used grammatically:
belie f , belie v e
hou s e (noun), hou s e (verb) (phonetically: [haʊs] (noun), [haʊz] (verb))
The vowel alternation between i and a indicates a difference between present and past tense in the pair sing/sang . Here the past tense is indicated by the vowel a just as the past tense is indicated on the verb jump with the past tense suffix -ed . Likewise, the plural suffix -s on the word books has the same grammatical function as the presence of the vowel ee in the word geese (where ee alternates with oo in the pair goose/geese ).
9. Metathesis is a sound change that alters the order of phonemes in a word . The most common instance of metathesis is the reversal of the order of two adjacent phonemes, such as "foilage" for foliage . Many languages have words that show this phenomenon, and some use it as a regular part of their grammar.
A spoonerism is an error in speech or deliberate play on words in which corresponding consonants , vowels , or morphemes are switched. It is named after the Reverend William Archibald Spooner (1844–1930), Warden of New College, Oxford , who was notoriously prone to this tendency.While spoonerisms are commonly heard as slips of the tongue resulting from unintentionally getting one's words in a tangle, they can also be used intentionally as a play on words.