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Online Anti-Corruption Tools in Latin America

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  • 1. ONLINE ANTI-CORRUPTION TOOLS IN LATIN AMERICA MATHEUS, RICARDO & RIBEIRO, MANUELLA MAIA UNIVERSITY OF SÃO PAULO – USP RICARDOMATHEUS@GMAIL.COM ABSTRACT of information, because sometimes people could not have all the data or any kindSince the introduction of computers and the emergence of electronic government of information but it could be a link to connect problems to their cause. No doubtin Latin American countries, especially the construction of tools for financial control the online tool is very important in combating corruption trough the social controland revenue in the state, popular participation and social control has been done in from the civil organized society, however, it is not enough. The Denunciaa background role of governmental actions. However, currently, we have discovered Corrupción could be more attractive if a few questions were asked and theinteresting experience in this area and we can see emerging new forms created to anonymously being a right of the people, not like any kind of gift from thebuilt and implement a channel where the society can help to combat the corruption maximum of information sent. Probably we will see scenario with more informationthrough sending information about crimes and bias via internet. The study highlight would be sent with less requisites from the municipality.experiences of several Latin American countries which have opted to implementthe anti-corruption web as a tool of anti-corruption. We will study and compare Denuncia en línea (Guayaquil, Equador)them to identify what level of effectiveness of this tool in terms of expansion of Another online tool from Latin America is Denuncia en Línea built on the city ofspaces and participatory involvement of social actors against the corruption. Guayaquil, Equador. The Municipality is one of the biggest in the country, withKeywords : Anti-Corruption online tools; Latin America; e-governance; e- population around 2 million people. Like the others tool is remarkable the nogovernment. sense for transparency with the data and information sent by some citizen for combat corruption in Guayaquil. Without any kind of protocol and a section withIntroduction the report of the results from all the processes that were reported by citizen theSince the introduction of computers and the emergence of electronic government website tool is not yet perfect if we measure transparency for citizen, an authenticin Brazil through, especially the construction of tools for financial control and right of the people.revenue in the State, popular participation and social control were in a backgroundposition in government actions in this area. This paper will highlight several Investigación y Análisis (Cartago, Costa Rica)experiences of anti-corruption online tools in Latin America. The municipality of Cartago at Costa Rica is one of the online tools that promote the corruption combat for the citizens. Information from 2007, the city has just 167Objects of Research thousand people. Even as the other tools found, Investigación y Análisis canOur objects research objective are the anti-corruption online tools and the new promote the social control and another benefits like the population possibility inkind of social control and transparency promotion for combating the corruption at combating corruption and the rise of the citizen report corruption online. In thelocal level in many municipalities and states of all Latin America. Four cases were other hand, the tool does not have transparency for people who tried to send somebe studied in this paper to show how is the state-of-the-art with this online tools. information for the municipality. It is a problem that must be solved with theThe anti-corruption online tools are a new kind of ICTs use for social control and introduction of protocol and transparency in the results, like posting it online in atransparency promotion against corruption in many countries. Several experiences section of the municipality website. If it is not possible, some information couldwere found around the world, especially in Latin American countries, which are our send for an online address (e-mail), postal mail, by telephone or messages in afocus of study. mobile phone.Metodology The Transparency Promotion and Corruption CombatingOur first stage of work focused on exploratory analysis of the anti-corruption online This paper believes if the citizen does not want to access such information in giventools in Latin America and decided to highlights the best practices we found. After time, it should be there by the opportunity to be questioned at any time for allthis initial step were accomplished, we searched literature references in the area. concerned (RIBEIRO, 2008). A government with more transparency, accountabilitySo that, we could answer some of our questions in the research. Thus, qualitative and social control and fight against corruption are closely related. Reducing opacityanalysis produced by the reflection of the reading of literature specializing in e-gov, in administrative actions could provides greater possibility of knowledge of citizenstransparency promotion, social control and combating corruption. The results are about the res-publica. With the information available and clear on the publicin the final considerations, highlighting the positive and negatives aspects of anti- environment, citizens can control the acts of Public Administration and be morecorruption online tools and proposing new ideas and solutions for problems we ready to exercise their right to participation.found in the exploratory and qualitative analyses, in according with our literatureresearch in the area. In according with CAMERER (2006), the use of the information is one of the best vaccines against the corruption. No doubt the anti-corruption online tool will notSelected Cases solve the problem alone. Others institutions and actions need to be built to combatDenuncie la corrupción (Xalapa, México) the corruption like anti-corruption agencies to punish faster the cause of theGuadalajara is a city with 1.646.183 inhabitants in Mexico. The city had built an corruption (TEIXEIRA, 2006). It could further empower stakeholders to use thisanti-corruption online tool called Denuncie la corrupción, with the objectives of information to promote a reform in all the public institution and combat thepromoting the social control through sent information about corruption by an corruption at local level, enhancing external accountability and thus assisting inelectronic formulary. This action can combat the corruption through the sent of prevention, not just punishing. (KAUFMANN, 2002).information containing corruption information. Every citizen can sent anyinformation about corruption cases. If it is the desire, they can send the Final Considerationinformation anonymously. Nevertheless, the portal of the municipality does not Among the possibilities of the use of ITCs by governments, their use for combatingsend any kind of protocol or show information about the status of your process. corruption is evident. We analyzed four innovative web tools at local level in severalSome indicators had been created to see how the online tool has been used by the contries of Latin America. But the experiences studied need to develop severalpopulation. points, like the access of the information and receive protocol to check the status of his denounce. Currently the definition of transparency is limited to offer for theDenuncia Corrupción (Guadalajara, México) citizen the numbers of Public Administration, but is necessary to think about theDirected by the authorities of the Municipal Controller at the city of Guadalajara, level of transparency that is really necessary for the citizen produce social controlthe anti-corruption online tool Denuncia Corrupción is currently helping a and improve our democracy, combating the corruption in all the governmentmunicipality with around 1.7 million people to combat the corruption. The main spheres. The transparency of government must go beyond advertising data by thedifference of that tool is the anonymously that you acquire if the citizen sent a lot government, looking for a translating into graphics and basic words, enough to beof information and data that the municipality considers important and essential for understandable for all the citizens in the society.the process. But it is a right of the citizen to be anonymously without sending a lot