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Quality Control Tools

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In this presentation, Ricardo explains in detail the main tools that are used in quality control of the project.

In this presentation, Ricardo explains in detail the main tools that are used in quality control of the project.

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  • 1. Quality Control Tools Ricardo Viana Vargas, MSc, IPMA-B, PMP ricardo.vargas@macrosolutions.com.br © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 2. Ricardo Viana Vargas, MSc, IPMA-B, PMP Ricardo Viana Vargas is a project, portfolio and risk management specialist. During the past 15 years, he has been responsible for over 80 major projects in various countries in the areas of petroleum, energy, infrastructure, telecommunications, information technology and finances, comprising an investment portfolio of over 18 billion dollars. He was the first Latin American volunteer to be elected Chairman of the Board for the Project Management Institute (PMI), the largest project management organization in the world with close to 500,000 members and certified professionals in 175 countries. Ricardo Vargas has written ten books on project management, published in Portuguese and English, which have sold over 200,000 copies throughout the world. In 2005 he received the PMI Distinguished Award for his contribution to the development of project management and the PMI Professional Development Product of the Year award for the PMDome® workshop, considered the best project management training solution in the world. He is a project management professor for various MBA courses, and actively participates on editorial boards for specialized journals in Brazil and the United States. Vargas is a recognized reviewer of the PMBOK Guide, the most important reference in the world for project management, and also chaired the official translation of PMBOK into Portuguese. He is a chemical engineer and holds a master’s degree in Industrial Engineering from UFMG (Federal University of Minas Gerais). Ricardo Vargas also holds a Master Certificate in Project Management from George Washington University and is certified both as a Project Management Professional (PMP) by PMI and as IPMA-B by the International Project Management Association. He attended the Program on Negotiation for Executives at Harvard Law School. Over an eleven year timeframe, which began in 1995, Ricardo, in conjunction with two partners, established one of the most solid Brazilian businesses in the area of technology, project management and outsourcing, which had a staff of 4,000 collaborators and an annual income of 50 million dollars in 2006, when Ricardo Vargas sold his share of the company to dedicate himself on a fulltime basis to the internationalization of his project management activities. He is a member of the Association for Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE), the American Management Association (AMA), the International Project Management Association (IPMA), the Institute for Global Ethics and the Professional Risk Management International Association (PRMIA). 2 © BY MACROSOLUTIONS SA. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 3. Quality Control Tools Inspection Checklist Control Pareto Chart Charts Statistical Flowcharting Sampling © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 4. Inspection Inspection includes activities like: It determines whether the results comply with • Measure, the requirements. • Examine, • Test. Inspections are executed in different process levels. © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 5. Checklist It is a list with previously defined It allows a thorough evaluation in a short options that are used as a guide to control period of time. risks. © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 6. Control Charts Control charts present the results of a process over time. They are used to determine if the process is under control. They are used to monitor any type of variable output. Can be used to monitor • Cost and schedule variances; • Volume and frequency of changes; • Errors in the project documentation © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 7. Chart Control Components Mean Line in the middle of the control chart that shows the aceptable variance tolerance in the process. Upper and Lower Limits represent the client’s expectations or the contractual requirements for performance and quality. • They are characteristics of the process and vary from case to case. They are usually inputs from clients. © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 8. Chart Control Upper L im ite S u p e rio r Limit Averageia M éd Lower L im ite In fe rio r Limit 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 9. Out of Control Process The process is out of statistical control under one of two circunstances: • A point is out of the control limits boundaries or there are; • Non random points that are within the upper and lower limits, as stated by the rule of seven. Think of “out of control” as a lack of consistency and predictability in the process. © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 10. Out of Control Process 11 7 3 F Out d e Controlle o ra of C o n tro 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 11. The Rule of Seven in Control Charts Refers to non random points The rule states that, even grouped in a series, Refere- though none of these points se a pontos não randômicos is out of the control limits, agrupados em séries, they are not random and so totalizing seven, all of them the process is out of control. on one side of the mean. © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 12. Out of Control Process – Rule of Seven Out d C o n tro le – R e g ra d F o ra ofeControl – Seven Ruleo s S e te 11 7 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 13. Pareto Chart The Pareto Chart is a histogram ordered by the frequency of result occurrences, showing how many results were generated by the type or category of the identified cause. The relative position of the occurrences is used to guide corrective actions. • The corrective actions must initially focus on the problems that are causing the majority of defects. © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 14. Pareto Chart 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Poor Delays on the Delay to prepare Lack of stock Importing Lack of human Transport Failure Other documentation technical the purchase problems resources specif ications order © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 15. Pareto Law (80 x 20) Examples • A person spends 80% of his/her The Pareto Law states time watching to only 20% of that a small number of the available cable channels causes will typically • A person goes out 80% of the times with the same 20% of produce the majority of his/her friends. problems or defects. • 80% of foods always use 20% of recipes. © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 16. How to Build a Pareto Chart List the potential failures and their equivalent occurrences. Sort the failures in descending order of the number of occurrences. Determine the relative percentages of each of of the failures. Acumulate, in descending order, the percentages of each one of the failures up until the last failure sums up to 100%; Build the chart Failure x Acumulated Percentage. © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 17. Statistical Sampling Statistical sampling involves choosing a portion of the desired population for inspection. • Example – Choose randomly ten engineering plants from a list of one hundred and evaluate them. Frequently reduce the cost of quality control © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 18. Use of Stastistical Sampling It’s best to analyse a sample instead of the whole population if analysing the whole population would • Take too long • Cost too much • Be destructive, as in • Testing matches... • Or when one believes there are not no many defects © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 19. Flowcharting A flowchart is any chart that depicts how several elements interact with each other Here are a few flowcharting techniques that are usually used in quality management • Cause and Effect Diagram • Systems or Process Flowcharts © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 20. Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone) It shows how several causes relate themselves to problems or potential effects. Also known as Ishikawa Diagram or Fishbone Diagram. © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 21. Characteristics of Cause and Effect Diagram It’s a creative way to look at causes or potential causes to problems. It helps creative thinking, organizes ideas and foster discussions. It explores the factors that may lead to a desired outcome. It can also be executed using the mindmapping technique. © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 22. Cause and Effect Diagram © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 23. System or Process Flowcharts Depiction of how several elements in a system/process interact with each other according to a determined decision flow © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 24. System or Process Flowcharts Based in Vargas, R. V. Practical Guide to Project Plan: New York, Auerbach, 2007 © BY RICARDO VIANA VARGAS. TODOS OS DIREITOS RESERVADOS
  • 25. Visit www.ricardo-vargas.com to access other presentations, podcasts, videos and technical content about project , risk and portfolio management. © BY MACROSOLUTIONS SA