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Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
Digestive system
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Digestive system


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  • 1. The Digestive System Prepares food for use by all body cells.
  • 2. Digestion
    • The chemical breakdown of complex biological molecules into their component parts.
      • Lipids to fatty acids
      • Proteins to individual amino acids
      • Carbohydrates into simple sugars
  • 3. Function
    • Produces various chemicals to break down the food.
    • Filters out harmful substances.
    • Gets rid of solid wastes.
  • 4. Digestion
    • Mechanical
      • Changes the physical form of food
        • Chew
        • Tear
        • Grind
        • Mash
        • Mix
  • 5. Digestion
    • Chemical
      • Changes the chemical composition of food with the aid of digestive enzymes
        • Carbohydrate
        • Protein
        • Lipid
      • Digestive enzymes are special proteins that help break up large molecules of food into very tiny molecules that can be absorbed and used by the cells in the form of nutrition.
  • 6. Phases of Digestion
    • Ingestion
    • Movement
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
  • 7. The Digestive Tract
    • A long muscular tube with many sections and areas.
    • Begins with the mouth and ends with the anus.
  • 8. The Digestive Tract
    • Parts of the Digestive Tract
      • Mouth
      • Pharynx
      • Esophagus
      • Stomach
      • Small Intestine
      • Large Intestine
  • 9. Accessory Parts
    • Organs that are not in the digestive tract but helps in the digestion
      • Teeth
      • Tongue
      • Salivary glands
      • Liver
      • Gall bladder
      • Pancreas
  • 10. Mouth
    • Functions:
      • Food enters in the mouth or oral cavity
      • Tasting
      • Mechanical breakdown of food
      • Secretion of salivary glands (salivary amylase)
  • 11. Mouth
    • Structures in the mouth that aids digestion:
        • Teeth – cut, tear, crush and grind food.
        • Salivary glands – produce and secrete saliva into the oral cavity.
          • Parotid (beneath the cheeks)
          • Submaxillary (below the jaw bone)
          • Sublingual (below the tongue)
        • – saliva moistens the food and contains enzymes ( ptyalin or salivary amylase ) that begins digestion of starch into smaller polysaccharides.
  • 12. Mouth
        • Tongue
          • Mixes and rolls food into tiny mashed up bits ( Bolus )
          • Pushes the bolus toward the pharynx and into the esophagus when swallowing.
  • 13. Mechanism of Swallowing
    • Swallowing is a coordinated activity of the tongue, soft palate, pharynx and esophagus.
    • Phases
      • Food is pushed into the pharynx by the tongue. (voluntary)
      • Tongue blocks the mouth
      • Soft palate closes off the nose
      • Larynx (Adam’s Apple) rises so the Epiglottis (a flap of tissue) can close the opening of the trachea.
  • 14. Esophagus
    • A straight muscular tube that is about 10 inches (25 cm) long which connects the mouth with the stomach
    • Food takes about 4 to 8 seconds as it passes through to the stomach.
    • Its walls contain smooth muscles that contracts in wavy motion ( Peristalsis ).
    • Peristalsis propels food and liquid slowly down the esophagus into the stomach.
    • Cardiac Sphincter (ring-like valve) relaxes to allow food into the stomach.
  • 15. Peristalsis
  • 16. Stomach
    • J-shaped muscular sac
    • Has inner folds ( rugae ) that increases the surface area of the stomach.
    • Churns and grinds together the bolus into smaller pieces.
    • Food is mixed with gastric juices (hydrochloric acid and enzymes) secreted by the stomach walls.
    • HCL helps break down food and kills bacteria that came along with the food.
  • 17. Stomach
  • 18. Stomach
    • Pepsin – major enzyme; converts proteins into peptides in the presence of HCL.
    • Mucus – lubricates food and protects the gastric lining from strong digestive juices.
    • Converts the bolus into a liquid ( chyme ) after 4 hrs of mechanical and chemical digestion.
  • 19. Movements in Stomach
  • 20. Small Intestine
    • Long (20 ft), coiled tube beneath the stomach.
    • Has three parts:
        • Duodenum – upper part; about 10 in; connected to the stomach.
        • – where the digestive juices from the pancreas and the liver combine with chyme making it thin and watery.
        • Jejunum – about 8 ft
        • Ileum – about 12 ft
  • 21. Small Intestine
    • Site of greatest amount of digestion and absorption
  • 22. Small Intestine
    • Takes about 4 – 8 hrs to complete its journey.
    • Mucosa (inner wall) – secretes several enzymes that acts on the food.
    • Where the pancreatic enzymes are emptied into.
    • Digested nutrients are absorbed through intestinal walls.
    • Absorbed materials cross the mucosa into the blood then other parts of the body for storage or further chemical change.
  • 23. Small Intestine
    • Has folded inner walls covered with fingerlike projections ( villi ; sing. – villus)
    • Each villus has tinier projections called microvilli that absorbs digested food.
    • Villi and microvilli increases the surface area of the small intestine for greater absorption.
    • Peristalsis moves the undigested food to the large intestine.
  • 24. Movement in small intestine:
    • Mixing: Segmental contraction that occurs in small intestine
    • Secretion: Lubricate, liquefy, digest
    • Digestion: Mechanical and chemical
    • Absorption: Movement from tract into circulation or lymph
    • Elimination: Waste products removed from body
  • 25. Large Intestine
    • a.k.a. Colon
    • larger diameter, but shorter (5 ft)
    • Water is absorbed from the undigested food making the waste harder until it becomes solid.
    • Waste stays for 10 – 12 hours.
  • 26. Large Intestine
  • 27. Large Intestine
    • Waste is pushed into the expanded portion (rectum) of the large intestine.
    • Solid waste stays in the rectum until it is excreted through the anus as feces.
    • Appendix hangs on the right side of the large intestine.
  • 28. Accessory Organs
    • Produce or store enzymes that helps in digestion.
    • Liver
      • Largest gland of the body
      • Stores vitamins A,D,E,K
      • Stores sugar and glycogen
      • Produces bile (watery, greenish substance)
      • Secretes bile to the gall bladder via the hepatic duct and cystic duct.
  • 29. Accessory Organs
    • Gall bladder
      • Stores bile in between meals
      • Secretes bile to the duodenum through the bile duct during mealtime.
        • Bile contains bile salts, pigments, cholesterol and phospholipids.
        • Bile is an emulsifier NOT an enzyme.
        • Emulsifier – dissolves fat into the watery contents of the intestine.
  • 30. Accessory Organs
    • Pancreas
      • Produces a juice that contains enzymes ( amylase and insulin ) to break down carbohydrates, fats and protein.
      • Secretes the juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct.
  • 31. Path of Digestion
    • Mouth
    • Pharynx
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small Intestine
    • Large Intestine
    • Anus
  • 32. Digestive System Disorders Digestive system disorders happen when there is a faulty function during the process of digestion which prevents some part of the digestive system from working as it should do. There are a wide number of common digestive system disorders.
  • 33. Colon and Rectal Cancer
    • Colon and Rectal cancer is malignant cell that is found in the colon or rectum region of the body. The large intestine is made up of the colon and the rectum.
  • 34. Constipation
    • Constipation is one of the most common health complaints, affecting up to 20% of the population. It is the reduced frequency of bowel movements requiring excessive straining at defacation in order to pass the stool.
    • To prevent constipation, one of the things you should do is increase your intake of water and adapt a diet that has a lot of high fiber. Constipation can be avoided by also adding exercise into your daily routine.
  • 35. Constipation
  • 36. Diarrhea
    • Diarrhea is watery stool, or an increased frequency in stool, or both as compared to the normal amount of stool passed by the individual. Diarrhea can be short-term or it can be related to a bacterial or viral infection, or it can be long-term which is usually related to a functional disorder or intestinal disease.
    • Diarrhea can be prevented if you are careful about what you eat and the way you prepare your food.
  • 37. Diarrhea
  • 38. Heartburn
    • Heartburn is what most of us get from time to time. Chronic heartburn is a digestive disorder called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD is caused by gastric acid that flows from the stomach and into the esophagus.
    • GERD or heartburn can be avoided if you don’t overeat or if you don’t lie down immediately after eating.
  • 39.  
  • 40. Hepatitis
    • This is an inflammation of the liver that can result in liver cell damage. There are two types of hepatitis – acute and chronic and six main types of the hepatitis virus.
    • Hepatitis B infection can be spread through having contact with the blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and other body fluids of someone who already has a hepatitis B infection.
  • 41. Hepatitis
  • 42. Pancreatitis
    • Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach. It releases the hormones insulin and glucagon, as well as digestive enzymes that help you digest and absorb food.
  • 43. Pancreatitis
  • 44. Ulcers
    • Ulcers are open sores or lesions. They are found in the skin or mucous membranes of areas of the body. A stomach ulcer is an ulcer in the duodenum is called a duodenal ulcer.
    • Ulcers are caused by hydrochloric acid and pepsin that are contained in our stomach and duodenal parts of our digestive system and that these acids contribute to ulcer formation.
  • 45. Ulcer
  • 46. Dyspepsia
    • Dyspepsia is a pain or an uncomfortable feeling in the upper middle part of your stomach. The pain might come and go, but it's usually there most of the time.
  • 47. Dyspepsia
  • 48.
    • THANK
    • YOU!