Clarence reviewer


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Clarence reviewer

  1. 1. The Art of ComplainingHow to File an Effective Complaint Against a Police Officer(Created 10/3/08; last updated 10/5/08)This page is dedicated to traffic enforcement officers, including, and especially, state troopers. Trafficcops are sort of like Plasmodium protozoa; theyre often blobby, definitely parasitic, and are stronglyassociated with an epidemic of societal proportions.IntroductionA lot of citizens struggle with writing an effective complaint about a police officer. Often, the writer letstoo much emotion enter into the complaint, and it then comes across as more driven by emotion thanfact, more unreasonable than objective, or just generally easier for the police agency to minimize orignore. (Indignation and outrage are good things to communicate, but name-calling should definitely beavoided.) Another common mistake is to draft a statement of the events without making it clear whatthe actual complaint is! In any case, I wanted to provide a few tips to maximize the impact of acomplaint on behalf of the aspiring complainer.What Do I Mean By "Effective?"Well, effectiveness is a loaded term, and depends somewhat on the intent of your complaint.Fortunately, the same techniques apply whether your goal is merely to have a damning complaint sitpermanently in the officers personnel file (and get noticed by the powers-that-be whenever the officeris up for a promotion), or whether you are seeking more serious disciplinary action and/or terminationof the officer or deputy.DefinitionsA police complaint is formal allegation of misconduct. This should not be confused with a "servicecomplaint," which is a complaint about the service or policies of the agency, but not an allegation ofmisconduct against a specific employee of that agency. For the purposes of this guide, the "subjectofficer" is the officer you are complaining about. The "agency" is the police department, sheriffs office,or other law enforcement agency with whom you are filing the complaint.
  2. 2. General guidelines: Effective Police Complaints...Are written by you! Do not let another police officer write a complaint for you based on your verbaltestimony. You must control the specific content of the complaint, or youve probably already failed inyour efforts. If youre asked to give your complaint orally to the on-duty supervisor, insist instead onsending a written complaint (certified, with return receipt requested) to Internal Affairs or otherdisciplinary authority. Remember that a written submission is much harder for an agency to minimize orbury!Allege serious misconduct by the officer (see some of the possible applicable categories below; beaggressive about asserting the seriousness of the officers behavior in your complaint!), and contain anexplicit request for a formal investigation. Wrap up your complaint with a sentence like: "Officer X hascommitted numerous, serious violations of departmental policy and the law, and for this reason, and forthe safety of the community at large, complainant requests a formal investigation be undertakenimmediately."Are timely. Many jurisdictions require that you file your complaint within 60 days for allegations ofminor misconduct (e.g., officer was rude), or within 6 months for more serious allegations. If you cantmeet these deadlines, you should be able to show good cause as to why your complaint was late. (Notethat these deadlines are often waived for allegations of violation of the law.)Clearly allege a pattern of misconduct, if such a pattern exists. This makes it less likely the allegedmisconduct will be dismissed as "minor."Have corroborating witnesses whose reports do not conflict with yours! If witnesses exist, you shouldask each of them to write a separate account of the incident. It will also help if your witnesses arewilling to answer additional follow-up questions the police agency might have.If your complaint cites evidence, the evidence should be produced when the police agency requests it(but make sure you get a receipt!) Referring to evidence without ever turning it over makes a case lookweak, and is a red flag for the complaint to be disregarded.Are carbon copied ("ccd") to a state representative or other local politician. This really turns up theheat and makes it harder for the law enforcement agency to bury the complaint without giving it dueconsideration!
  3. 3. Getting StartedYour first goal is to actually get your hands on a police complaint form. In some jurisdictions, this can bea challenge (see external link at the bottom of this page). Essentially, what you need to do is visit thepolice station or agency where the officer works (although if its a large organization, you might considervisiting a different branch or office) to pick up a complaint form which you will fill out, and mail in. Ifyou expect a lack of professionalism or outright abuse on the part of the agency (or if you arent surewhat to expect) then you should strongly consider bringing someone with you to the police station as awitness. If youre really concerned, consider having that person keep a small tape recorder in theirpossession. Having a witness with you makes it far less likely you will be harassed or arrested. Havingthe tape recorder will help later if the officer at the front desk is abusive and/or refuses to give you acomplaint form. Be sure to grab some duplicate forms while youre at the police station, and stick themin a file cabinet at home -- no sense having to come all the way back to the station and fight for anotherform if you lose the first form, or if the behavior youre complaining about recurs!The Basics: Categories of Police MisconductMinor misconduct: has minimal adverse impact on the operation or integrity of the agency. Not likely toresult in formal disciplinary action (e.g., a lack of courtesy; although rudeness complaints may have along-term effect on the officer, as described below, rudeness may also fall into the more serious"unnecessary force" category, also described below).General misconduct: violates a policy that requires a fixed penalty (e.g., failure to attend court, failure toattend a scheduled training or qualification, etc.). Generally not relevant to citizen complaints.Serious misconduct: violates policies, procedures, rules, or regulations that have an adverse impact onthe operation or integrity of the agency, and which can result in formal disciplinary action (this includesviolations of the law). Generally the kind of stuff that you want to allege, if at all possible.Examples of serious misconduct include (names and definitions may vary a bit from jurisdiction tojurisdiction; check your local police agencys Operations Manual (it should be made available to thepublic online, or at the police agency office):Aiding another (officer) to violate a ruleAltering information on official documentsAppropriating propertyCareless driving resulting in injury or death (note also that many jurisdictions require automatic testingof an officer for alcohol or drug influence after any car accident more severe than a fender bender that
  4. 4. may have been caused by that officer; this can be a good thing to request under an FOIA (Freedom ofInformation Act) request - ***link coming soon!***)Compromising a criminal caseDeparting from the truth (a colorful euphemism for lying; good for alleging in the case of traffic tickets;see also False report)Destruction of reports or recordsDiscrimination (see also Racial or ethnic intimidation, below)Drinking on dutyFalse arrest (not to be confused with the tort of the same name)False report (see also Departing from the truth)Harassment (see also Sexual Harassment)Knowingly making a false report (good for alleging in the case of traffic tickets)Law violation(s), or conspiracy to commit law violation(s) (a.k.a. lack of conformance with the law)Malicious threats or assaultNarcoticsOverdriving (driving rapidly and/or aggressively) on the way to a minor call (very common in somejurisdictions)Racial or ethnic intimidationRough and careless handling of departmental equipmentSexual harassmentSoliciting or accepting a bribeUnnecessary force (a.k.a. excessive force; this category includes not only unnecessary force or violencein making an arrest or in dealing with a prisoner, but also ridiculing, taunting, humiliating, or mentallyabusing you)Filing the ComplaintAs mentioned previously, make sure your complaint alleges at least one specific category of misconduct!(See examples above.) This serves two purposes. First, this makes it irrefutably clear what misconductyou are accusing the officer of, and thus helps to set the stage for your complaint to be appropriatelyreviewed and investigated. Secondly, and even more importantly, a specific allegation makes it tougher
  5. 5. for the departmental employees handling the complaint to clear the officer without any substantialrefutation of your allegations, and thus tougher for them to sweep it under the rug. Its easier for anagency to dismiss a raw statement of facts which contains some misconduct buried deep within, than todismiss a report which specifically names one or more official categories of misconduct. As such, try topick the best few applicable policy violations and list them in a boldface heading at the top of yourcomplaint. In addition to the serious offenses listed above, other categories of misconduct include:Abuse of authorityAbuse of processConduct unbecoming a law enforcement officerLack of courtesyLack of professionalismNeglect of dutyRetaliation (e.g., for a previous complaint you filed!)There is clearly a lot of overlap between categories, so you should be able to cite plenty of types ofmisconduct in your report. Dont limit yourself to the items listed here; check your local policedepartment operational manual or procedural handbook for additional categories!Remember, if the incident about which you are complaining is part of a pattern of behavior by thesubject officer(s), be sure to note this in your complaint!Finally, make sure that you mail the complaint report using Certified Mail, Return Receipt Requested.That way, youll end up with a postcard that says who at the department signed for your complaint, andthe department cannot later allege that they never received it.ProcedureWhat happens after I file a complaint?First, the intake stage. A sergeant (or higher ranking officer; this person will be known as the "intakeofficer") will conduct a preliminary review the complaint and determine whether the allegations, if true,would constitute non-minor misconduct. Next, there are several other grounds for dismissal of thecomplaint besides the misconduct being categorized as minor. For example, a determination that yourallegations are intentionally and materially false will lead to your complaint being dismissed. Trivial or
  6. 6. frivolous complaints (i.e., those which allege minor technical violations of procedural rules which havenegligible adverse effects on the public or the agencys credibility, such as failure by the officer to wearthe uniform hat) are also dismissed during intake. Grossly illogical or improbable complaints (e.g., thatan officer took control of your mind and made you punch yourself in the face) are also dismissed at thisstage. Note that if you have a "history of unfounded complaints" with the agency, you may receive"special handling." This does not mean they can automatically dismiss your complaint, but rather, thatthey may require you to agree to an interview or other additional procedures.If your allegations are perceived to be minor by the reviewing officer (or not part of a pattern), yourcomplaint dies before it is ever seriously considered -- this is why its so important for you to clearlyallege and categorize serious misconduct by the officer!Informal investigationA categorization of minor misconduct by the intake officer will lead to an informal investigation; this is adead end as far as you are concerned! An informal investigation consists of nothing more thandebriefing the subject officer regarding your concerns about the officer.s actions or quality of service.Most importantly, informal investigations do not trigger any formal finding or the imposition ofdiscipline. This is why its so important to explicitly allege serious misconduct by the officer, and torequest a formal investigation in your complaint! If your complaint gets designated for informalinvestigation, write the department a letter underscoring the severity of your allegations, anddemanding that a formal investigation be undertaken.Formal InvestigationA formal investigation is generally performed by the subject officers chain of command (hissupervisors), or by an Internal Affairs officer (or bureau of officers, in the case of larger, metropolitanpolice agencies). Depending on your jurisdiction, Internal Affairs involvement may be reserved forallegations of serious misconduct (and the officers superior is generally required to notify InternalAffairs of any such allegations). During a formal investigation, the subject officer and his or herrepresentatives are prohibited from contacting or interviewing any witnesses or conducting any type ofinvestigation into the allegations. As such, you should report any contact or attempts at contacting youby officers who are not specifically authorized to conduct the investigation!The subject officer is not entitled to any legal representation during the investigation process since it isgenerally an internal matter and does not involve a court proceeding. During the investigation, officers
  7. 7. who are known to have knowledge (either direct or indirect) of the alleged misconduct will be requiredby the agency to prepare and submit an individual report which is both complete and accurate.Be forewarned that in a rural Sheriffs Office or other small police agency, "Internal Affairs" may consistof a single officer who is closely acquainted with, or works closely with, the subject officer. This willprobably make it harder to get your complaint the attention it deserves, but the techniques in this guideshould help you overcome this disadvantage!Criminal or civil suits against the officerIf criminal charges are expected against the officer, this may affect the scheduling and handling of theinvestigation. This is because in a criminal case, the standard of proof is "beyond a reasonable doubt"(that is, the jury must be roughly 90% certain that the crime occurred). In contrast, in most civil cases orin the handling of police complaints, the standard of proof is a "preponderance of evidence" (that is,roughly 51% certainty that the allegation is true, but this may not be true with some allegations such asFalse Arrest, which only has to meet an even lower, "probable cause" standard). So, in the case ofcriminal allegations, the investigating authorities will generally wait to handle complaints after theconclusion of the criminal matter, since the evidence and results of the trial may be definitive and saveinvestigation time (unofficially, it also decreases the odds that the police agency sweeps somethingunder the rug that later becomes embarrassing headline news). Note that if the officer has beencharged with a felony by the District Attorneys office, the police agency will generally be forced toindefinitely suspend him or her. The filing a civil suit against the agency may likewise change thedynamic of the complaint procedure, but generally will not halt the agencys investigation.In the case of very serious allegations (e.g., that the officer used force or deadly force), you should lobbythe District Attorneys office to initiate its own investigation. If an affirmative defense exists (e.g., theofficer was acting in self defense), or if there is insufficient evidence to convict, the District Attorney willnot prosecute the officer.If the officer is found guilty of criminal charges, there may not be any administrative penalty, since thecriminal penalty is believed to be more severe. If the officer is found not guilty in the criminal trial(remember, criminal cases use the "beyond a reasonable doubt" (90%+ certain) standard of proof), he orshe could still be found guilty using the "preponderance of evidence" (51%+ certain) standard of proof,and so the investigation of the officer will resume in this case.
  8. 8. In some jurisdictions, an independent monitor from outside the police agency will be appointedwhenever criminal charges have been filed against an officer. This independent monitor will often havethe discretion to continue the investigation even if the criminal charges are dismissed, and can alsorecommend that the Internal Affairs department conduct additional investigation into a matter.Therefore, it is definitely worth your while to work with the independent monitor to make sure allrelevant evidence is considered.MediationMediation is a voluntary process for resolving complaints, and it may involve you meeting with othercommunity members, police officers, police administrators, and/or an independent monitor. You havethe right to refuse mediation if it is offered. Also, you do not have the right to demand mediation.Whether or not mediation will help achieve your goals definitely depends on the facts of your case, andthe professionalism of the agency with which you are dealing. If mediation is offered to you, it is worthtracking down a lawyer or other local insider with knowledge of the mediation process and its likelyeffect on the results of your complaint.The outcomeOnce a formal investigation is complete, the department is required to reach an official disposition as toyour complaint. Findings in formal investigations use different terminology than criminal cases. Insteadof "Guilty" or "Not Guilty," police complaint investigations can result in a variety of outcomes. An"Unfounded" finding is one where the allegation was not found to be based on facts as shown by theinvestigation; that is, the alleged misconduct is believed not to have occurred by the police agency. An"Exonerated" finding means that the alleged action was found to have occurred, but the investigationrevealed that the action was reasonable, lawful, and proper. A "Not Sustained" finding means thatinsufficient evidence was available to either prove or disprove the allegation (that is, 50% or less of theevidence suggested that the allegation was true). Finally, a "Sustained" finding means that theinvestigation disclosed sufficient evidence to determine that the allegation was accurate. You may havenoticed that weve got three varieties of "Not Guilty" verdicts here, and only one "Guilty" ; this providessome indication of how much the deck is stacked against the citizen making the complaint, especiallywhen you supposedly only need 51% of the evidence to support your allegation to result in a"Sustained" outcome!If the subject officer is cleared of wrongdoing, some departments will allow you to appeal the decisionwithin the department. If this option does not exist, or is unsuccessful, youve got several options. Thelowest cost course of action would be to complain to your state representative and/or the town or city
  9. 9. governing body. Beyond this, your only real recourse for escalating the issue is a civil lawsuit, orpursuing criminal charges against the officer, both of which are beyond the scope of this article.Short-term implications for the subject officerIdeally, a disciplinary outcome will result from your complaint. In order of increasing severity, this couldtake the form of an oral reprimand (note that despite its verbal nature, this action will still bedocumented in writing), a written reprimand, fine, suspension, demotion, or dismissal. Also, dependingon the outcome of the investigation, the subject officer may be allowed to remain in his or her usualassignment, allowed to remain on duty but reassigned, or relieved of duty.In some jurisdictions, "Sustained" complaints with a sufficiently severe penalty are subject to review bya Disciplinary Review Board which includes citizens, and officers who are not directly involved in thecase and not in the chain of command directly above the subject officer. In some jurisdictions, officersalso have the option to appeal a "Sustained" complaint to a Civil Service Commission or similarmunicipal authority.Longer-term implications for the subject officerIn addition to the short term consequences of your complaint (that is, the investigation and resolutiondescribed above), your complaint also has a more indirect and longer-term consequence for the subjectofficer. First of all, even "Not Sustained" complaints stay in the personnel file of the subject officer, andwill be reviewed during the officers annual performance evaluation (all officers up to, and including, therank of captain must typically undergo this type of yearly review). Past complaints will likewise come upwhenever an officer is up for promotion or transfer. If the officer is on probationary status because theyare a fairly recent hire, or because of a past disciplinary problem, such complaints will probably beweighed more heavily against the officer.Secondly, a great many police agencies now use a "declining complaint system" to identify patterns ofmisconduct, and to weed out retaliatory complaints (that is, complaints which are believed to be filedsimply to wreak vengeance on the officer by the citizen). Under the declining complaint system, theagency will not only look at the facts surrounding your complaint, but will use the number of complaintsthe officer has received in the past quarter year (or longer) to decide whether the officer is receiving anabnormally high number of complaints. If so, the agency is more likely to investigate further instead ofignoring the complaints. Many police agencies also use an "early warning" or "early intervention"system which endeavors to detect early warning signs that indicate incipient patterns of futuremisconduct.
  10. 10. Both systems review the officer on a quarterly basis to determine whether the officers statistics are outof line when compared with "similarly situated" officers. Ideally, this means that only officers with thesame tenure, shift, and neighborhood are compared, but in the real world such "similarly situated"officers may be unavailable for comparison. An officers statistics are also normalized to adjust for thenumber of complaints versus the number of contacts or arrests during the period in question, thenumber of uses of force versus the number of contacts or arrests, the number of crashed cars, numberof rudeness complaints, etc. Small or rural police departments may employ additional statistics due tothe decreased number of contacts (e.g., number of sick days taken). If any of these metrics hits a certainthreshold, counseling and mentoring are ordered for the officer (or in more serious cases, disciplinaryproceedings).How many complaints does it take to raise a red flag? For a variety of likely reasons, urban policeofficers typically receive more complaints than their rural counterparts. The "similarly situated"statistics notwithstanding, even five complaints in a quarter would be a very high number, even for anofficer who makes a lot of arrests in an urban area. Obviously, a smaller number of complaints wouldlikely raise a red flag in a suburban or rural police department.What if I verbally antagonized the officer before he broke out the Taser?Officially, the fact that you called the cop a "parasitic ass-clown" as he handed you the speeding ticket(a.k.a. "contempt for the officer"; note that this, and the oft-heard "disrespecting an officer" are notactually illegal) may be "taken into consideration" during the investigation, but is not supposed toactually be a mitigating circumstance for the officer. This is quite a nuanced guideline, but you cancertainly use that to your advantage by owning up to your outburst in your complaint, and making itclear that this was still no excuse for the officers subsequent behavior. Likewise, if you begged, "Donttaze me, bro!" beforehand, make that clear in your complaint as well.What about off-duty officers?You should be aware that off-duty officers in any jurisdiction who are charged with misdemeanors,felonies, or local law violations involving use of force (e.g., assault) or threatened use of force aregenerally placed under formal investigation if their department is made aware of the violation. If youare involved in an incident with an off-duty officer, never assume that the officers agency will find out .the only way to be sure is to file a complaint which fully documents the incident. Note also that manydepartments require off-duty officers, while in uniform, to adhere to the same standards of conduct as ifthey were on duty!
  11. 11. What if I cant identify the officer?Police agencies must make a good faith effort to identify the officer on your behalf. Unless youre goingto sue the agency (and thus will have discovery or subpoena power), you wont have much chance toidentify the officer yourself. So, if the agency cannot or will not identify the officer, your best chance isto challenge whether the agency really lived up to its obligations and made a good faith effort; ask themto document what steps they took to identify the officer(s) in question!What about third party complaints?Third parties can make complaints. However, they must have a "reasonably direct relationship" to theincident if filing a minor complaint. A "reasonably direct relationship" generally means the third partywas directly affected by the alleged misconduct (a first-hand source), witnessed the alleged misconduct(a second-hand source), or has special, professional, or organizational knowledge about the allegedmisconduct (e.g., based on the partys capacity as a lawyer, judge, etc.) The agency isnt allowed todismiss less serious third party complaints if there is a reasonable explanation why the "person withstanding" (the victim) did not file the complaint (e.g., the victim was a minor, elderly, disabled,deceased, doesnt speak English well, is not a citizen, is wanted on criminal charges, has beenthreatened, etc.)Can I complain anonymously?Anonymous complaints are usually dismissed unless they allege corruption or other very serious policemisconduct.RetaliationIf the subject officer or his cronies start giving you a hard time after you file the complaint, file anadditional retaliation complaint after each occurrence! That way, each complaint makes the pattern ofharassment more obvious, harder to deny, and increases the chances this behavior will stop.What if I want to commend an officer for doing something good?While "courtesy patrol" services such as helping a stranded motorist change a flat tire seem to be insteady decline (police agencies cite budgetary restrictions demanding retasking of officers; critics citedepartmental greed causing deprioritization of such services in favor of revenue-generating activity liketraffic enforcement), it is conceivable that you will have reason to thank an officer acting in this capacity.
  12. 12. And indeed, you should . the increasing rarity of such occurrences makes it all the more important toreward officers for actually protecting and/or serving the community. You can submit a narrative thesame way you would in the case of a complaint. The officer will likely receive a complimentary notefrom the Chief or other superior officer, and perhaps a mention in the agencys newsletter. Moresignificant positive deeds can result in a service award or citation, Officer of the Year award, or even amedal.External linksTo get an idea of how much professionalism you will be met with when making your complaint, see howyour local police department rates on this police accountability website.Reminder: All content on this site is automatically copyrighted by virtue of the Berne Convention for theProtection of Literary and Artistic Works.
  13. 13. PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICEMANUALPNPM 0-08-95 DHRDDETHICAL DOCTRINEMANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTSPage No.Message ----------------------------------- iForeword - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - iiPreface - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - iiiChapter I. Declaration of Policy ---------------------- 1Section 1. General ----------------------- - 1 1.1 Purpose ---------------------------1 1.2 Scope ----------------------------1 1.3 Recommendation for Changes --------------2Section 2. Declaration of Policy ------------------ 3Chapter II. Police Officers’ Creed and Stand on Basic Issues ---- 4Section 1. PNP Core Values - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4Section 2. Police Officers’ Creed - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4Section 3. PNP Stand on Basic Issues - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 3.1 PNP Image - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 3.2 Career Management ----------------- 6 3.3 Police Management Leadership - - - - - - - - - - 7
  14. 14. 3.4 Equality in the Service - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7 3.5 Delicadeza - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8 3.6 Police Lifestyle - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8 3.7 Political Patronage - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8 3.8 Human Rights - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -9 3.9 Setting Example - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9Chapter III. Professional Conduct and Ethical Standards - - - - - - 10Section 1. Standard of Police Professionalism - - - - - - - - - - 10 2. Police Professional Conduct - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 2.1 Commitment to Democracy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 2.2 Commitment to Public Interest - - - - - - - - - - - 10 2.3 Non-Partisanship - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11 2.4 Physical Fitness and Health - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11 2.5 Secrecy Discipline - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11 2.6 Social Awareness - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12 2.7 Non-Solicitation of Patronage - - - - - - - - - - - - 12 2.8 Proper Care and use of Public Property - - - - - - - - 13 2.9 Respect for Human Rights - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13 2.10 Devotion to Duty - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 2.11 Conservation of Natural Resources - - - - - - - - 14 2.12 Discipline - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 2.13 Loyalty - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15 2.14 Obedience to Superiors - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15 2.15 Command Responsibility - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15
  15. 15. Section 3. Ethical Standards - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 3.1 Morality - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 3.2 Judicious Use of Authority - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - 16 3.3 Integrity - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 3.4 Justice - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 17 3.5 Humility - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 17 3.6 Orderliness - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 17 3.7 Perseverance - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18Chapter IV. Customs and Traditions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19Section 1. General Statement - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19Section 2. Definition of Terms - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19 2.1 Customs - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19 2.2 Traditions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19 2.3 Courtesy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19 2.4 Ceremony - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 2.5 Social Decorum - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20Section 3. Police Customs on Courtesy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 3.1 Salute - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 3.2 Salute to National Color and Standard - - - - - - - - 20 3.3 Address/Title - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 3.4 Courtesy Calls - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21 3.5 Courtesy of the Post - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22 3.6 Rank-Has-Its-Own Privilege (RHIP) - - - - - - - 22 Section 4. Police Customs on Ceremonies - - - - - - - - - - - - 22 4.1 Flag Hoisting Ceremony - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - 22 4.2 Flag Lowering Ceremony - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22
  16. 16. 4.3 Half-Mast - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23 4.4 Funeral Service and Honors - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23 4.5 Ceremonies Tendered to Retirees - - - - - - - - - - - - 23 4.6 Honor Ceremony - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23 4.7 Turn-Over Ceremony - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23 4.8 Wedding Ceremony - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 24 4.9 Anniversary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 24Section 5. Police Customs on Social Decorum - - - - - - - - - - - - 24 5.1 Proper Attire - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 24 5.2 Table Manners - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25 5.3 Social Graces - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25 5.4 Uniform/Appearance - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25 5.5 Manner of Walking - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25Section 6. Other Police Customs - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26 6.1 Visiting the Sick - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26 6.2 Survivor Assistance to Heirs of Deceased Members - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26 6.3 Visiting the Religious Leaders - - - - - - - - - - - - 26 6.4 Athletics - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26 6.5 Happy Hours - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 27 Section 7. Police Tradition - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 27 7.1 Spiritual Beliefs - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - 27 7.2 Valor - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 27 7.3 Patriotism - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 27 7.4 Discipline - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 28
  17. 17. 7.5 Gentlemanliness - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 28 7.6 Word of Honor - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 28 7.7 Duty - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 28 7.8 Loyalty - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29 7.9 Camaraderie - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29Chapter V. Police Officers’ Pledge (POP), Principles and Conduct of Law Enforcement Officials - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 30Section 1. Police Officers‘ Pledge - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 30Section 2. Forum to Recite - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 31Section 3. Fundamental Principles - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 31Section 4. Code of Conduct of Law Enforcement Officials - - 35Chapter VI. Propagation and Adherence - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 38Section 1. Foundation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 38Section 2. Commitment - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 39Section 3. Propagation, Development and Adherence - - - - - - - 40Section 4. Appropriations - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 41Section 5. Miscellaneous - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 41Chapter VII. Administrative Sanctions and Amendments - - - - - - - 43 Section 1. Penalties andAdministrative Sanctions - - - - - - - 43Section 2. Amendments - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 43ANNEXES:“A” - Notes and References - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 47“B” - NAPOLCOM Resolution No. 92-4 Approving the PNP COPCES - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 48“C” - General Circular Nr DHRDD 94-001 dtd Oct 28, 1994,
  18. 18. entitled: PNP Ethics Day Celebration - - - - - - - - 48“D” - POLICE 2000, PNP Vision and Mission - - - - - - - - 60“E” - Panunumpa sa Watawat with English version - - - - 63 PNP ETHICAL DOCTRINECHAPTER IDECLARATION OF POLICYSection 1. General1-1 PurposeThis manual prescribes the Ethical Doctrine for the Philippine National Police. Itspurpose is to provide moral and ethical guidance to all PNP members.1-2 Scope and Limitationa. This Ethical Doctrine was culled from the PNP Code of Professional Conductand Ethical Standards (COPCES) with inception of additional and related principles,guidelines and sanctions, all geared towards the internalization of moral values andservice dedication. This Doctrine consists of seven chapters similar to the provisions ofthe PNP COPCES. The adoption of the PNP Code of conduct as an Ethical Doctrinereinforces the former as an effective instrument in the moral values’ internalization in thePNP.b. This Ethical Doctrine applies to both uniformed and non-uniformed personnelof the PNP, unless specified otherwise.c. This Ethical Doctrine is in accordance with the PNP Fundamental Doctrine andthe Code of Professional Conduct and Ethical Standards.1-3 Recommendation for ChangesAny suggested revision or comment should be forwarded to the Chief, PhilippineNational Police, Attn: Director, Directorate for Human Resource and Doctrine
  19. 19. Development.Section 2. Declaration of PolicyAll members of the Philippine National Police shall abide, adhere to andinternalize the provisions of this Ethical Doctrine. Towards this end, a trulyprofessionalized and dedicated law enforcer shall be developed in promoting peace andorder, ensuring public safety and enhancing community participation guided by theprinciple that a public office is a public trust and that all public servants must, at alltimes, be accountable to the people. They shall serve with utmost responsibility, integrity,morality, loyalty and efficiency with due respect to human rights and dignity as hallmark of a democraticsociety. They shall, at all times, support and uphold the Constitution, bearfaithful allegiance to the Constitution, bear faithful allegiance to the legitimategovernment, respect the duly constituted authority and be loyal to the police service. CHAPTER IIPOLICE OFFICER’S CREED AND STANDS ON BASIC ISSUESSection 1. The PNP Core ValuesThe police service is a noble profession which demands from its membersspecialized knowledge and skills, as well as high standards of ethics and morality. Hence,the members of the PNP must adhere to and internalize the enduring core values of loveof God, respect for authority, selfless love and service for people, sanctity of marriage,and family life, responsible dominion and stewardship over material things, andtruthfulness.Section 2.The Police Officer’s Creed2.1 I believe in God, The Supreme Being, The Great Provider, and The Creator ofall men and everything dear to me. In return, I can do no less than love Him above allobeying His word, seek His guidance in the performance of my sworn duties and honorHim at all times.2.2 I believe that respect for authority is a duty. I respect and uphold the
  20. 20. Constitution, the laws of the land and the applicable rules and regulations. I recognize thelegitimacy and authority of the leadership, and obey legal orders of my superior officers.2.3 I believe in selfless love and service to people. Towards this end, I commitmyself to the service of my fellowmen over and above my personal interest.2.4 I believe in the sanctity of marriage and family life. I shall set the example ofdecency and morality, shall have high regard for family life and value of marital fidelity.2.5 I believe in the responsible dominion and stewardship over material things. Ishall inhibit myself from extravagance and ostentatious display of material things. I shallhelp protect the environment and conserve nature to maintain ecological balance.2.6 I believe in the wisdom of truthfulness. I must be trustworthy and I shalluphold the truth at all times.Section 3. PNP Stand on Basic IssuesThe deployment and employment of PNP personnel require the organization andits members to bare their stand on the following basic issues:3.1 PNP Image – The image of any organization affects the esprit d’ corps, moraleand welfare of the members , and sense of pride to the organization . Thus, all membersof the PNP should act in a manner that would reflect best on the PNP and live by thePNP’s core values. 3.2 Career Management, the Key to Professionalism – The Proper implementationof the PNP’s Career Management will greatly enhance the personnel professionalizationprocess with regards to procurement, training, promotion, assignment, placement, awardsand retirement. The PNP shall formulate a stringent policy and strictly implement thehuman resources development system, compatible to the equitable distribution ofprocurement, fair promotion, rationalized approach in assignment, skill development,immediate grant of reward and award, and decent living upon retirement.3.3 Police Management Leadership – The effectiveness of law enforcement is
  21. 21. reflective of the managerial capabilities and competent leadership of the men and womenwho run the PNP organization. These attributes must therefore be one of the primarybases for consideration in the selection of personnel for employment and deploymentpurposes.3.4 Equality In the Service – There shall be judicious and equitable distribution ofopportunity to prove one’s worth in the police service. The problem on inequity thru classorientation and factionalism, both real and perceived, premised on favored assignment,inequitable opportunity of training, unfair granting of promotion, and untimely awardingof achievements, will create an atmosphere of demoralization. The result is inefficiencyand lack of teamwork to the detriment of the organization. It behooves. Therefore, on thePNP leadership address the situation. The civilian character of the organization requiresadherence to the rule on merit and fitness system and to dissociate the above processfrom class orientation and factionalism.3.5 Delicadeza- In consonance with the requirements of honor and integrity in thePNP, all members must have the moral courage to sacrifice self-interest in keeping withthe time-honored principle of delicadeza.3.6 Police Lifestyle- The PNP shall promote and maintain a lifestyle for itsmembers which the public will find credible and respectable. The public expects a policeofficer to live a simple and dignified life. They must be free from greed corruption andexploitation.3.7 Political Patronage- PNPP members shall inhibit themselves from solicitingpolitical patronage on matters pertaining to assignment, award,, training and promotion.3.8 Setting Example- All PNP members shall set good example to theirsubordinates and follow good example from the superiors. CHAPTER IIIPROFESSIONAL CONDUCT AND ETHICAL STANDARDS
  22. 22. Section 1. Standard of Police ProfessionalismPNP members shall perform their duties with integrity, intelligence and competence inthe application of specialized skills and technical knowledge with excellence andexpertise.Section 2. Police Professional Conduct2.1 Commitment to Democracy- Uniformed PNP members shall commit themselvesto the democratic way of life and values and maintain the principle of publicaccountability. They shall at all times uphold the Constitution and be loyal to our country,people and organization, above their loyalty to any person.2.2 Commitment to Public Interest- PNP members shall always uphold public interestover and above personal interest. All government properties, resources and powers oftheir respective offices must be employed and used effectively, honestly and efficiently,particularly to avoid wastage of public funds and revenues. PNP members must avoid andprevent the “malversation” of human resources, government time, property and funds.2.3 Non-Partisanship- PNP members shall provide services to everyone withoutdiscrimination regardless of party affiliation in accordance with existing laws andregulations.2.4 Physical Fitness and Health- PNP members shall strive to be physically andmentally fit and in good health at all times. Toward this end, they shall undergo regularphysical exercises and annual medical examination in any PNP Hospital or Medicalfacility, and actively participate in the Physical Fitness and Sports Development Programof the PNP.2.5 Secrecy Discipline- PNP members shall guard the confidentiality of classifiedinformation against unauthorized disclosure, including confidential aspects of officialbusiness, special orders, communications and other documents roster or any portion
  23. 23. thereof, contents of criminal records, identities of persons who may have giveninformation to the police in confidence and other classified information or intelligencematerial.2.6 Social Awareness- PNP members and their immediate family members shall beencouraged to actively get involved in religious, social and civic activities to enhance theimage of the organization without affecting their official duties. 2.7 Non- Solicitation of Patronage- PNPmembers shall seek self-improvementthrough career development and shall not directly or indirectly solicit influence orrecommendation from politicians, high ranking government officials prominent citizens,persons affiliated with civic or religious organizations with regards to their assignments,promotions, transfer or those of other members of the force, nor shall they initiate anypetition to be prepared and presented by citizens in their behalf. Moreover, they shalladvise their immediate relatives not to interfere in the activities of the police serviceparticularly in the assignment and reassignment of personnel.2.8 Proper Care and Use of Public Property- PNP members shall promote andmaintain sense of responsibility in the protection, proper care and judicious dispositionand use of public property issued for their official use or entrusted to their care andcustody just like “ a good father of their family”. When the Commander/Director isrelieved from his post, all properties/equipment belonging to the government must beturned-over to the incoming. A committee for the purpose shall be proper. Hence, it is ataboo for outgoing Commander/Director to detach, remove and bring home or to his newassignment properties which do not personally belong to him.2.9 Respect for Human Rights- In the performance of duty, PNP members shallrespect and protect human dignity and uphold the human rights of all persons. Nomember shall inflict, instigate or tolerate extra-judicial killings, arbitrary arrests, any actof torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment and shall not
  24. 24. invoke superior orders or exceptional circumstances such as a state –of-war, a threat tonational security, internal political instability or any public emergency as a justificationfor committing such human rights violations.2.10 Devotion to Duty- PNP members shall perform their duties with dedicationthoroughness, efficiency enthusiasm, determination, and manifest concern for publicwelfare, and shall refrain from engaging in any activity which shall be conflict with theirduties as public servants.2.11. Conservation of Natural Resources- PNP members shall help in the developmentand conservation of our natural resources for ecological balance and posterity as these arethe inalienable heritage of our people.2.12 Discipline- PNP members shall conduct themselves properly at all times inkeeping with the rules and regulations of the organization.2.13 Loyalty- PNP members shall be loyal to the Constitution and the police service asmanifested by their loyalty to their superiors peers and subordinates as well.2.14 Obedience to Superiors- PNP members shall obey lawful orders of and becourteous to superior officers and other appropriate authorities within the chain ofcommand. They shall readily accept whenever they are assigned anywhere in thecountry. Therefore, it is taboo for any personnel to petition in court or in any publicforum his assignment. 2.15 Command Responsibility- In accordance with the Doctrine on CommandResponsibility, immediate Commanders/ Directors shall be responsible for the effectivesupervision, control and direction of their personnel and shall see to it that all governmentresources shall be managed, expended or utilized in accordance with laws and regulationsand safeguard against losses thru illegal or improper disposition.Section 3. The Ethical Standards
  25. 25. Ethical standards shall refer to established and generally accepted moral values. Ethicalacts to be observed are the following:3.1 Morality- PNP members shall adhere to high standards of morality and decencyand shall set good examples for others to follow. In no instance during their terms ofoffice, among other things, shall they be involved as owners, operators, managers orinvestors in any house of ill-repute or illegal gambling den or other places devoted tovices, nor they shall patronize such places unless on official duty, and tolerate operationsof such establishments in their respective areas of responsibilities. They shall be faithfulto their lawfully wedded spouses.3.2 Judicious Use of Authority – PNP members shall exercise proper and legitimateuse of authority in the performance of duty.3.3 Integrity – PNP members shall not allow themselves to be victims of corruptionand dishonest practices in accordance with the provisions of RA 6713 and otherapplicable laws.3.4 Justice – PNP members shall strive constantly to respect the rights of others sothat they can fulfill their duties and exercise their rights as human beings, parents,children, citizens, workers, leaders, or in other capacities and to see to it that others dolikewise.3.5 Humility – PNP members shall recognize the fact that they are public servantsand not the masters of the people and towards this end, they should perform their dutieswithout attracting attention or expecting the applause of others.3.6 Orderliness – PNP members shall follow original procedures in accomplishingtasks assigned to them to minimize waste in the use of time, money and effort.3.7 Perseverance – Once a decision is made, PNP members shall take legitimatemeans to achieve the goal even in the face of internal or external difficulties, and despite
  26. 26. anything which might weaken their resolve in the course of time. CHAPTER 1VCUSTOMS AND TRADITIONSSection 1. General StatementThe PNP adopts the generally acceptable customs and traditions based on thedesirable practices of the police service. These shall serve to inspire PNP members as theorganization endeavors to attain its goals and objectives.Section 2. Definition of Terms:2.1 Customs - Established usage or social practices carried on by tradition that haveobtained the force of law.2.2 Traditions – Bodies of beliefs, stories, customs and usages handed down fromgeneration to generation with the effect of an unwritten law.2.3 Courtesy – A manifestation of expression of consideration and respect for others.2.4 Ceremony – A formal act or set of formal acts established by customs or authorityas proper to special occasion.2.5 Social Decorum – A set of norms and standards practiced by members duringsocial activities and other functions.Section 3. Police Customs on CourtesyThe following are customs on courtesy in the PNP:3.1 Salute – Salute is the usual greetings rendered by uniformed members uponmeeting and recognizing person entitled to a salute.3.2 Salute to National Color and Standard – Members stand at attention and salute thenational color and standard as these pass by them or when the national color is raised orlowered during ceremonies.3.3 Address/Title – Junior in rank address senior members who are entitled to salute
  27. 27. with the word “Sir” or “Ma’am”. All Police Commissioned Officers shall be addressedsir or ma’am by Police Non-Commissioned Officers and Non-Uniformed Personnel.3.3 Courtesy Calls – The following are the customs on courtesy calls:3.4 Courtesy Calls – The following are the customs on courtesy calls: 3.4.1. Courtesy Call of NewlyAssigned/Appointed Member – PNP memberswho are newly appointed or assigned in a unit or command call on the chief of the unit orcommand and other key personnel as a matter of courtesy, as well as for accounting,orientation and other purposes.3.4.2. Christmas Call – PNP members pay a Christmas Call on their localexecutives in their respective areas of responsibility.3.4.3. New Year’s Call – PNP members pay a New Year’s call on theircommanders and /or key officials in their respective areas of responsibility.3.4.4. Promotion Call – Newly promoted PNP members call on their unit head.On this occasion, they are usually given due recognition and congratulations by theirpeers for such deserved accomplishment.3.4.5. Exit Call – PNP members pay an Exit Call on their superiors in the unit orcommand when relieved or reassigned out of the said unit or command.3.5 Courtesy of the Post – The host unit extend hospitality to visiting personnel whopay respect to the command or unit.3.6 Rank Has –Its –Own Privilege (RHIP) – PNP members recognize the practice thatdifferent ranks carry with them corresponding privileges.Section 4. Police Customs on Ceremonies4.1. Flag Raising Ceremony – PNP members honor the flag by hoisting ii and singingthe National Anthem before the start of the official day’s work.
  28. 28. 4.2 Flag Lowering Ceremony – At the end of the official days’ work, the PNPmembers pause for a moment to salute the lowering of the flag.4.3 Half-Mast – The flag is raised at half-mast in deference to deceased uniformedmembers of the command.4.4 Funeral Service and Honors – Departed uniformed members, retirees, warveterans or former PC/INP members are given vigil, necrological services and gravesidehonors as a gesture of farewell.4.5 Ceremony Tendered to Retirees – In recognition of their long, faithful andhonorable service to the PNP, a testimonial activity shall be tendered in their honor.4.6 Honor Ceremony – Arrival and departure honor ceremonies are rendered tovisiting dignitaries, VIPs, PNP Officers with the grade of Chief Superintendent and aboveand AFP officers of equivalent grade, unless waived./ 4.7 Turnover Ceremony – The relinquishment andassumption of command or keyposition is publicly announced in a Turnover Ceremony by the outgoing and incomingofficers in the presence of the immediate superior or his representative. OutgoingCommander/Director should not leave his post without proper turnover. Turn-overincludes turnover of properties/equipment, human and material resources.4.8 Wedding Ceremony -- During marriage of PNP members, a ceremony isconducted with participants in uniform and swords drawn.4.9 Anniversary – The birth or institutional establishment of a command or unit iscommemorated in an Anniversary Ceremony.5.1. Proper Attire – PNP members always wear appropriate and proper attire inconformity with the occasion.5.2. Table Manners – PNP members observe table etiquette at all times.5.3 Social Graces – PNP members conduct themselves properly in dealing withpeople during social functions.
  29. 29. 5.4 Uniform/Appearance – The public looks upon a PNP member as distinctively aman among men. It is a welcome sight when PNP members wear their uniform properlywherever they may be. Bulging stomach is a taboo in the uniformed service. Sincedisciplined PNP members are best exemplified by those who are neat in appearance andwearing the prescribed uniform, they must therefore observe the following:5.4.1. Wearing of prescribed uniform.5.4.2 Adherence to haircut prescribed by rules & regulations.5.5 Manner of Wlking- Every PNP Member is expected to walk with pride anddignity.Section 6. Other Police Customs:6.1 Visiting the Sick- Immediate commanders or other available officers of the unitvisit PNP Members who are sick in the hospital, their residence or any place ofconfinement in order that their needs are attended to.6.2 Survivor Assistance of Heir of Deceased Members- A survivor officer isdesignated whenever PNP members die, to render maximum assistance to their bereavedfamily until all benefits due shall have been received.6.3 Visiting the Religious Leaders- PNP Officers visit religious leaders in their areasof assignment to establish or maintain rapport and cooperation between the differentreligious leaders and the PNP. 6.4 Athletics- PNP members indulge in physical fitness activities o insurethat theirproper physical appearance and bearing are smaller than the size of his chest and inconformity with the standard set forth by the organization.6.5 Happy Hours- Usually on Friday or any other day suitable for the occasion, PNPmembers gather together at their PNP club for a light hearted jesting or airing of minorgripes.Section 7. Police Tradition
  30. 30. The following are police traditions:7.1 Spiritual Beliefs- PNP members are traditionally religious and God-loving person.They attend religious services together with the members of their family.7.2 Valor- History attests that the Filipino law enforcers have exemplified thetradition of valor in defending the country from aggression and oppression andprotecting/preserving the life and property of the people. They sacrificed their limbs andlives for the sake of their countrymen whom they have pledged to serve.7.3 Patriotism- The PNP members are traditionally patriotic by nature. They manifesttheir love of country with a pledge of allegiance to the flag and a vow to defend theconstitution.7.4 Discipline- The discipline of the PNP members is manifested by instinctiveobedience to lawful orders and thorough and spontaneous actions towards attainment oforganizational objectives guided by moral, ethical and legal norms.7.5 Gentlemanliness-PNP members are upright in character, gentle in manners,dignified in appearance, and sincere in their concern to fellowmen.7.6 Word of Honor- PNP members’ word is their bond. They stand by and commit touphold it.7.7 Duty- PNP members have historically exemplified themselves as dedicated publicservants who perform their tasks with a deep sense of responsibility and self-sacrifice.They shall readily accept assignment anywhere in the country.7.8 Loyalty- PNP members are traditionally loyal to the organization, country andpeople as borne by history and practice.7.9 Camaraderie- The binding spirit that enhances teamwork and cooperation in thepolice organization, extending to the people they serve., in manifested by the PNPmembers’ deep commitment and concern for one another. CHAPTER V
  31. 31. POLICE OFFICER’S PLEDGE (POP) PRINCIPLES ANDCONDUCT OF LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALSSection 1. The Police Officer’s Pledge1. I will love and serve God, my country and people;2. I will uphold the Constitution and obey legal orders of the duly constitutedauthorities;3. I will oblige myself to maintain a high standard of morality and professionalism;4. I will respect the customs and traditions of the police service; and5. I will live a decent and virtuous life to serve as an example to others.Section 2. Forum to ReciteThe Police Officer’s Pledge should be recited during the following occasions:1. Flag raising and flag retreat ceremonies, jointly with the Pledge of Allegiance tothe Flag (Panunumpa sa Watawat).2. PNP Training/course opening and closing ceremonies.3. Seminars on moral values internalization.4. Other ceremonies.Section 3. Fundamental PrinciplesThe rigid application of fundamental principles in police work is necessary toavoid human rights violation and maintain respect of the profession. Thus, PNP membershave the following responsibilities:1. To prevent and control crime, disorder and oppression by influential/politicalgroups, abusive soldiers and policemen, tyrannical policeman and decadentsociety.2. To recognize that the fulfillment of its functions is dependent upon communityapproval of its existence, and on its ability to obtain and maintain responsive
  32. 32. support and participative cooperation.3. To recognize that in order to secure and maintain the approval, support andcooperation of the public, it has a collateral responsibility of securing the willingassistance of the public in the task of securing observance of law. 4. To recognize that when thecommunity cooperates and assists the police, itdiminishes proportionately the need for the use of physical force and compulsionin achieving law enforcement objectives.5. To seek and preserve public favor, not by soliciting public opinion, but byconstant demonstration of impartiality by ready offering of individual service andcongeniality to all members of the community without regards to their wealth,friendship, social standing and race; and by ready offering of individual sacrificeand to some extent the sacrifice of relatives.6. To use physical force only when the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning isfound to be insufficient in the pursuit of law observance or to restore order, andshall resort only to the minimum degree of physical force necessary on anyparticular occasion in achieving law enforcement objectives.7. To constantly maintain wholesome relationship with the community that givesreality to the historic tradition that the police is the people and the people is thepolice; police officers are members of the community who are paid to renderpublic safety services due upon every citizen, endearing the principle that a publicoffice is a public trust.8. To recognize the need for strict adherence to the law, refrain from usurping thepowers and authority of the judiciary in avenging individuals, judging guilt andpunishing the guilty.9. To recognize that the test of police efficiency is the absence of crime anddisorder, not the visible evidence of law enforcement action in dealing crime and
  33. 33. disorder; enshrine the principle that crime prevention is better than crime solution;measure is better than countermeasure.10. To recognize that the test of law enforcement integrity is the presence of personalmoral responsibility exemplified by virtuous behavior and non compromising lawenforcement officer.11. To recognize that the achievement of a professional service depends principallyupon the constant development of police education and training, research andplanning and exercise.12. To recognize that the stability of the republic, the continuity of sovereignty andstrength of democracy depend upon a police organization that is constantly awareof the sensitive balance between individual freedom and collective security; everalert to the dangers ofextra legal or immoral procedures; and never compromiseprinciple in favor of evil means to attain the good ends.13. To recognize the ever magnificient principle: Love God, honor the governmentand respect the people.14. To recognize that “the people is the peace maker, the police is the peace keeperand the local government is the peace preserver.” If he goes beyond and above ofhis role, he must observe the three (3) C’s in internal and external relationsconsult, coordinate andcooperate.Section 4. Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement OfficialsThis Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials was adopted by UnitedNations General Assembly Resolution 34/169 of 17 Dec 1979. a. Law enforcement official shall at alltimes fulfill the duty imposed upon them bylaw, by serving the community and by protecting all persons against illegal acts,consistent with the high degree of responsibility required by their profession.b. In the performance of their duty, law enforcement officials shall respect andprotect human dignify and maintain and uphold the human rights of all persons.
  34. 34. c. Law enforcement officials may use force only when strictly necessary and to theextent required for the performance of their duty.d. Matters of a confidential nature in the possession of law enforcement officialsshall be kept confidential, unless the performance of duty or the needs of justicestrictly require otherwise.e. No law enforcement official may inflict, instigate or tolerate any act of torture orother cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, nor may any lawenforcement official invoke superior order or exceptional circumstances such as astate of war, a threat to national security, internal political instability or any otherpublic emergency as a justification of torture or other cruel, inhuman or degradingtreatment or punishment.f. Law enforcement officials shall ensure the full protection of the health of personsin their custody and, in particular, shall take immediate action to secure medicalattention whenever required.g. Law enforcement officials shall not commit any act of corruption. They shall alsorigorously oppose and combat all such acts.h. Law enforcement officials shall respect the law and the present Code. They shallalso, to the best of their capability, prevent and rigorously oppose any violation ofthem.Law enforcement officials who have reason to believe that a violation of thepresent Code has occurred or is about to occur shall report the matter to their superiorauthorities and, where necessary, to other appropriate authorities or organs vestedwith reviewing or remedial power. CHAPTER VIPROPAGATION AND ADHERENCESection 1. Foundation
  35. 35. All PNP members in the performance of their duties shall fully abide by this EthicalDoctrine. This Ethical Doctrine was culled from the PNP Code of Professional Conductand Ethical Standard (COPCES) which is anchored on the divine and moral precepts, theConstitution of the Republic of the Philippines and relevant provisions of the RevisedPenal Code, RA 6713 (Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials andEmployees), RA 3019 (Anti-Graft Practices Act), RA 6975 (DILG/PNP Law of 1991)and other related special laws.Section 2. Commitment2.1 All PNP personnel shall take upon themselves that the intent and spirit of thisDoctrine are honored and upheld at all times.2.2 Directors, Chiefs and Heads of Offices/Stations shall set the example and beresponsible for the adherence to this Doctrine.2.3 Priests/Minister/Imams of the PNP Chaplain Service, while setting the example,shall actively participate in enhancing the internalization of this Doctrine.2.4 All members of the PNP shall take an oath that they shall commit themselves tothis Doctrine. The oath of commitment shall be done upon entry into the PNP,upon promotion to the next higher rank and upon assumption of office/position.2.5 All PNP members (uniformed or non uniformed) shall execute a Pledge ofCovenant to adhere this Doctrine.Section 3. Propagation, Development and adherence.Propagation, Development and adherence of this Doctrine is a command policy and itsimplementation thereof is a command responsibility of PNP Commanders/ Directors atall levels.3.1 The PNP shall maintain the PNP Code of professional Conduct and EthicalStandard (COPCES) as conveyor of this PNP Ethical Doctrine.
  36. 36. 3.2 All PNP personnel shall be issued upon entry into the police service a copy of thePNP COPCES which shall be considered an accountable property and shall it withthem daily.3.3 The PNP COPCES shall be internalized by all members, and institutionalized inthe PNP. It will be part of the circular of all PNP academic courses and will beintegrated in moral value programs conducted thru regular police information andeducation activities. 3.4 There shall undertake a continuous appraisal and study on the effectiveness ofthePNP COPCES consistent with the growth and dynamics of performance standardsand professionalization of the PNP.3.5 The PNP COPCES shall be subject to interview initially three (3) years hence andevery five (5) years thereafter, or sooner if the need arises, for possible revisionand/or modification of its implementation strategy.3.6 The PNP Office of Ethical Standards and Public Accountability (PNPORSPA)shall oversee the internalization of the PNP COPCES, and the DHRDD shallmonitor the adherence of PNP members to this Ethical Doctrine.Section 4. Appropriations – The fund allocation necessary for the effectivepropagation and development of the PNP COPCES and Ethical Doctrine shall beprovided.Section 5. Miscellaneous – There shall be a sustained effort to improve this EthicalDoctrine thru the COPCES in the following functional areas:5.1 Strengthening and reinvigoration of activities on historical recordings andinterpretations of contemporary events.5.2 Structuring of the PNP organization to reinforce values and standards of thisDoctrine.5.3 In case of conflict in the practice of customs and traditions on one hand and in
  37. 37. the performance of duties on the other, the latter shall prevail.5.4 PNP members shall be morally and duty bound to advise fellow members toadhere to this Doctrine and refrain from violating the provisions of the PNPCOPCES.5.5 In case where erring PNP members are found to be incorrigibles, proper reportshall be made to the appropriated authority.5.6 Seminars shall be conducted in all levels of Commands as one forum ofinternalizing this Ethical Doctrine and the PNP COPCES. CHAPTER VIIADMINISTRATIVE SANCTIONS AND AMENDMENTSSection 1. Penalties and Administrative SanctionsThe penalties for the commission of acts/practices in violation of this Doctrine shall be inaccordance with the Revised Penal Code, RA 6713, RA 3019 and other specials laws. Foracts or omissions which merely require administrative sanctions, the applicablepunishments as provided for the rules and regulations promulgated by the PNP,NAPOLCOM. Civil Service Commission and DILG shall be applied.Section 2. AmendmentsAny amendments to or revision of this Doctrine may be proposed in a committee formedfor the purpose.Section 3. EffectivityThis Doctrine shall take effect upon promulgation. ANNEXESNOTES AND REFERENCES1. PNP Fundamental Doctrine published 1994.2. PNP Code of Professional Conduct and Ethical Standards (Red Book – 1992)3. Napolcom Resolution 92-4, Approving the Philippine National Code ofProfessional Conduct and Ethical Standards.
  38. 38. 4. NHQ-PNP Letter of Instruction dtd Jan 25, 1992.5. POLICE 2000 program.6. General Circular Nr DHRDD 94-001 dtd October 28, 1994, Re: PNP EthicsDay Celebration.7. PNP Journal (Jan-Feb 1994 issue) pages 6 to 18.8. PNP Journal (July – Aug 1994 issue) quoted from the author’s principle –page 25.9. Police Onward Warfare Strategy, quoted from this unpublished Chapter II,Part I, principles and precepts. Republic of the PhilippinesDepartment of the Interior and Local GovernmentNATIONAL POLICE COMMISSIONMakati, Metro ManilaRESOLUTION NO. 92-4APPROVING THE PHILIPPINENATIONAL CODE OFPROFESSIONAL CONDUCT AND ETHICAL STANDARDSWHEREAS, Section 37 of R.A. No. 6975 mandates the establishment by theNational Police Commission of a Code of Conduct for members of the PNP to fosterindividual efficiency, behavioral discipline and organizational effectiveness, as well asrespect for constitutional and human rights of citizens, democratic principles and idealsand the supremacy of civilian authority over the military;WHEREAS, a Code of Conduct for PNP members is necessary to set the moraltone and norms of professional conduct in the police service;WHEREAS, in keeping with this need, the Philippine National Police (PNP) hasinitiated the drafting of such Code, through a convention process participated in the
  39. 39. delegates from all regions, and has now submitted it for the consideration of thisCommission;WHEREAS, the Commission, upon close examination and analysis of the variousprovisions of the drafted Code submitted by the PNP, finds the same in accordance withthe desirable level of the professional conduct and ethical standards that should beobserved by all PNP members;NOW, THEREFORE, the Commission, acting in pursuance of Sec 17 of R.A. No.6975, RESOLVES, as it is hereby RESOLVED, to ADOPT the herein draft Codepresented by the PNP and promulgate it as the Philippine National Police Code ofProfessional Conduct and Ethical Standards.It is therefore enjoined that the standards embodied in the herein Code beinternalized and observed with utmost dedication and commitment.Approved this 12thday of March 1992, at Makati, Metro Manila. s/t CESAR N. SARINOSecretary, DILG & Chairmnan, NAPOLCOMs/t TEODULO C. NATIVIDAD, DCLVice-Chairman and Executive Officers/t VIRGILIO M. DAVIDCommissioners/t EDGAR DULA TORRESCommissioners/t GUILLLERMO P. ENRIQUEZ, JRCommissionerAttested by:
  40. 40. s/t REYNALDO J.D. CUADERNOExecutive Director III Republic of the PhilippinesDepartment of the Interior and Local GovernmentNational Police CommissionNATIONAL HEADQUARTERSPHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICECamp Crame, Quezon CityGENERAL CIRCULAR October 28, 1994NUMBER DHRDD 94-001PNP ETHICS DAY CELEBRATION1. References:a. Internalization of Moral Values, as pronounced by the President during the4thPNP Recognition Day.b. PNP Code of Professional Conduct and Ethical Standards (PNPCOPCES).c. Moral Recovery Program and POLICE 2000.2. Background:President Fidel V. Ramos, in his speech during the 4thPNP Recognition day heldat Camp Crame on 15 August 94, emphasized the need to internalize moral values.The PNP Code of Professional Conduct and Ethical Standards or Code for shortcontains all the moral values which are desirable and once practiced by each and
  41. 41. every member of the PNP will result into a disciplined, professional and morallyupright policeman. In order to institutionalized the practice of the values embodied inthe Code, there is a need to provide reinforcing activities. For this purpose, a PNPEthics Day celebration is relevant.Historically, the Code was drafted by a group of PNP officers coming from thedifferent Units/ Offices of the PNP. It has historical pattern of development fromformulation to implementation. Last October 21-27, 1991 was the perioPolice Ethics and CommunityRelationsLicensed practical nurse Criminology Free website hostingPNP Philosophy 1. Service 2. Honor 3. JusticePNP Core Values 1. Makadios (God-Fearing) 2. Makabayan (Nationalistic) 3. Makatao (Humane)Ethical Acts to be Observed by PNP members 1. Morality 2. Judicious use of authority 3. Integrity 4. Justice 5. Humility 6. Orderliness
  42. 42. 7. PerseveranceDefinition of TermsCustoms - established usage or social practices carried on by tradition that have obtained the force oflaw.Traditions - bodies of belief, stories, customs and usages handed down from generation to generationwith the effect of an unwritten law.Courtesy - a manifestation of expression of consideration and respect for others.Ceremony - a formal act or set of formal acts established by customs or authority as proper to specialoccasion.Social Decorum - a set of norms and standard practiced by the members during social activities andother functions.Police Community Relation - generally refers to the sum total of attitudes and behavior between policeand the communities they serve.Public Relations - a collection of communication techniques used by individuals or organizations toconvince an audience about the merits of an idea, organization, program, practice or policy.Community Service - refers to the activities whereby police engage in pro-social activities to enhance thewell being of the community beyond law enforcement and other maintenance.Community Participation - involves members of the community taking an active role in trying togenuinely help the police.Police Traditions1. Spiritual beliefs2. Valor
  43. 43. 3. Patriotism4. Discipline5. Gentlemanliness6. Word of Honor7. Duty8. Loyalty9. CamaraderieSpiritual Beliefs - can refer to an ultimate or an alleged immaterial reality, an inner path enabling aperson to discover the essence of his/her being or the deepest values and meanings by which peoplelive.Valor - great courage in the face of danger. Strength of mind or spirit that enables a person to encounterdanger with firmness.Patriotism - love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it.Discipline - the practice of training people to obey rules or a code of behavior using punishment tocorrect disobedience.Gentlemanliness - characteristic of or having the character of a gentleman. A man whose conductconforms to a high standard of propriety or correct behavior.Word of Honor - a verbal commitment by one person to another agreeing to do or not to do somethingin the future.Duty - a task or action that someone is required to perform.
  44. 44. Loyalty - a strong feeling of support or allegiance. Is faithfulness or a devotion to a person, country,group or cause.Camaraderie - mutual trust and friendship among people who spend a lot of time together. Goodwilland lighthearted rapport between or among friends.