• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Neoliberalism
 

Neoliberalism

on

  • 3,627 views

nothing.

nothing.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,627
Views on SlideShare
3,627
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
111
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Neoliberalism Neoliberalism Presentation Transcript

    • NEOLIBERALISM
    • NEOLIBERALISM : OUTLINE
      DEFINITION OF NEOLIBERALISM
      HISTORY OF NEOLIBERALISM
      CRITICAL ANALYSIS
      NEOLIBERALISM IN THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
    • DEFINITION
      NEOLIBERALISM
    • DEFINITION
      A. GLOBALIZATION
      B. NEOLIBERALISM
    • WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION?
      GLOBALIZATION
      a process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments of different nations.
    • WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION?
      GLOBALIZATION
      driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology, which effects on every aspect of human life.
    • WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION?
      ECONOMY
      A defining feature of globalization, therefore, is an
      international industrial and financial business structure.
    • WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION?
      This current wave of globalization has been driven by policies that have opened economies domestically and internationally.
      Many governments have adopted free-market economic systems, vastly increasing their own productive potential and creating myriad new opportunities for international trade and investment.
    • WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION?
      TECHNOLOGY
      Advances in IT have affected economic life and
      created new tools for identifying and pursuing
      economic opportunities.
    • WHAT IS NEOLIBERALISM?
      NEOLIBERAL THEORY
      A largely unregulated capitalist system not only embodies the
      ideal of free individual choice but also achieves optimum economic
      performance with respect to efficiency, economic growth, technical
      progress, and distributional justice.
      “The state is assigned a very limited economic role: defining property rights, enforcing contracts, and regulating the money supply.” (Kotz, 2000)
    • WHAT IS NEOLIBERALISM?
      It is essentially about making trade
      between nations easier.
      It is about freer movement of goods, resources and
      enterprises to maximize profits and efficiency.
    • WHAT IS NEOLIBERALISM?
      Cardinal feature of neoliberal thinking: the assumption that individual freedoms are guaranteed by freedom of the market and of trade. The freedoms it embodies reflect the interests of private property.
      Thus requires the removal of various controls deemed as barriers to free trade, such as: tariffs, regulations, certain standards, laws, legislation and regulatory measures, and restriction on capital flows and investment.
    • HISTORY
      NEOLIBERALISM
    • HISTORY OF NEOLIBERALISM
      WHY THE NEOLIBERAL TURN?
      WHAT INSTITUTIONS WERE ESTABLISHED?
    • Germany
    • America
    • Japan
    • WHY THE NEOLIBERAL TURN?
      Case 1: 1939-1945 – World War II: Many countries were left devastated.
      This led to the restructuring of state forms and international relations designed to prevent a return to the catastrophic conditions that threatened the capitalist order
      The thinking at the time: Both Capitalism and Communism had failed in their raw forms
      The conclusion at the time: To construct the right blend of state, market, and democratic institutions to guarantee peace, inclusion, well-being, and stability.
      Theory: This paved the way for the introduction of Neoliberal Policies: Supposedly a tool in preventing the re-emergence of inter-state geopolitical rivalries that led to the war.
    • WHY THE NEOLIBERAL TURN?
      Case 2: After the two world wars, the US emerged dominant
      in the global economy.
      1950s: One third of world exports came from the U.S.
      Theory: To ensure its dominance, the US restructured the world economy through neo-liberal policies such as deregulation and liberalization.
      Deregulation: put simply, deregulation means limiting government control over market forces.
      Liberalization: The trade liberalization program invariably consists of the elimination of import quotas and the reduction and unification of tariffs.
      Aim: To create new markets for its surplus products and excess capital.
    • INSTITUTIONS ESTABLISHED
      THE UNHOLY TRINITY
      INTERNATIONAL MONETARYFUND (IMF)
      WORLD BANK (WB)
      WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO)
    • INSTITUTIONS ESTABLISHED
      BRETTON WOODS INSTITUTIONS
      INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF)
      WORLD BANK (WB)
      What are they?
    • INSTITUTIONS ESTABLISHED
      THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF)
      The IMF was to be a supra-national body that would regulate exchange rates of currencies among member-countries and ensure global financial “stability” by extending loans to members to help them address balance of payments crises.
    • INSTITUTIONS ESTABLISHED
      The World Bank (WB)
      It consists of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA). Both institutions make loans to governments for projects and programs related to "development," that is, loans designed to promote economic and social progress in member countries.
    • INSTITUTIONS ESTABLISHED
      HOW WERE THEY FORMED?
      1944: Bretton Woods Conference:
      The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), also known as the Bretton Woods Institutions (BWIs), were formed in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire in 1944 on the eve of the end of World War II. The conference intended to "formulate definite proposals for an International Monetary Fund, and possibly a Bank for Reconstruction and Development." They were precursors to the United Nations and other multilateral institutions formed after World War II and reflected the new spirit of cooperation between nations, especially in economic matters.
    • Bretton Woods
    • Meyer
    • Early Staff of the World Bank
    • WHAT FUNCTIONS DO THEY SERVE?
      Oversees the international monetary system.
      Provides short- to medium-term credits to member countries who find themselves in temporary balance of payments difficulties.
      Supplements the currency reserves of its members through the allocation of SDRs (special drawing rights)
      Provides training and technical assistance in the areas of finance management system, tax system, banking system development to its member countries
      Helps to draw a systematic process for foreign transactions to take place.
      Assists developing countries through long-term financing of development projects and programs
      INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
      WORLD BANK
      (WB)
    • ESTABLISHED INSTITUTIONS
      1947: GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFF AND TRADE (GATT)
    • ESTABLISHED INSTITUTIONS
      WHAT IS IT?
      It is a multilateral agreement among countries that
      provides a framework for the conduct of international
      trade. It contains disciplines on matters related to import
      and export of goods. Through this, countries committed to
      reduce tariffs on certain imported products.
    • ESTABLISHED INSTITUTIONS
      HOW WAS IT FORMED?
      The US drafted a charter for a proposed International Organization
      (ITO), but it was heavily amended in the UN—evoking opposition from
      the US. Eventually, because of such heavy opposition from the US, the
      ITO was “dead”. Negotiations on trade liberalization, however, continued.
      Trade rules and tariff concessions were negotiated during the 1947 Geneva
      conference and signed in November that year.
    • ESTABLISHED INSTITUTIONS
      WHAT IS ITS FUNCTION?
      The General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) aimed at the
      abolition of quotas and the reduction of tariff duties among the
      Contracting nations.
    • ESTABLISHED INSTITUTIONS
      1995: WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION(WTO)
    • ESTABLISHED INSTITUTIONS
      WHAT IS IT?
      The WTO is a freestanding organization with legal
      personality and with self-executing enforcement,
      meaning that it contains binding dispute mechanisms to
      enforce trade rules. It was established to supervise
      and liberalize world trade. It is the successor to the GATT.
    • ESTABLISHED INSTITUTIONS
      HOW WAS IT FORMED?
      1980s: There were calls for a stronger multilateral
      organization to monitor trade and resolve trade
      disputes.
      The WTO began operations on January 1, 1995. Following the completion of the Uruguay round (1986-1984) of multilateral trade organizations.
    • ESTABLISHED INSTITUTIONS
      WHAT IS ITS FUNCTION?
      To set and enforce rules for international trade.
      To provide a forum for negotiating and monitoring further trade liberalization.
      To resolve trade disputes.
      To help developing countries benefit fully from the global trading system.
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS
      NEOLIBERALISM
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS
      CREATION OF THE IMF AND GATT
      These financial institutions supposedly aimed to assist in global economic post-war recovery.
      Upon closer inspection, however, it is clear they are actually avenues for spreading and enforcing neoliberal policies.
      For the IMF, loans were given under the condition that the borrower country must adopt a package of economic policies that were neoliberal in nature and promoted US dominance.
      For the GATT, it was easily manipulated by powerful countries because of its provisional and overall tenuous nature.
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS
      GATT: AN AGREEMENT TO REDUCE TARIFFS
      Meant to promote “free trade” principles like liberalization, equal market access, reciprocity, non-discrimination and transparency on a global scale.
      The commitment to reduce tariffs is inherently imbalanced. Generally, tariffs serve 3 functions: they protect local industries from foreign products, provide an additional source of revenue for the government and allocate foreign exchange among different competing imports..
      Moreover, powerful countries like the US would simply circumvent the GATT and intervene directly whenever its economic interests were being threatened.
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS
      WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
      Created to continue the fundamental principle of the GATT that exported goods should generally be free to enter into the importing country.
      The objectives of free trade—objectives the WTO forwards, such as opening agriculture, industry and services as well as liberalizing investments—serve the interest of developed countries thus are inherently unbalanced.
      It is an organization that prides itself on its democratic processes and decisions made by consensus.
      But even Former director-general Michael Moore acknowledges the inequalities present in the organization, saying, “Some members are more equal to others when it comes to influence.”
      There is much behind-the-scenes maneuvering to the detriment of the interests of developing countries.
      Ex: the WTO’s infamous “Green Room” meetings
      Ex: The WTO’s dispute settlements processes
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS
      WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
      Transnational corporations (TNCs) play a huge role in the WTO—which solidifies the bias of the organization towards larger rather than smaller companies.
      Right from the start, TNCs stood to gain from the liberalization measures of the WTO.
      TNCs have access to the highest decision-makers and staff of the WTO.
      Powerful countries, again, find various ways to circumvent the rules while developing countries follow them and suffer the consequences.
      For instance, many developing countries have made huge reductions in their tariffs and bound them. India’s trade-weighted average tariff has been reduced from 71.4% to 32.4% while the tariff in developed countries has only been reduced from 6.3% to 3.8%.
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS
      WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
      “The WTO is inherently unjust since it pits powerful countries against poor and weak ones in the arena of “free trade”, perpetuates the subjugation of nations through the intensification of neocolonial trade, and promotes the interests of corporations to the detriment of peoples across the globe. It is thus anti-development and anti-people as it undermines the capacity for genuine national progress, destroys economic sectors and people’s livelihood and intensifies poverty.”
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS
      DISPARITY BETWEEN THE THEORY OF
      NEOLIBERALISM AND THE PRAGMATICS OF
      NEOLIBERALISM
      Principles of neoclassical economics vs political commitment to individual freedom
      Distrust of state power vs the need for an authority to defend rights of private property, individual liberties and entrepreneurial freedom.
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS
      RESTORATION OF POWER
      Gerard Dumenil and Dominique Levy have concluded that neoliberalization was, from the very beginning, a project to achieve the restoration of class power.
      1970’s capital accumulation crisis: There were clear political and economic threats to elites and ruling classes everywhere. They had to move decisively to protect themselves from political and economic annihilation.
      After the implementation of neoliberal policies in the late 1970’s, extraordinary surges in income inequalities and wealth occurred in the US, Britain, Russia, China and Mexico.
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS
      RESTORATION OF POWER
      The rich and powerful of the world have formed somewhat of an informal alliance with one another in order to protect their mutual interests and maintain their dominance. They “posses a certain accordance of interests that generally recognizes the advantages to be derived from neoliberalization.”
      We can even go as far as to say that a political consensus has been reached; that governments throughout the world have fully embraced the neoliberal policy agenda.
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS
      POVERTY, OVERPRODUCTION AND LOCAL DISINTEGRATION
      Harsh economic measures have resulted in the gradual disintegration of the Welfare State.
      Because of the large accumulation of public debts in western countries, the financial elites have been given the power to dictate government economic and social policy.
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS
      POVERTY, OVERPRODUCTION AND LOCAL DISINTEGRATION
      This economic restructuring has made the divide between different social and ethnic groups even deeper. Moreover, it has increased the potential capacity of the economic system and expanded levels of production without reducing poverty significantly.
      Micro-Efficiency = Macro-Insufficiency:
      Global oversupply of commodities: a result of the unlimited capacity to produce and the limited capacity to consume.
      In developing countries, entire branches of industry producing for the internal market are driven into bankruptcy on the orders of the WB and IMF
    • CRITICAL ANALYSIS
      DIARMING THE NEW ORDER
      “The New World Order is based on the ‘false consensus’ of Washington and Wall Street, which ordains the ‘free market system’ as the only possible choice on the fated road to a ‘global prosperity’.”
      In order to disarm this world order, we must democratize the economic system and its management and ownership structures. We must redistribute income and wealth, restore the rights of direct producers and rebuild the Welfare State.
    • IN THE PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
      NEOLIBERALISM
    • PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
      Payne-Aldrich Act of 1909
      Allowed unlimited quantities of all kinds of U.S. Goods to enter the Philippines freely
      Importing U.S. goods became an obligation for the Philippines
      Philippine exports to the U.S. were given particular quota restrictions
    • PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
      1946 Bell Trade Act
      1954 Laurel-Langley Agreement
       Provisions of this act tied the Philippine economy to the economy of the United States.
      Despite the nominal independence of the Philippines at that time, these established free trade with the U.S., so neocolonial patterns were sustained.
    • PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
      THE MARCOS DICTATORSHIP
      Authorized a series of investment incentives laws which maintained the neocolonial preferential treatment for foreign investors and allowed the neocolonial trade patterns to continue
      • In general, foreign investors benefitted.
    • PHILIPPINE CONEXT
      AGRICULTURE
      Background Information
      • 1/3 of the land area of the Philippines is fertile and can be used for agriculture
      The Philippine economy is predominantly agrarian
      Agriculture, fishery, and forestry contributed to almost 20% to the GDP[Gross Domestic Product]
    • PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
      HOW TRADE LIBERALIZATION UNDER THE WTO HAS AFFECTED IT
      Although the government attributes the weak growth of agriculture to factors such as seasonal weather conditions, the fact that there is no sustained growth points to the conclusion that the crisis besetting the agricultural sector is structural in nature: low level of technology, small economies of scale, rampant landlessness, and concentration of land ownership among a relatively small elite.
      Thus, the local agriculture industry is extremely weak and uncompetitive and puts small producers at a disadvantage in the trade liberalization implemented by the government as dictated by the WTO.
      The Ramos, Estrada and Arroyo administrations all embraced WTO policies (trade liberalization), implementing privatization and deregulation in the local agriculture industry. This devastated the farmers’ livelihood and the rural economy, because the domestic market was flooded with imports while local farmers’ produce were still unable to penetrate the markets of developed countries.
    • PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
      INDUSTRY
      Background Information:
      In 2004, 33% of the Philippines’ GDP came from the industry sector
      How Trade Liberalization under the WTO has affected it
      The government’s policy of attracting foreign investments increased foreign dominance in Philippine industries.
      Footwear, apparel, rubber, textile, glass, tires, paper, wood, cement, and steel manufacturers in the country all suffered from imports and low tariffs.
      Many local companies were forced to downsize/close because of the foreign competition.
      Many workers were laid off or force to go on rotation
      45.1% of workers in January to March 2004 were displaced because of reorganization, downsizing, and change in management (merger). 8 establishments reduced their number of workers or closed down every day, and 196 workers were displaced daily.
      In July 2004, approximately 2,688 Filipinos left the country everyday.
    • PHILIPPINE CONTEXT
      SERVICES
      Background Information:
      Roughly 44% of the Philippines’ GDP is from the Service Sector
      How Trade Liberalization under the WTO has affected it
      The Philippines has committed under the GATS to bind all restrictions on market access and has applied national treatment on foreign investors and suppliers in financial services
      The Privatization and Commercialization of social services is a burden to average Filipinos.
      Rates for vital utilities increase, making them less accessible.
      Many families could not pay for healthcare in Public Hospitals.
      Education became so costly because of the privatization of state colleges and universities.
      Local service providers are marginalized because of the liberalization under GATS.
      Capital has become concentrated on foreigners, through TNC’s.
    • REFERENCES
      GROUP 2
      SOTTO SORIANO TENSUAN TABORA
      Sources:
       
      IBON Data Bank and Research Center. 2005. WTO: The Supreme Instrument of Neoliberal Globalization. Manila: IBON Foundation.
       David Harvey. 2005. A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford: Oxford University Press
      Michel Chussodovsky. 2003. The Globalization of Poverty. Ibon Books, pp. 1-64.
      Shah, A. (2010). A Primer on Neoliberalism. Retrieved February 13, 2011 from: http://www.globalissues.org/article/39/a-primer-on-neoliberalism
      Kotz, D.M. (2000). Globalization and Liberalization. Retrieved February 13, 2011 from: http://people.umass.edu/dmkotz/Glob_and_NL_02.pdf
      Globalization101.com (nd). What is Globalization? Retrieved February 13, 2011 from: http://www.globalization101.org/What_is_Globalization.html
      Shah, A. (2010). Poverty Facts and Stats. Retrived February 13, 2011 from: http://www.globalissues.org/article/26/poverty-facts-and-stats