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Nokia 3G UTRAN
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Nokia 3G UTRAN
May 31, 2013
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Nokia 3G UTRAN
1. 1 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerCourse Content• Warming UP• The Physical Layer• RRC Modes, System Information, Paging, & UpdateProcedure• Cell Selection & Reselection• RRC Connection Establishment• WCDMA Measurements in the UE• GSM Measurements for Inter-RAT Cell Reselection &Handover• Mobility Management and Connection Management• UTRAN Control Protocol Overview (without RRC)
2 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerWarming Up
3 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerObjectivesAt the end of this module, you will be able to• Understand the RAB QoS parameters• Name the structure of UTRAN specific signalling interfaces
4 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerThis page was intentionally left empty.
5 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerUMTS Release 99In December 1999, the first UMTS Release was frozen. This release is called nowadays UMTS Release 99. Inthe specification phase, two main objectives had to be met:• New radio interface solutionMobile communication became a big business case in the 90s of the last century with unexpected growthrates. In some areas, this imposed capacity problems. There were not enough radio resources available tosupply the subscribers in a satisfying way. The 2ndgeneration mobile communication systems were stilloptimised for speech transmission. Also in the 90s, there was an unprecedented growth in datacommunications. This was mainly caused by the introduction of user friendly GUIs, the browsers, to serve inthe net, and by the steadily dropping costs for computer and router.Therefore, during the standardisation process, one major focus lay on the radio interface solution. It had to bemore efficient to serve more subscribers in one geographical area, resp. to allow higher data rates. On theother hand, more flexibly was required, too, so that all kinds of present and future multimedia applicationscould be served.CDMA was selected as multiple access technology for the radio interface solution. The UMTS radio interfacesolution is often called WCDMA, because cdma is used on 5 MHz. Two duplex transmission solutions areavailable with UMTS Release 99, one based on the TDD and one based on the FDD mode.The introduction of a new radio interface solution required a new design of the whole radio access network,which is called UTRAN.• CN evolutionThere are more than 400 GSM operators worldwide. So one requirement to UMTS Release 99 was to enable asmooth evolution from 2G to 3G. Therefore, the UMTS CN is nowadays an enhanced GSM NSS.
6 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerUMTS ReleasesUMTS Release 99UMTS Release 4UMTS Release 5UMTS Release 6• UMTS CN = enhanced GSM NSS• UTRAN & WCDMA• Bearer independent CS domain• Low chip rate TDD mode• UTRA repeater• MMS• LCS enhancements• etc.• IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)• RNC connectivity to multiple CN nodes• HSCSD• etc.• WLAN-3GPP feasibility study• Network sharing feasibility study• Security enhancements• Push services• etc.1999200120022003
7 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerUMTS Release 99 Network ArchitectureThe UMTS CN can be organised into two main domains:• CS domainThis domain offers circuit switched bearer services. The cs domain is nowadays mainly usedfor real time data services, including speech and fax transmission. The network entitiesMSC, GMSC and VLR can be found here.• PS domainThis domain offers packet switched bearer services. It is based on the GSM feature GPRS.Originally, this domain was developed for non-real time packet switched applications, suchas file transfer, email, access to the Internet. It is used today mainly for MMS. But there aretendencies to improve its offered QoS, so that real time services can be offered, too.The SGSN and GGSN are located in the packet switched domain. Other specified psdomain entities are the BGF and the CGF, which are often offered as stand alone devices.There are also some network elements, which are shared by the packet switched andcircuit switched domain. The common network elements comprise the HLR, AuC and EIR.A set of network elements were specified for application provisioning, which can be also foundin the CN. Examples are the Camel Service Environment and WAP. Some service solutionsaffect the access network, too. See for instance LCS.
8 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerUMTS Release 99 Core NetworkCN (Core Network)circuit switched (cs) domainpacket switched (ps) domaincommoncs & psnetworkelementsGERANUTRANWAPcorporatenetworksPDNIP-backboneCGFBillingCentreBGFInter-PLMNNetworkPSTN/ISDNMSC/VLR GMSCEIRHLRACSGSN GGSN
9 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerUMTS Release 99 Network ArchitectureThe UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) is the access network, which was developed withUMTS. The access network is organised in Radio Network Subsystems (RNS). Each RNS has oneradio resource control unit, called Radio Network Controller (RNC). The tasks of a RNC can be seen onone figure on the following pages. In each RNS, there is at least one Node B active, which is connectedto its controlling RNC. A Node B is the 3G base station. One or several cells can be activated with oneNode B. The main features of a Node B can be seen on one figure of the following pages.With UTRAN, four new interfaces were specified:• IuIu connects UTRAN with the CN. A distinguishing is drawn between the Iu connection to the ps domain,which is labelled Iu-PS, and to the cs domain, which is called Iu-CS. In both cases, ATM is used astransmission network solution. Please note, that there are differences in the protocol stacks on the Iu-CS and Iu-PS interface.• IubThis interface is used between the Node B and its controlling RNC.• IurThis is an inter-RNS interface, connecting two neighbouring RNC. It is used among others in softhandover situations, where a UE‘s active cells are under the control of more than one RNC. One RNC isresponsible for the UE; it is called S-RNC. The remaining RNCs are called D-RNC.• UuUu is the acronym for the WCDMA radio interface.On the interfaces Iu, Iur, and Iub, ATM is used for the transport of user data and higher layer signallinginformation.
10 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerUTRANCNcircuitswitched(cs)domainpacketswitched(ps)domainUTRANRadio Network Subsystem (RNS)Radio Network Subsystem (RNS)IubIubIurIu-PSIu-CSUuUuUEUEMSC/VLRSGSNRNCRNC
11 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerRNC Tasks and Functions• WCDMA radio resource managementincl. Radio resource management ofchannel configurations,traffic and control channels, handovers,power control.• Telecom functionalityincl. Location & connection management,ciphering, Iu and Iub channel management,ATM switching and multiplexing• Maintenanceincl. Fault localisation and reconfiguration• Operationincl. RNC and Node B parametermodification
12 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerNode B Tasks and Functions101010010101010001Iub InterfaceATMUu InterfaceWCDMACellular Transmission managementManaging ATM switching and multiplexingover the Iub interface. Control ofAAL2/AAL5 connections. Control of thephysical transmission interfaces – E1, PDH,SDH or microwave.Air Interface management.Controlling Uplink and Downlinkradio paths on the Uu AirInterface. Baseband to RFconversion. Antenna multi-coupling.O&M Processing.Interfacing with NMSand RNC for alarm andcontrol (Operations andMaintenance) functions.Radio Channel functions.Logical to physical channelmappings. Encoding/Decoding –Spreading/Despreading usertraffic and signalling.RNC
13 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerKey WCDMA FactsTwo radio interface solutions were specified with UMTS Release 99:• FDD mode• (high chip rate) TDD modeThe used carrier frequency band is 5 MHz. The radio interface is organised in 10 ms frames,which are divided into 15 timeslots. 72 10 ms frames represent one hyperframe, which wasintroduced for UMTS-GSM Handovers. The information bearing stream is spreaded with theso-called spreading code. The spreading code consists of 3.84 Mchps. The spreading codeis a composition of two codes, the channelisation and the scrambling code. The scramblingcodes are derived from the Gold code family. They represent pseudo noise sequences. As aconsequence, if there is multipath propagation in the system, the individual multipaths canbe detected due the scrambling codes. There are 512 primary scrambling codes defined forthe downlink transmission. Uplink, several million scrambling codes are available. Ascrambling code repreats with every 10 ms frame. The channelisation code are used forchannel separation within one multipath. The channelisation codes are orthogonal codes.There repeat with each information bit, which has to be transmitted. Data rates andchannelisation codes are consequently related.Uplink, user data and control data are code multiplexed on one physical channel. Downlink,they are time multiplexed. The modulation is QPSK in UMTS Release 99.Different types of handovers are supported: soft handover (FDD only) , softer handover (FDDonly), and hard handovers. Hand handovers can be classified into inter-frequency, inter-frequency, and inter-RAT handovers.
14 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerKey WCDMA FactsDuplex Transmission Modes:• Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)• Time Division Duplex (TDD)Multiple Access:• Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)Modulation (Rel. ´99)• Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)Bandwidth (Rel. ´99)• 5 MHzTime Organisation:• 10 ms per radio frame• 15 time slots per frame• 72 radio frames per hyperframe• 2560 chips per timeslotSpreading• Spreading codes =channelisation codes & scrambling codes• Chip rate: 3.84 Mchips• Channelisation codes = orthogonal codes,length: depends on spreading factor• Scrambling codes = pseudo noise codes(derived from Gold code family)length: 38400 chips (10 ms)Spreading Factors (FDD mode):• UL: 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256• DL: 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512The spreading factor can be changed everyTTI (10, 20, 40, or 80 ms).Handover types: Soft & Softer HO (FDD only),Hard Handover;
15 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerAccess StratumStrata were introduced to group protocols related to one aspect of service. In this course,especially the Access Stratum is of importance. The Access Stratum comprisesinfrastructure and protocols between entities of the infrastructure specific to the appliedaccess technique. In UMTS it offers services related to the data transmission via the radiointerface. It also allows the management of the radio interface on behalf of other parts ofthe network. Two access strata are defined in UMTS:• UTRAN – MTThe protocols in use between UTRAN and the mobile phone specify in detail radiointerface related information. AS signalling is used to inform the UE about how to use theradio interface in the UL and DL direction.• UTRAN – CNThe CN requests the access network to make transmission resources available. Theinteraction between UTRAN and the CN is hereby independent of the interaction betweenthe UTRAN and the UE. In other words, the UTRAN – CN access stratum is independent ofthe used radio interface technology.In this course, we focus our interest mainly on the transmission of signalling informationand related parameters via the radio interface. Consequently, the access stratum betweenthe UE and UTRAN will be discussed in detailed. But also NAS signalling will be outlined.NAS signalling is exchanged between the UE and the serving network. In this coursematerial, this signalling is regarded as part of the non-access stratum.
16 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerAS and NAS SignallingUTRANRNCUE CN Iu edge nodeNAS signalling and user datai.e. MM, PMM & CC, SS, SMS, SMAccess Stratum Signalling(Uu Stratum)RRCAccess Stratum Signalling(Iu Stratum)RANAP
17 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerUMTS QoS ArchitectureWhen a subscriber requests a network service, he expects to get – and is willing to pay for – aspecific end-to-end quality of service. In a peer-to-peer communication, the QoS has to beprovided between the two participating terminals. The QoS of an end-to-end bearer service hasto be described. Parameter such as minimum bit rate, guaranteed bit rate, and end-to-end delaycan be used.An end-to-end bearer service may be made available by several operators. This is the situationdisplayed in the figure on the right hand side. The UMTS provider offers the UMTS bearerservice, a service established between the UE and a CN edge node (GMSC, GGSN).The UMTS bearer service and its QoS depends on the underlying bearer services: The CN bearerservice and the Radio Access Bearer (RAB) Service. The signalling protocols RANAP betweenthe CN Iu edge node (MSC/VLR, SGSN) and the RNC is used among others to establish,maintain, modify and release the Iu Bearer Service, which is required to establish the RABbetween the CN Iu edge node and the S-RNC. Between the S-RNC and the UE, the signallingand control protocol RRC is used to establish Radio Bearer (RB) Services, which is alsorequired to establish a RAB Service.The RRC is used peer-to-peer between the UE and the S-RNC. There are two intermediatedevices, which also have to be informed about the bearer management: The Node B and –during a soft handover – the D-RNC. The management of the Iub resources to offer adequateQoS to „higher layer“ bearer services is done with the NBAP. This protocol is also used toinform the Node B about the transmission and reception of common and dedicated informationon the radio interface Uu. The RNSAP is used between neighbouring RNCs for features suchas inter-RNC soft handovers and S-RNC relocation.
18 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerUMTS QoS ArchitectureTE TECNGatewayMT UTRANCN Iuedge nodeEnd-to-End ServiceTE/MT LocalBearer ServiceExternalBearer ServiceUMTS Bearer Service = UMTS QoSCNBearer ServiceRadio AccessBearer ServiceBackboneBearer ServiceRadioBearer ServiceIuBearer ServiceUTRA FDD/TDDServicePhysicalBearer Service(adopted from TS 23.107)
19 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerQoS Management Functions in the Control PlaneTEext.networkCNGatewayMT UTRANCN Iuedge nodeUMTS BSManagerUMTS BSManagerUMTS BSManagerRABManagerCN BSMana-gerIu BSMana-gerExt. BSMana-gerCN BSMana-gerIu BSMana-gerRadioBSMana-gerRadioBSMana-gerLocalBSMana-gerBB NSMana-gerIu NSMana-gerBB NSMana-gerIu NSMana-gerUTRAph. BSMana-gerUTRAph. BSMana-gerSubscrControlAdm/Cap.ControlAdm/Cap.ControlTrans-lationAdm/Cap.ControlAdm/Cap.ControlTrans-lation(adopted fromTS 23.107)
20 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerUMTS QoS ArchitectureIn UMTS, four QoS classes have been defined:• Conversational classis the QoS class for delay sensitive real time services such as speech telephony.• Streaming classis also regarded as real-time QoS class. It is also sensitive to delays; it carries traffic, whichlooks real time to a human user. An application for streaming class QoS is audiostreaming, where music files are downloaded to the receiver. There may be an interruption inthe transmission, which is not relevant for the user of the application, as long as there is stillenough data left in the buffer of the receiving equipment for seamless application provision togap the transmission time break.• Interactive classis a non-real time QoS class, i.e. it is used for applications with limited delay sensitivity(so-called interactive applications). But many applications in the internet still have timingconstraints, such as http, ftp, telnet, and smtp. A response to a request is expected within aspecific period of time. This is the QoS offered by the interactive class.• Background classis a non-real time QoS class for background applications, which are not delay sensitive.Example applications are email and file downloading.A set of UMTS bearer attributes have been defined to specify the UMTS service. They arelisted on the right hand side. When a UMTS bearer is established, modified or released, aspectssuch as the UE capabilities, subscription profiles and network specific QoS profiles have to betaken under consideration.
21 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerUMTS Bearer AttributesTraffic classBackgroundclassInteractiveclassStreamingclassConversationalclassMaximum bit rateSDU formatinformationSDU error ratioResidual biterror ratioDelivery oferroneous SDUsTransfer delayGuaranteed bit rateTraffic handlingpriorityAllocation/RetentionpriorityDelivery orderMaximum SDU size(adopted from TS 23.107chap. 188.8.131.52)
22 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerUTRAN Specific Signalling and Control Protocols3G-MSC/VLR3G-SGSNUE Node BRNCRNCRNSRNSRRCIur: RNSAPIu-PS: RANAPIu-CS: RANAPIub: NBAPTS 25.331TS 25.331TS 25.433TS 25.433TS 25.423TS 25.423TS 25.413TS 25.413TS 25.413TS 25.413
23 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerGeneral Protocol Model for UTRAN InterfacesThe general protocol model for UTRAN interfaces can be seen in the figure on the right handside. It is organised in horizontal and vertical planes.There are two main vertical layers:• The control plane is used for signalling and control. UTRAN specific signalling protocols hadbeen developed, such as the RNSAP. This is one example of an application protocol, asdenoted in the figure. Each signalling and control protocol requires a signalling bearer. Thesignalling bearers in UMTS are based on standard bearer protocols (e.g. ATM).• The user plane describes the user data transport. The data streams are transmitted via databearers.Within the transport network layers, there are vertical transport network user and controlplanes. A transport network control plane is responsible for the transport of higher layer data.The transmission resources for the control plane are made available by operation andmaintenance. The Transmission resources for the user data streams can be made availableon demand. On some interface, ALCAP is used. It is a transport network control planespecific signalling protocol to establish, maintain, modify, and release data bearers. It is forinstance in use on the Iu-CS interface, but not on the Iu-PS interface. The signalling bearersfor ALCAP are always set up by operations and maintenance.
24 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerPhysical LayerGeneral Protocol Model for UTRAN Interfaces(copied from TS 25.401 chap. 11.1.1)Control Plane User PlaneRadioNetworkLayerTransportNetworkLayerApplicationProtocolSignallingBearer(s)SignallingBearer(s)DataBearer(s)ALCAPDataStreamsTransport NetworkControl Plane User PlaneTransport NetworkUser PlaneTransport Network
25 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerGeneral Protocol Model for UTRAN InterfacesThe figure on the right hand side shows the Uu access stratum protocols as implemented inthe UE. The UE protocol stack can be divided into a control and a user plane. The L3protocol RRC is used to inform the UE about the use of the uplink and downlink radioresources. The RRC protocol‘s peer entities are the RNC and the Node B. The receivingentity has to configure the MAC, PHY, PDCP, and BMC protocol entities in accordance tothe received commands.The protocol stacks for signalling and user data transfer can be seen with the two figures,which follow the next one.
26 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerMAC LayerRLC LayerPHY LayerRadio Interface Protocol Architecture (in UE)(copied from TS 25.301 chap. 5.1)Control Plane Signalling User Plane SignallingRRC LayerTrCHsRLCRLCRLCRLCRLCRLCRLCRLCBMCPDCPPDCPPDCPPhyCHsLogCHsRBscontrolcontrolcontrolcontrolcontrol
27 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerReferencesFor this course module, following ETSI specifications were used:• TS 23.002 V3.05.0• TS 23.101 V3.10.0• TS 24.410 V3.08.0• TS 25.301 V3.11.0• TS 25.401 V3.10.0
28 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerGSM & UMTS Evolution1990/91 1994 97 98 1999/2000 01 yearPhase 1Tele & BearerServicesFR speechSMSData ≤ 9.6 kbpsPhase 2SupplementaryServicesHR speech‘96 ‘97 ‘98 ‘99‘99Phase 2+• HSCSD, GPRS & EDGE• PS Domain• New Services• IN-applications• EFR & AMR• ….Annual ReleaseR4 R5 R6 R799 02 04 06• WCDMA• UTRAN• VHE• ….• ATM CN• TD-SCDMA• IMS• HSDPA• IP UTRAN• …• EUDCH• new servicese.g. PoC, MBMS• W-AMR• …• MIMO• WLANIntegration• …GSMUMTS4G2010?2G2.5G3G3.5G4
29 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerRadio Protocol Architecture!"# $"" ""%%%"" ""%%%""&&# $""""%%% (( (((( ( (( () ( (( (#%(#%&( (&( (""* *" & "&%%%%%%" & " &
30 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus WimmerChannel Configuration Scenario"&+"& "&,,"&--"&. "&/ "&0,"&1."&2+ 3.4 4 4((4( 4( (4 4 4((4( 4( ("" #%#%5 , -6! " #$ %
31 © NOKIA topic: Warming Up/ July 2003 /Markus Wimmer
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