• The Loch Ness Monster is a cryptid, reputedly a
large unknown animal that inhabits Loch Ness in
the Scottish Highlands. It is similar to other
supposed lake monsters in Scotland and elsewhere,
though its description varies from one account to
Popular interest and belief in the animal's existence
has varied since it was first brought to the world's
attention in 1933.
Evidence of its existence is anecdotal, with minimal
and much-disputed photographic material and sonar
most common speculation among
believers is that the creature represents a
line of long-surviving plesiosaurs.
The scientific community regards the Loch Ness Monster as a modernday myth, and explains sightings as including misidentifications of
more mundane objects, outright hoaxes, and wishful thinking.
Despite this, it remains one of the most famous examples of
cyptozoology. The legendary monster has been affectionately referred
to by the nickname Nessie.
• The term "monster" was reportedly applied for the first time to the
creature on 2 May 1933 by Alex Campbell, the water bailiff for Loch Ness
and a part time journalist.
• He and his wife had seen "the nearest approach to a dragon or prehistoric animal that I have ever seen in my life", trundling across the road
toward the Loch carrying "an animal" in its mouth.
• On 6 December 1933 the first purported photograph of the monster,
taken by Hugh Gray, was published in the Daily Express.
• In 1934, interest was further sparked by what is known as The Surgeon’s
Photograph. In the same year R.T.Gould published a book, the first of
many that describe the author's personal investigation and collected
record of additional reports pre-dating 1933.
Hugh Gray’s Photograph(1933)
• On 12 November 1933, Hugh Gray was walking along the loch after church
when he spotted a large creature rising up from the lake. Gray took several
pictures of it, but only one of them showed up after they were developed.
The "Surgeon's Photograph" purported to be the first photo of a
"head and neck“. Dr. Wilson claimed he was looking at the loch
when he saw the monster, so grabbed his camera and snapped
A giant eel was one of the first suggestions
made as eels are found in Loch Ness.
A number of photographs confirmed the
presence of eels in Loch Ness.
In 1934 the Sir Edward Mountain expedition
analysed film taken the same year and
concluded that the monster was a species
inanimate objects or effects
• In 1933 the Daily mirror showed a picture with the
following caption 'This queerly-shaped tree-trunk,
washed ashore at Foyers may, it is thought, be
responsible for the reported appearance of a
• Optical effects
• Wind conditions can give a slightly choppy and thus
matte appearance to the water, with occasional calm
patches appearing as dark ovals (reflecting the
mountains) from the shore, which can appear as
humps to visitors unfamiliar with the loch.
• Seismic waves
• An Italian geologist explain that Loch Ness is located
along the Green Glen Fault, hence there are disturbances
at surface of water, gas is being released which is
mistaken by all as a huge animal below the surface.
• The Loch Ness monster phenomenon has seen several
attempts to hoax the public, some of which were very