What is an election???
A mechanism by which people can choose
their representatives at regular intervals
and change them if they wish to do so.
The voters can:
Choose who will make laws for them
Choose who will form the government and
take major decisions.
Choose the party whose policies will guide
the government and law making.
Everyone should be able to choose.
One person ,One vote , One value.
Parties and candidates should be free to contest
The choice should be offered at regular intervals.
Candidate preferred by people should get elected.
There should be free and fair elections where people
can choose as they wish.
• In our country , elections are held by an
independent and very [powerful ELECTION
• It enjoys same kind of independence that the
• The chief election commissioner is elected by the
president of India.
• The chief election commissioner is not answerable to
the president or government once appointed.
FUNCTIONS OF THE EC
EC takes decisions on every aspect of conduct
and control of elections.
It punishes any candidate or party who goes
against the code of conduct.
During the election period , the EC can order the
government to follow some guidelines , to
prevent use and misuse of government power
to enhance its chances to win elections or to
transfer some government officials.
When on election duty , government officers
work under the control of the EC and not the
Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha
elections are held every 5 years.
The Lok Sabha election is called
the General Elections.
There are certain elections that are
conducted in a particular
constituency owing to death or
resignation of a member. These
country is divided into electoral
constituencies for both the Lok Sabha and
the Legislative Assembly elections. One
representative is elected from each
constituency by the voters.
The country is divided into 543
constituencies for the Lok Sabha elections
the selected representatives is called the
Member of Parliament or MP.
Similarly, each state is divided into a number
of Assembly constituencies and
representative selected from each
constituency is called the Member of
Legislative Assembly or MLA.
the Lok Sabha elections, the
elected from each constituency is called
a Member of Parliament or MP.
open electoral competitions, certain
weaker sections of the society may not
stand good chance of winning because of
the influence of powerful sections.
Hence, the makers of our constitution
prepared a system of reserved
constituencies foe these weaker sections.
Certain constituencies are reserved for the people
belonging to the Scheduled Castes (SC) and the
scheduled Tribes (ST)
In the Lok Sabha, seats reserved for the SCs and the
STs are 79 and 41 respectively. These are in
proportion to their population in the total
population of the country.
Seats are reserved for the Other Backward Classes
(OBC) as well.
They may have not the required resources education
and contacts to contests and win the elections.
Different citizens differ from one another in many
ways: some are rich, some are poor, some are
highly educated and some are not so educated and
some not educated at all, but still they have the
right to vote.
“All are equal and should be treated equal.”
Polling and counting of votes
• The final stage of an election is the day when
the voters cast their vote .this is called
• Every person whose name is in the voters list
go to the nearby “polling booth", situated
usually in a local school or a government
• Once the voter goes inside the booth the
election officials identify her ,put a mark on
her finger and allow her to cast vote.
• Earlier the voters used to indicate who they wanted
to vote for by putting a stamp on the ballot paper. A
ballot paper is sheet of paper on which the names of
the contesting candidates along with party name
and symbols are listed .
• Now a days electronic voting machines(EVM) are used to
• The machine show the names of the candidates and party
• All the voters has to do is to press the button against the
name of the candidate she wants to give her vote.
• Once the polling is done ,all the EVMs are
sealed and taken to a secure place.
• A few days later , on a fixed date , all the EVMs
are opened and the votes are counted.
• The agents of each candidate are present
there to ensure that counting is done properly.
• The candidate who secures the highest
number of votes from a constituency is
Television channels , radio, and newspaper report this event. Within a few
hours of counting, all the results are declared and it becomes clear as to who
will form the next government.
• It is necessary to have a free and
open discussion about who is a
better representative, and who will
make a better government.
• In our country such campaigns take
place for a two week period between
the announcement of the final list
of candidates and the date of
• During this period,the candidates contact their
voters,political leaders address election meetings and
political parties and mobilise supporters.
• Successful slogan given by political parties are:
• Garibi hatao.(remove poverty)
• Save democracy.
• Land to tiller.
• Protect the self respect of the telugus.
According to our election law,no party or
• Appeal to them in the name of caste or religion
• Use government resources for election
• Spend more than RS 25 lakh in a constituency for
a lok sabha election or RS 10 lakh in a
constituency in an assembly election.
It is another way of checking the
quality of the election process by
seeing whether the people participate
it with lot of enthusiasm. It is not
free or fair. People will not continue
to participate in it
VOTER TURNOUT IN
INDIA AND UK
1. People’s participation in election is usually measured by voter turnout
figures. The per cent of eligible who actually cast heir votes are known as
TURNOUT. Over the last fifty years the turnout in India and Europe are
declined. The turnout in India has remained stable or gone up.
2. the people who are poor, illiterate, underprivileged vote in large proportion
as compared to the rich sections. It is a contrast to Western democracies.
3. common people in India attach a lot of important to elections
4.the interest of voters in election related activities has been increasing over
The outcome of India's elections.
1. the ruling parties routinely lose elections in India both at
the national and the state level
2. in the US, an incumbent or ‘setting’ elected representative
rarely loses an election.
3.candidate who are known to have spend a lot of money on
buying votes and those with known criminal connections
often lose elections.
4. Barring very few disputed elections the electoral
outcomes are usually accepted as peoples verdict by the