Nervous System

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  • 1. The nervous system Content by Megan McDonald
  • 2. CNS Central Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord
  • 3. PNS Peripheral Nervous System Spinal Nerves Cranial Nerves
  • 4. CNS PNS Afferent (Sensory) Efferent (Motor) Sense organ Somatic (voluntary) Autonomic (involuntary) Parasympathetic Sympathetic
  • 5. Activity
    • Marieb colouring book
    • Chapter 7, Qu.2, Page 132
  • 6. Nervous system function
    • Sensory – afferent
    • Integrative – information processed
    • Motor - efferent
  • 7. Nervous tissue
    • Neurons – Afferent, interneurons, efferent
    • Neuroglia – supporting cells
  • 8. Neurons
    • Nerve cell
    • Initiates, propagates and transmits electrical signals.
  • 9. Neuron
  • 10. Neuroglia
    • Supporting cell of nervous system
    • Astrocytes – metabolic, physical support; brain
    • Oligodendrocytes – myelin forming; CNS
    • Ependymal cells – produces CSF
    • Microglia – repair damaged neurons; CNS
    • Schwann cells – myelin forming; PNS
  • 11. Activity 14.3
    • Marieb colouring book
    • Chapter 7, Qu.7, Page 135
    • Chapter 7, Qu.6, Page 131
  • 12. Activity 14.4
    • Purple book
  • 13. Neuron function
    • Stimulus
    • Excitability
    • Synapse
    • Action potential
  • 14. Action Potential
    • Resting state – inside cell membrane is more –ve than outside
    • Depolarisation – inside membrane becomes +ve
    • Repolarisation – inside membrane returns to –ve.
  • 15. Synapse
    • Neurons not connected physically
    • Gaps between neurons
    • Impulses pass over synapses via neurotransmitters
  • 16. Reflex Arc
    • Rapid action without conscious control
    • Occurs at spinal cord level
  • 17. Reflex Arc Stimulus Afferent neuron Spinal cord Efferent neuron Muscle Contracts
  • 18.  
  • 19. Activity 14.5
    • Marieb colouring book
    • Chapter 7, Qu.11, Page 137
  • 20. Central Nervous System
    • Brain
    • Spinal Cord
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. Cerebrum
    • Left and right hemispheres
    • Hemispheres joined by corpus callosum
    • Gyri – ridges
    • Sulci – grooves
    • Fissures – deep grooves
    • Lobes – regions of cerebrum
    • Cerebral cortex – grey matter
  • 24. Cerebrum
    • Frontal Lobe
    • Personality
    • Decision making
    • Co-ordination of complex movements
    • Speech (L) motor
  • 25. Cerebrum
    • Parietal Lobe
    • Sensation
    • Proprioception
    • Understanding of sensation
    • Speech comprehension
  • 26. Cerebrum
    • Occipital Lobe
    • Vision
    • Interpreting vision
  • 27. Cerebrum
    • Temporal Lobe
    • Motivation
    • Emotion
    • Memory
    • Hearing
  • 28. Cerebrum
  • 29. Diencephalon
    • Enclosed by cerebral hemispheres
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Epithalamus
    • Pineal body
    • Choroid plexus
  • 30.  
  • 31. Brainstem
    • Connects cerebrum and cerebellum to spinal cord
    • Midbrain
    • Pons
    • Medulla oblongata
  • 32. Cerebellum
    • “ Little brain”
    • Posterior and inferior to cerebrum
    • Posture and balance
  • 33. Basal Nuclei
    • AKA Basal ganglia
    • Masses of neuron cell bodies
    • Lentiform nucleus
    • Caudate nucleus
    • Substantia nigra
  • 34. Activity 14.6
    • Marieb colouring book
    • Chapter 7, Qu.13, Page 138
    • Chapter 7, Qu.15, Page 138
    • Chapter 7, Qu.16, Page 139
    • Chapter 7, Qu.17, Page 140
    • Chapter 7, Qu.18, Page 141
  • 35. CNS Protection
    • Bony
    • Membranous (meninges)
    • Cerebral Spinal Fluid
    • Blood brain barrier
  • 36. Meninges
    • Three layers of tissue form meninges
    • Dura mater
    • Arachnoid mater
    • Pia mater
  • 37. CSF
    • Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • Contained between Arachnoid and Pia maters
    • In subarachnoid space
    • Formed by choroid plexus
    • Contained in ventricles
    • Nourishment
  • 38.  
  • 39. Activity 14.7
    • Purple book
  • 40. Spinal Cord
    • Continuation of medulla oblongata
    • 31 pairs of spinal nerves
    • Conducts afferent and efferent signals
    • Reflex arc
  • 41.  
  • 42. PNS
    • Peripheral Nervous System
    • Cranial Nerves
    • Spinal Nerves
  • 43. Cranial Nerves
    • 12 Pairs
    • Originate in brain
    • Pge 149
  • 44. Cranial Nerves I I Olfactory II Optic III Oculomotor IV Trochlear V Trigeminal VI Abducens VII Facial VIII Vestibulocochlear I Olfactory
  • 45. Cranial Nerves I I Olfactory IX Glossopharyngeal X Vagus XI Accessory XII Hypoglossal
  • 46. Spinal Nerves
    • 31 Pairs
    • 8 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 sacral
    • 1 coccygeal
  • 47. Spinal Plexus
    • Cervical
    • Lumbosacral
    • Brachial
    • Preserves (some) function in case of injury
  • 48.  
  • 49. Somatic Nervous System
    • Conscious control
    • Efferent impulses – to muscles
    • Afferent impulses – from skin etc
  • 50. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Unconscious control
    • Sympathetic
    • Parasympathetic
  • 51. Activity 14.11
    • Purple book
  • 52. Homework!
    • Muscle chart
    • Anat family
  • 53. Thank you