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Timeline of space technology's innovation (sts)

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  • 1. 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961October 4, 1957 - Sputnik 1, the firstman-made object to orbit the Earth, islaunched by the U.S.S.R., andremains in orbit until January 4, 1958.November 3, 1957 -Sputnik 2, carrying thedog Laika for 7 days inorbit, is launched by theU.S.S.R., and remainsin orbit until April 13,1958.pptpicturesSTS_TimelinePICTURES.pptxJanuary 31, 1958 - Explorer 1, the first U.S. satellitein orbit, lifts off at Cape Canaveral using a modifiedABMA-JPL Jupiter-C rocket. It carries a scientificexperiment of James A. Van Allen, and discovers theEarths radiation belt.March 5, 1958 - Explorer 2 is launched by a Jupiter-Crocket, and fails to reach orbit.March 17, 1958 - Vanguard 1 satellite is launchedinto orbit, and continues to transmit for 3 years.May 15, 1958 - Sputnik 3 is launched by the U.S.S.R.October 1, 1958 - N.A.S.A. is founded, takingover existing National Advisory Committee onAeronautics.October 11, 1958 - Pioneer 1, U.S. - IGY spaceprobe, launched to a height of 70,700 miles.January 2, 1959 - Luna 1, first man-madesatellite to orbit the moon, is launched by theU.S.S.R.March 3, 1959 - Pioneer 4, fourth U.S.-IGY spaceprobe was launched by a Juno II rocket, andachieved an earth-moon trajectory, passingwithin 37,000 miles of the moon. It then fell intoa solar orbit, becoming the first U.S. sun orbiter.September 12, 1959 - Luna 2 islaunched, impacting on the moonon September 13 carrying a copy ofthe Soviet coat of arms, andbecoming the first man-made objectto hit the moon.October 4, 1959 - Luna 3 translunarsatellite is launched, orbiting themoon and photographing 70percent of the far side of the moon.April 1, 1960 - Tiros 1, the first successfulweather satellite, is launched by the U.S.August 18, 1960 - Discoverer XIV launchesthe first U.S. camera-equipped Corona spysatellite.April 12, 1961 - Vostok 1 islaunched by the U.S.S.R.,carrying Cosmonaut Yuri A.Gargarin, the first man inspace. He orbits the Earthonce.May 5, 1961 -Mercury Freedom 7 carriesAlan B. Shepard,Jr., the firstU.S. Astronaut into space, ina suborbital flight.August 6, 1961 - Vostok 2 islaunched by the U.S.S.R.,carrying CosmonautGherman Titov, the first day-long Soviet space flight.
  • 2. 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966February 20, 1962 -Mercury Friendship 7 lifts off withJohn H. Glenn, Jr., the first Americanin orbit, and orbits the Earth threetimes.May 24, 1962 - Mercury Aurora 7 islaunched with M. Scott Carpenter,making three orbits.July 10, 1962 - Telstar 1, U.S.satellite, beams the first livetransatlantic telecast.December 14, 1962 - U.S. Mariner 2,the first successful planetaryspacecraft, flies past Venus, andenters a solar orbit.June 16, 1963 - Vostok6 carries SovietCosmonaut ValentiaTereshkova, the firstwoman in space andorbits the Earth 48times.June, 1963 - MartinSchmidt interprets thebehavior of 3C 273 -the first known quasar.July 31, 1964 -U.S. Ranger7 relays the firstclose-rangephotographs of theMoon.March 18, 1965 - The first space walk ismade from Soviet Voskhod 2 byCosmonaut Alexei A. Leonov. Duration is12 minutes.March 23, 1965 - First manned flight ofthe Gemini program, Gemini 3 carryingVirgil I. Grissom and John W. Young.Made three orbits around the earth.March 24, 1965 - Ranger 9 transmits high-quality images of the moon, many of whichwere shown live in the first televisionspectacular about the moon.June 3, 1965 - Edward White II makes thefirst U.S. space walk from Gemini 4. Durationis 22 minutes.July 14, 1965 - U.S. Mariner 4 returns the first close-range images about Mars.November 16, 1965 - Soviet Venus 3 is launched,becoming the first craft to impact Venus on March 1,1966.December 4, 1965 - Gemini 7 is launched carryingFrank Borman and James A. Lovell, Jr., making 206orbits around Earth and proving a trip to the Moonpossible.December 15, 1965 - American astronauts WalterSchirra, Jr. and Thomas Stafford in Gemini 6 make thefirst space rendezvous with Gemini 7.February 3, 1966 -Soviet Luna 9 is thefirst spacecraft to soft-land on the moon.March 1, 1966 -Soviet Venera3 impacts on Venus,the first spacecraft toreach another planet. Itfails to return data.March, 1966 -Soviet Luna 10 is thefirst spacecraft to orbitthe moon.June 2, 1966 - Surveyor1 is the first U.S.spacecraft to soft-landon the Moon.August 14, 1966 -U.S. Lunar Orbiter1 enters moon orbit,and takes the firstpicture of the Earthfrom the distance ofthe moon.
  • 3. 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971April 23, 1967 - Soviet Soyuz 1 islaunched, carrying Vladimir M. Komarov.On April 24 it crashed, killing Komarov,the first spaceflight fatality.October 18, 1967 - Venera 4 sends adescent capsule into the Venusianatmosphere, returning data about itscomposition.ppt picturesPresentation2.pptxSeptember 15, 1968 - Soviet Zond5 is launched, the first spacecraft toorbit the Moon and return.October 11, 1968 - Apollo 7 is thefirst manned Apollo mission withWalter M. Schirra, Jr., Donn F. Eisele,and Walter Cunningham. It orbitedthe earth once.December 21, 1968 - Apollo 8 islaunched with Frank Borman, JamesA. Lovell, Jr. and William A. Anders,the first Apollo to use the SaturnV rocket, and the first mannedspacecraft to orbit the Moon, making10 orbits on its 6-day mission.ppt picturesPresentation3.pptxJanuary, 1969 - Soyuz 4 & 5 perform the firstSoviet spaceship docking, transferringCosmonauts between vehicles.July 20, 1969 - Neil Armstrong and EdwinAldrin, Jr. make the first manned soft landingon the Moon, and the first moonwalk,using Apollo 11.July 31, 1969 - Mariner 6 returns high-resolution images of the Martian surface,concentrating on the equatorial region.August 5, 1969 - Mariner 7 returnshigh-resolution images of theMartian surface, concentr3atingon the southern hemisphere.ppt picturesPresentation4.pptxApril 11, 1970 - Apollo 13 islaunched, suffering an explosion inits SM oxygen tanks. Its Moonlanding is aborted, and the crew,James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert,Jr. and Fred W. Haise, Jr., returnsafely.September 12, 1970 - Soviet Luna16 is launched, conducting the firstsuccessful return of lunar soilsamples by an automatic spacecraft.November 17, 1970 - Luna 17 landson the moon, with the firstautomatic robot, Lunokhod 1. Drivenby a five-man team on earth,traveled over surface for 11 days.December 15, 1970 - Soviet Venera7 is the first probe to soft-land onVenus, transmitting for 23 minutes.ppt picturesPresentation5.pptxJanuary 31, 1971 - Apollo14 moon mission islaunched by the U.S. withthe legendary AlanShepard, along withStuart Roosa and EdgarMitchell on board. Theyland in the plannedApollo 13 site, the FraMauro highlands, whichthey explore with thehelp of a two-wheeledcart that permits thetransport of asignificantly greaterquantity of lunar materialthan previous missions.Shepard becomes thefirst man to hit a golf ballon the moon.April 19, 1971 - Salyut1 space station islaunched by the U.S.S.R.It remains in orbit untilMay 28, 1973.May 30, 1971 - TheUnited Stateslaunches Mariner 9,which becomes the firstspacecraft to survey Marsfrom orbit.pptpicturesPresentation6.pptx
  • 4. 1971 1972 1973 1975 1976June 6, 1971 - Soyuz 11 carriedCosmonauts G.T. Dobrovolsky, V.N. Volkov,and V.I. Patsayev to Salyut 1, the firstmanned occupancy of an orbital station.However, on June 29, the Cosmonautsdied upon Soyuz 11s reentry.July 30, 1971 - Apollo 15 astronauts DavidScott and James Irwin drive the first moonrover. The next year, Apollo 17 astronautHarrison Schmitt drives a similar rover.November 13, 1971 - American Mariner9 (launched May 30, 1971) is the firstspacecraft to orbit another planet, Mars.Over the next year, it maps 100 percent ofthe Martian surface.ppt picturesPresentation7.pptxMarch 2, 1972 - Pioneer 10 is launched on anAtlas/Centaur/TE364-4 towards Jupiter by the U.S.,designed to familiarize alien life with humans. It returnsthe first close-up images of Jupiter in 1973.July 15, 1972 - Pioneer 10 becomes the first man-made object to travel through the asteroid belt.December, 1972 - Scientists designate Cignus X-1 asthe first probable black hole.ppt picturesPresentation8.pptxApril 5, 1973 - Pioneer 11 is launched on anAtlas/Centaur/TE364-4, flying past Jupiter in1974, and Saturn in 1979, where it discoversnew rings.May 14, 1973 - Skylab Workshop is launchedby the U.S., and maintained by three crews.May 25, 1973 - First crew to Skylab, Skylab 2,are launched, repairing damage incurredto Skylab during its launch.November 3, 1973 - American Mariner 10 islaunched, on the first dual-planet mission.Over the next year, it returned photographs ofVenus and Mercury.ppt picturesPresentation9.pptxJuly, 1975 - American Apollo (18) andSoviet Soyuz 19 dock, the firstinternational spacecraft rendezvous.October, 1975 - Soviet Venera9 and 10 send the first pictures of theVenusian surface to Earth.June 22, 1976 -Soviet military spacestation Salyut 5 islaunched, remainingin orbit until August8, 1977.July 20, 1976 -Pictures of theMartian surface aretaken by Viking 1,the first U.S.attempt to soft landa spacecraft onanother planet.September 3, 1976 -Viking 2 lands onMars on the Plain ofUtopia, where itdiscovered waterfrost.pptpicturesPresentation10.pptx
  • 5. 1977 1978 1979 1981 1982August-September, 1977 -Voyagers 1 and 2 leaveEarth to meet with Jupiterin 1979 and Saturn in1980.September 29, 1977 -Soviet Salyut 6 spacestation is launched. Itscrews include membersfrom Czechoslovakia,Poland, GDR, Bulgaria,Hungary, Vietnam, Cuba,Mongolia, and Romania.pptpicturesPresentation11.pptxNovember, 1978 -The EinsteinObservatory beginsits 30-day mission.December, 1978 -Two Pioneer spacecraft reach Venus. Onedrops four probesinto the atmosphere,while the other mapsthe surface.pptpicturesPresentation12.pptxSeptember 1, 1979 -Pioneer 11 reachesSaturn, flying to within13,000 miles andtaking the first close-up photographspptpicturesPresentation13.pptxApril 12, 1981 - The firstmanned mission of the SpaceTransportation System (STS-1), Columbia , is launched.June 19, 1981 - The EuropeanSpace Agency launches itsthird Ariane rocket.December 20, 1981 - The ESAlaunches a fourth Arianerocket.pptpicturesPresentation15.pptxMarch 1, 1982 - Venera 13 lands onVenus, and provides the firstVenusian soil analysis.April 19, 1982 - Soviet Salyut 7 spacestation is launched.May 13, 1982 - Soviet CosmonautsAnatoly N. Berezovoi and Valentin V.Lebedev are launched in Soyuz-T 5 torendezvous with Salyut 7, the firstteam to inhabit the space station.They return to Earth in Soyuz-T 7,setting a (then) duration record of211 days.August, 1982 - Voyager 2 completesits flyby of Saturn.November 11, 1982 - The spaceshuttle Columbias fifth mission, itsfirst operational one, begins,deploying two satellites. Crew: VanceBrand, Robert Overmyer, JosephAllen, and William Lenoir.ppt picturesPresentation14.pptx
  • 6. 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987April 4, 1983 - The spaceshuttle Challenger lifts off forits first mission (STS-6) and hasthe first American space walkin nine years. Crew: Paul Weitz,Karol Bobko, Donald Peterson,and Story Musgrave.June 19, 1983 - Sally K. Ride isthe first U.S. woman to travelin space, on Challenger missionSTS-7.October 10, 1983 -Soviet Venera 15 returns thefirst high-resolution images ofthe Venus polar area, andcompiled a thermal map ofmost of the northernhemisphere.pptpicturesPresentation16.pptxFebruary 3, 1984 - Bruce McCandless takesthe first untethered space walk using MMUfrom the space shuttle Challenger (STS-41B).July 17, 1984 - launch of Soyuz-T 12 carryingSvetlana Savitskaya, who becomes the firstwoman to walk in space.August 30, 1984 - The third spaceshuttle, Discovery, lifts off on its maidenvoyage (STS-41D). Crew: Henry W. Hartsfield,Michael L. Coats, Richard Mullane, StevenHawley, Judith A. Resnik, and Charles D.Walker.October, 1984 - Salyut 7s cosmonauts L. D.Kizim, V. A. Solovyov, and O. Y. Atkov set a(then) 237-day record in space. They arriveat Salyut 7 in Soyuz-T 10 and depart in Soyuz-T11October 5, 1984 - launch of spaceshuttle Challenger mission STS-41G carryingthe first crew with two women aboard - SallyRide and Katherine Sullivan. Sullivan becomesthe first American woman to walk in space.December, 1984 - Soviet/International Vega 1& 2 are launched, dropping probes into Venusatmosphere before continuing to HalleysComet.ppt picturesPresentation17.pptxJanuary 8, 1985 - The Sakigake probe islaunched by Japans Institute of Spaceand Aeronautical Science, becoming thefirst interplanetary probe as itrendezvous with Halleys Comet.April 29, 1985 - The Challenger carriesthe ESA Spacelab-3 into orbit (STS-51B).July 2, 1985 - The European Space Agencylaunches the Giotto spacecraft from anAriane rocket. It encounters HalleysComet in 1986, and Comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup in 1992.October 3, 1985 - The fourth spaceshuttle Atlantis takes off on its firstmission (STS-51J). Crew: Karol J. Bobko,Ronald J. Grabe, Robert A. Stewart, DavidC. Hilmers, and William A. Pailes.October 1985 - Spacelab D1, the firstjoint German/ESA mission, is flown. Itscrew consists of two German DARAastronauts, and Danish Wubbo Ockels ofthe ESA.ppt picturesPresentation18.pptxJanuary, 1986 - Voyager 2 fliespast Uranus.January 28, 1986 - The spaceshuttle Challenger explodesshortly after liftoff of missionSTS-51L.February 20, 1986 - The coreunit of Soviet spacestation Mir is launched.March, 1986 - Spacecraft fromthe U.S.S.R, Japan, andWestern Europe fly by HalleysComet on its 30th recordedappearance.March, 1986 - Astronomersdiscover an invisible gravitysource that splits a quasarslight.April, 1986 - Astronomers findthat our galaxy is smaller thanthey thought and the Sun is23,000 light-years from itscenter.pptpicturesPresentation19.pptxFebruary 25, 1987 -Supernova 1987Ablazes into view.December 1987 -Cosmonaut Yuri V.Romanenko returnsfrom space station Mir,having arrived therefrom Soyuz-TM 2, andsets a (then) spaceendurance record of326 days.pptpicturesPresentation20.pptx
  • 7. 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993May 4, 1989 - SpaceShuttle Atlantis is launched(STS-30), deploying thespacecraft Magellan.July 12, 1989 -Soviet/International Phobos2 launched, which orbits Marsto study its surface,atmosphere and magneticfield.October 18, 1989 - U.S.launches the Galileo spacecraftfrom Shuttle Atlantis flight STS-34, which took infrared imagesof Venus, and images of theasteroid Ida, before continuingto Jupiter.ppt picturesPresentation21.pptxApril 5, 1990 -U.S. Pegasus rocket is deployedfrom a B-52 bomber, andlaunched the Pegsat satellite inthe first demonstration ofthe Pegasus launch vehicle.April 24, 1990 - SpaceShuttle Discovery launches onSTS-31, deploying the Edwin P.Hubble Space Telescope (HST)astronomical observatory.August, 1990 - U.S.spacecraft Magellan arrives atVenus, where for the next yearit took radar images of thesurface.October 6, 1990 - SpaceShuttle Discovery launchesthe Ulysses spacecraft withtwo upper stages, on missionSTS-41. Ulysses flies towardJupiter, to be slingshot towardsthe sun, to obtain data fromhigh solar latitudes.ppt picturesPresentation22.pptxFebruary 7, 1991 - Salyut7 falls from orbit and burns upover Argentina.April 5, 1991 - SpaceShuttle Atlantis carriesthe Compton Gamma RayObservatory into orbit. Thisnew space telescope, built byNASA, was the first to providean all-sky continuous survey inthe gamma-ray and X-rayspectra.June 5, 1991 -Shuttle Columbia carriesthe Spacelab SLS-1 into orbit,to conduct investigations intothe effects of weightlessnesson humans. (STS-40)ppt picturesPresentation23.pptxFebruary 8, 1992 -Spacecraft Ulysses flies aroundJupiter, on its way to the sun.May 2, 1992 - SpaceShuttle Endeavour lifts off on itsfirst mission (STS-49), repairingthe Intelsat VI satellite. Crew:Daniel C. Brandenstein, Kevin P.Chilton, Richard J. Hieb, Bruce E.Melnick, Pierre J. Thout, KathrynC. Thornton, and Thomas D.Akers.September 25, 1992 - MarsObserver lifts off, the firstAmerican probe to Mars in 17years, since Viking 2. This probe isintended as an orbital mapper tostudy the red planetsatmosphere, surface, andgeological make-up. Thespacecraft functions well duringits cruise to Mars, then all contactwas lost on August 21, 1993,three days before orbitalinsertion.ppt picturesPresentation24.pptxDecember 2, 1993 - SpaceShuttle Endeavour launches on STS-61, making thefirst on-orbit service ofthe Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST).pptpicturesPresentation25.pptx
  • 8. 1994 1995 1996 1997 1997January 25, 1994 - U.S.launches Clementine, a new DODsatellite that performs a lunarmapping mission using advancedballistic missile defensetechnologies. It suffers amalfunction on May 10, 1994,ending its mission.February, 1994 - A RussianCosmonaut, Sergei Krikalev, flies onboard the U.S. spaceshuttle Discovery for the first time(STS-60).September 13, 1994 -Spacecraft Ulysses reaches amaximum Southern latitude of 80.2degrees at the sun, proceedingtowards the Northern latitudes,maintaining an orbital period of sixyears.October 12, 1994 -Spacecraft Magellan enters theatmosphere of Venus, burning upfollowing the completion of itsmapping mission.December 9, 1994 - Asteroid XM1passes within 65,000 miles of Earth.ppt picturesPresentation26.pptxFebruary 6, 1995 - Spaceshuttle Discovery maneuvers towithin 37 feet of Russian spacestation Mir, in preparation for ashuttle-Mir docking (STS-63). This isthe first shuttle mission to be flownby a female pilot.March 22, 1995 - Cosmonaut ValeriyPolyakov returns to Earth after a 438-day mission aboard Russian spacestation Mir, setting a new spaceendurance record.June 26, 1995 - SpaceShuttle Atlantis rendezvous withRussian space station Mir during aten-day mission on STS-71.Cosmonauts are transferred to andfrom Atlantis, and Astronaut NormanThagard is returned from Mir, havingarrived on Soyuz-TM 21, and makinga new American space endurancerecord of 115 days.September 1995 - Pioneer 11 ceasesmaking scientific observations, itspower source nearly depleted.November 12, 1995 - SpaceShuttle Atlantis lifts off on missionSTS-74, making the second dockingwith Russian space station Mir. Itdelivers two solar arrays, and adocking module for future Shuttledockings.December 7, 1995 - The Galileospacecraft arrives at Jupiter,performing an orbit while dropping aprobe into the atmosphere, andputting a satellite into orbit, whichwill spend the next two years orbitingthe planet.ppt picturesPresentation27.pptxFebruary 8, 1996 - Thomas Reiterbecomes the first European SpaceAgency astronaut to make twospacewalks (both from theRussian Mir space station). Hisprevious spacewalk was on October21, 1995, and lasted 5 hours 11minutes.February 17, 1996 - NASA launchesthe first in the Discovery series ofspacecraft, the Near-Earth AsteroidRendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft,aboard a Delta II-7925-8 rocket.March 22, 1996 - SpaceShuttle Atlantis lifts off on STS-76,performing the third docking withSpace Station Mir. AstronautShannon Lucid was left on Mir,becoming the first female Astronautto crew a Space Station.September 26, 1996 - SpaceShuttle Atlantis touches down aftermission STS-79. It brings backShannon Lucid, who becomes thelongest US astronaut in space, andthe longest female astronaut inspace.November 19, 1996 - SpaceShuttle Columbia lifts off on its21st space flight, setting a newshuttle in-space endurance record ofalmost 18 days. This flight carriesStory Musgrave, at that time theoldest man to fly in space at 61 yearsof age.ppt picturesPresentation28.pptxFebruary 10, 1997 - Soyuz TM25 lifts off todock with the Mir space station. New Russiancrew members Vasily Tsibliyev and AlexanderLazutkin relieve Russians Korzun and Kaleri forthe beginning of an eventful and difficult tourof duty. Before the resident crew leaves, afierce fire breaks out on board which iscontained and put out before serious damageis done. After the old crew leaves, an attemptto re-dock with the Progress supply freighterfails, with the freighter just missing collisionwith Mir. These events are followed by failuresof the electrolysis oxygen generators and thestations attitude control system.March 31, 1997 - After 25 years of operation,routine telemetry and ground controlwith Pioneer 10 is terminated. The probe atthat moment is 6.7 billion miles from Earth,traveling at 28,000 miles per hour. In twomillion years, it will reach the red giantAldeberan in the constellation of Taurus.May 17, 1997 - Space Shuttle Atlantis performsits sixth docking with Mir. Jerry Linenger isrelieved by Michael Foale as the Americancrewmember on Mir. Atlantis returned toEarth on May 24thand Mir continued with itstroubles. On June 24th, the crew attempts atest with a new docking system to dock with aProgress freighter. The failure of the newsystem results in the collision of the freighterinto Mir, causing a serious air leak and damageto the electrical power of the station.June 27, 1997 - NEAR (Near Earth AsteroidRendezvous) probe passes the asteroidMathilde on its way to meeting up with 433Eros.July 4, 1997 - Mars Pathfinder becomes thefirst probe to successfully land on Marssince Viking 2 in 1976. It is also the firstplanetary probe to include a separate rovingrobot probe (Sojourner) since the SovietUnions Luna 21 in 1973.ppt picturesPresentation29.pptxAugust 7, 1997 - Soyuz TM26 arrivesat Mir with a relief crew. The freshRussian crew, along with MichaelFoale, undertake seven internal andexternal spacewalk missions over asix month period in order to repairthe crippled station. During therepairs, the station has a nearcollision with an abandoned satellite(MSTI 2), which speeds past to within500 meters of Mir.August 7, 1997 - SpaceShuttle Discovery lifts off for a 12-daymission to deploy and retrievethe Crista-Spas 2 satellite, whichstudied the Earths middleatmosphere. This flight also testedvarious infra-red and ultravioletinstrumentation, and tested theJapanese robot-arm to be used forthe International Space Station.September 12, 1997 - Mars GlobalSurveyor arrives at Mars and beginsthe process of adjusting its highlyelliptical orbit into a circular oneusing aerobraking - friction with thetop of the Martian atmosphere toslow the craft down. Taking about2,000 images of the planet, thisprobe shows the entire life of a duststorm, evidence of Martian streams,ponds, oceans, and undergroundwater drainage systems.September 27, 1997 - SpaceShuttle Atlantis performs its seventhdocking with Mir to support therepair & upgrade process, andbringing additional experiments forthe space station.
  • 9. 1998 1999 1999 2000 2000January 22, 1998 - SpaceShuttle Endeavour lifts off to rendezvouswith Mir, the eight U.S. docking with theRussian space station and the first by ashuttle other than Atlantis.February 14, 1998 - The foursatellites Globalstar 1, 2, 3, and 4 are thefirst in Globalstars planned 44-satelliteconstellation of medium-Earth-orbit(~900 miles altitude) communicationssatellites for providing voice and datalinks worldwide from both remote andhome telephones. This system is plannedas a direct competitor to Iridiums cluster,which began launching in May of 1997.October 24, 1998 - NASA launches DeepSpace 1, a technology test spacecraftwhich evaluates a dozen advancedspacecraft engineering designs, frommirror-enhanced solar panels to the firstuse of an ion engine to leave Earth orbitand rendezvous with the asteroid Braille.October 29, 1998 - SpaceShuttle Discovery lifts off with John Glennaboard, first American to orbit Earth andat 77, the oldest man to fly in space. Theflight is the last purely scientific shuttleflight, focusing on astronomy, lifesciences, and materials. One satellite isdeployed, one is released and retrieved.Most subsequent shuttle flights are ferryand construction flights for theInternational Space Station.November 20, 1998 - the first componentof the International Space Station, Zarya,is launched on a Russian rocket. ThisRussian built, U.S. financed moduleprovides communications, electricalpower, and attitude control for thestation until the arrival of the thirdmodule (Zvezda, in July 2000).ppt picturesPresentation30.pptxJanuary 3, 1999 - Mars Polar Lander liftsoff on its ill-fated mission to Mars. ThisNASA probe is to land within about 600miles of the Martian South Pole, alongwith dropping two surface-penetratingdarts. Contact with the probe is lost onDecember 3, 1999 as it is descendingthrough the Martian atmosphere and it isnever heard from again, the first failureof a U.S. planetary soft landing in 30years.February 7, 1999 - The NASAsatellite Stardust lifts off for a rendezvouswith the Comet Wild-2 in January of2004.February 20, 1999 - the Russian SoyuzTM29 lifts off for the Mir space station.This is scheduled to be the final missionto Mir, and when the crewof TM29 departs Mir in August of 1999,they leave the space station empty forthe first time in almost exactly 10 years.May 27, 1999 - SpaceShuttle Discovery lifts off for theInternational Space Station. They bringsupplies and perform a spacewalk ofnearly eight hours to install two exteriorcranes, along with a variety of tools andequipment for future astronaut use. Theydeploy the satellite Starshine for studyingatmospheric density changes.July 23, 1999 - SpaceShuttle Columbia lifts off, carryingthe Chandra X-Ray Observatory intoorbit.July 28, 1999 - Deep Space 1 flies towithin 16 miles of the asteroid Braille andcontinues on its course to rendezvouswith Comet Wilson-Harrington in January2001.ppt picturesPresentation31.pptxNovember 19, 1999 - Chinalaunches Shenzhou, the first unmannedtest of their manned capsule.December 19, 1999 - SpaceShuttle Discovery lifts off for the thirdmaintenance mission to the HubbleSpace Telescope. They perform threespace walks, installing six newgyroscopes, a new guidance sensor, anew computer, a voltage/temperature kitfor the spacecrafts batteries, a newtransmitter, a new solid state recorder,and thermal insulation blankets.January 3, 2000 - the Galileo space probesafely completes its encounter withJupiters ice moon, Europa, at an altitudeof 343 km. Later in the year, on May30, Galileo flies by Jupiters largest moonGanymede at an altitude of 808 km.February 11, 2000 - SpaceShuttle Endeavour lifts off to carry outthe Shuttle Radar Topography Mission,cosponsored by NASA and the NationalImagery and Mapping Agency. A largeradar antenna in the payload bay and asmaller element deployed on a 60-meterboom work together in the synthetic-aperture mode to produce the effect of amuch larger antenna. The missionproduces a three-dimensional map ofabout 80% of the worlds landmass.February 14, 2000 - NEAR (Near EarthAsteroid Rendezvous) probe settles intoorbit around the asteroid 433 Eros,producing a series of stunning close-upimages. Ground controllers starttightening its orbit for an eventual softimpact with the tumbling, potato-shapedasteroid.April 4, 2000 - Soyuz TM30 lifts off on areturn mission to Mir, reversing Russiasactions of the previous year to shut thespace station down. The idea is to re-open the space station for commercialoperations, including a Mir version ofthe Survivor TV show. The cosmonautsremain until mid-June, andtwo Progress freighters are flown up (onein April, one in October) before financialsupport disappears and the venture fallsthrough.ppt picturesPresentation32.pptxMay 19, 2000 - SpaceShuttle Atlantis lifts off forthe International Space Station formaintenance on the crane and afaulty antenna, installation of aRussian boom arm, handrails andupgrades to the ventilation system,and delivery of new batteries,supplies and equipment.October 11, 2000 - SpaceShuttle Discovery lifts off on a 14-daymission to install the Z1 segment, thefirst piece of the space station truss,and a third docking port (PMA-3) forthe Unityadapter. They also test thenew SAFER spacesuit backpackpropulsion units.October 31, 2000 - the ExpeditionOne crew is launched ona Soyuz transport to become the firstcrew of the ISS.December 1, 2000 - SpaceShuttle Endeavour lifts off on a 12day mission to the ISS. They installthe first set of ISSs solar panels andradiators for removing heat.
  • 10. 2001 2001 2003 2004 2004January 9, 2001 - the first launch of the "true"millenium is Chinese, with the second test flight of themanned Shenshou spaceship, reported to be carrying amonkey, a dog, and a rabbit.February 7, 2001 - Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off forthe ISS, carrying the U.S.s Destiny laboratory module.In three space walks the astronauts install Destiny, agrappler for the stations robotic arm, and radioantennae.February 14, 2001 - NEAR soft impacts on the asteroid433 Eros, at 2 m/s. Signals continue to be receivedfrom the probe hours after the landing, confirming itssurvival.March 8, 2001 - Space Shuttle Discovery is launched ona 14-day ISS construction mission. In two spacewalksthe astronauts install new equipment includingthe Leonardo logistics module, built by the ItalianSpace Agency to move racks of experimentalequipment to the ISS, docking to the station as theequipment is used & transferred, then carryingequipment back in the shuttle after use.March 23, 2001 - fifteen years after its first launch, andafter nearly 10 years of continuous occupation byastronauts, the Mir space station is de-orbited,breaking up in the atmosphere and impacting in thePacific Ocean.April 7, 2001 - the 2001 Mars Odyssey probe islaunched on a trajectory for Mars orbit to be achievedin October, with a mission similar to that of the MarsClimate Orbiter launched December 1998. MarsOdyssey successfully enters Mars orbit on October24th.ppt picturesPresentation33.pptxApril 19, 2001 - Space Shuttle Endeavour lifts off forthe ISS on a construction mission. The crew will installthe mobile robotic arm on the station (Canadarm 2)and supply the Destiny laboratory module with newexperiments, using the Rafaello logistics module.April 28, 2001 - Soyuz spacecraft TM-32 lifts off forthe ISS with the first space tourist, business executiveDennis Tito, who pays the Russians $20 million forthe ride.June 30, 2001 - NASAs Microwave Anisotropy Probe(MAP) is launched on a trajectory for a gravity boostpast the moon to a position 1.5 million km outsideEarths orbit. From that position it is to measurecosmic background radiation from the darkextragalactic sky.July 12, 2001 - Space Shuttle Atlantis lifts off in thepre-dawn darkness for the ISS with the Joint Airlockwhich will enable space walks to be performeddirectly from the space station itself (I am there towatch the launch!).August 10, 2001 - Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off forthe ISS with the Leonardo laboratory moduleand SimpleSat, an experimental low-costastronomical telescope.September 22, 2001 - Deep Space 1 successfullycompletes its flyby of comet 19P/Borrelly.October 16, 2001 - Galileo completes another flyby ofJupiters moon Io, passing only 181 km from Iossouth polar region.December 5, 2001 - Space Shuttle Endeavour islaunched carrying the Raffaello logistics module backto the ISS with new supplies.February 1, 2003: Loss of Space ShuttleColumbia Returning from its 28th mission,Americas oldest space shuttle breaks up onreentry high over Texas. The cause proves tobe damage to the heat shielding, incurredwhen a block of foam broke off the externalfuel tank during lunch and hit the shuttles leftwing. There is no way the astronauts canescape their vehicle, which is moving about12,500 miles (20,000 kilometers) an hour. Allseven die. Shuttle missions are cancelled until2005.ppt picturesPresentation34.pptxJanuary 3, 2004: Spirit Rover Landing onMars NASAs most complex robotic rover yet,christened Spirit, parachutes to the surface andbounces to an air-bag-cushioned halt in GusevCrater. It is designed to last three months. Threeyears later, it continues to explore, aided by dustdevils that scour sunlight-blocking dust from itssolar panels. Early in the mission it makes amultimile beeline for the Columbia Hills, namedin honor of the Columbia astronauts. As of mid-2007, Spirit has traveled nearly 4.5 miles (7.2kilometers).January 25, 2004: Opportunity Rover Landing onMars Three weeks after Spirits successfullanding, its twin, Opportunity, lands on theopposite side of the red planet. Setting out toexplore a region called Meridiani Planum, itimmediately finds signs that the area once hadwater. In the next four years it travels 7.1 miles(11.4 kilometers), investigating several cratersand vastly outliving its design life.June 21, 2004: First Manned Private Spaceflight Awinged spacecraft called SpaceShipOne becomesthe first privately financed vehicle to officiallymake it into space (defined as an altitude of 100kilometers, or 62.1 miles). The spacecraft ispiloted by Mike Melvill, built by the ScaledComposites corporation, and partially financedby Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen. Less thanfour months later, SpaceShipOne flies twomissions in a week, winning the coveted ten-million-dollar Ansari X Prize for a privatelyfunded reusable spacecraft. This time it reachesan altitude of 70 miles (113 kilometers).ppt picturesPresentation35.pptxJuly 1, 2004: Arrival of Cassini Spacecraftat Saturn After seven years in transit,including slingshot flybys of Venus, Earth,and Jupiter, the first probe to circleSaturn reaches its destination and breaksinto orbit. The mission seeks multipletargets for the price of one: not onlySaturn itself but also its rings and largefamily of moons. By tweaking the orbit,NASA engineers plan several years ofclose flybys of several moons, includingextensive mapping of the giant moonTitan.
  • 11. 2005 2006 2007 2008January 14, 2005: First Landing on OtherWorlds Moon An adjunct of the Cassinimission, the European-built Huygensprobe detaches and parachutes to thecloud-shrouded surface of Titan. Nobodyis sure whats down there, but onepossibility is an ocean of hydrocarbons.The probe is designed to float if thatswhat it encounters. Instead, it showspictures of hills and what appear to bestreambeds carved by liquid methane. Itlands in a beachlike region of sand androunded rocks and transmits pictures andother data for more than one hour beforecontact is lost.July 26, 2005: First Space Launch AfterColumbia Disaster Nearly two and a halfyears after the space shuttle Columbiabreaks up on reentry, NASA is ready to tryagain. Discovery lifts off, but again, foambreaks off during launch. Carefulinspection, including examination with a50-foot (15-meter) remote-sensingboom, reveals that this time there is nomajor damage to the shuttle. If there hadbeen, the crew is prepared to take refugein the International Space Station.Instead, they land without incident.Fixing the foam problem (and delays dueto Hurricane Katrina) will ground theshuttle fleet until July 2006.ppt picturesPresentation36.pptxIn 2006, Russia and Europemade the Soyuz ACTS conceptthe focus of future cooperativeplans in manned space programSuccessful introduction of theSoyuz-2rocket became the major Russianachievement in space in 2006.ppt picturesPresentation37.pptxIndia came closer to launching itsman in space, with a successfultest flight of a retrievable capsulein January 2007.A spectacular explosion of the Zenit-3SLrocket on the launch pad in the PacificOcean concluded dramatic developmentsin space in January 2007.ppt picturesPresentation38.pptxThe Zenit rocket with theThuraya-3 communicationssatellite lifts off on Jan. 15, 2008,bringing the Sea Launch venture,back in business a year aftera launch accident.An Iranian rocket dubbed Kavoshgar(Explorer) shortly before launch on Feb.4, 2008.ppt picturesPresentation39.pptx
  • 12. 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013Arrow hits the target: Russias defunct Strela-2M ("Arrow")satellite collided with a US Iridium communications spacecraft onFeb. 10, 2009. Both vehicles were reportedly pulverized into acloud of debris. In the aftermath of the incident, Western presswas full of inaccurate depictions and wild speculations about thedesign of the Russian satellite, including a ludicrous claim by theWall Street Journal about a nuclear reactor onboard thespacecraft. In reality, Strela-2M was powered by drum-shapedsolar panels. This was apparently the first instance in the historyof space exploration, when two satellites have collided in space.Jan. 11, Killer satellite: China conducted launch of atarget missile and the anti-missile interceptor,achieving an apparently successful intercept.An extra room on ISS: In May Space Shuttledelivered the MIM1 Rassvet module to the ISS.May 21: Japan launches Akatsuki (Planet-C) orbiterand the IKAROS solar-sailing probe toward Venus.June 13: Japans MUSES-C (Hayabusa) spacecraftlanded in Woomera, Australia, possibly with soilsamples of an asteroid. (As of April 2007)July 10, 18:10 CEST: European Rosetta spacecraft flewat the distance of 3,126 kilometers from asteroid (21)Lutetia. Images confirmed that the asteroid has anelongated body, with its longest side around 130kilometers.Oct. 1: China launched Change-2 into a 100-kilometerorbit around the Moon to prepare for future lunarlanding. (As of May 2009. In March 2009 it was reportedto fly in 2011.)Dec. 8, 10:43 EST: The US Falcon 9 rocket launched fromCape Canaveral with an unmanned prototype of theDragon spacecraft, both developed under a NASAcontract by SpaceX. Three hours, 19 minutes, 52seconds after a liftoff, Dragon successfully splasheddown in the Pacific Ocean, some 800 kilometers west ofMexican coast.In 2011, Elektro-L hasbecome Russias firstgeostationary weather-watching satellite since1990s.Jan. 1: NASAs GRAIL B spacecraft enters lunarorbit.Jan. 15: A stranded Phobos-Grunt spacecraft reenters the Earthatmosphere.Jan. 27: An 11-meter asteroid 2012 BX34 passeswithin 60,000 kilometers from Earth.April 4: The Antei-2500 system successfullyintercepts a target cruise missile during testin Kapustin Yar.May 9: The Missile Defense Agency, MDA, and a USNavy ship Lake Erie (CG 70) successfully conducted aflight test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense, BMD,system, resulting in the first intercept of a short-rangeballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean by theNavy’s newest Missile Defense interceptor, theStandard Missile-3, SM-3, Block 1B.June 18: Chinas Shenzhou-9 spacecraft with JingHaipeng, Liu Yang and Liu Wang onboard docks withthe Tiangong-1 space station. (The mission objectivefirst announced in 2010.)Aug. 6, 05:31 GMT: NASAs Curiosity rover lands insideGale crater on Mars.September: NASA to conduct a second test launch of alaunch vehicle (Ares I) for the Crew ExplorationVehicle, (Orion) spacecraft.Planned Russian spacemissions in 2013:May 14: A Proton rocket tolaunchthe W3D communicationssatellite for Eutelsat of Paris,France. The W3D satellite wasbeing built by Thales AleniaSpace based on the companysSpacebus 4000 C3 platform.The 5,400-kilogram spacecraftwas designed for a 15-year lifespan in orbit. W3D was to belocated at 7 degrees Eastlongitude to deliver high powerKu-band coverage of Europeand Turkey for Direct-to-Home(DTH) reception, extensive Ku-band coverage across Europe,North Africa, the Middle Eastand Central Asia for video linksand data networks, and Ku-band coverage of Sub-SaharanAfrica and Indian Ocean islandsfor telecommunications andInternet services. The contractfor the launch was announcedon Nov. 9, 2011. By November2012, the mission was expectedin February. By February, thelaunch was postponed to March15.May 29: A Soyuz-FG rocket tolaunch Soyuz TMA-09M (No.709) from Baikonur to the ISS.