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Times are changing: different models and different methods for different times
Catalyst CouncilsEvaluate potential service optionsEmphasise solutions that promote economic growthMutuals and cooperative modelsParticipate actively in pooling resourcesBecome better commissionersRelearn skills of municipal enterprise
Source: APSE: “The Ensuring Council” The Ensuring CouncilEnsuring Council Enabling CouncilStewardship of place Strategic commissioningcore services in house + public employment Preference for private and voluntary sectors as service providersMaintain core capacity Divestment to alternative providersCollaborative relationships Contractual relationshipsLocal representative + participative Market democracy and individual choicedemocracyCollective community outcomes Individual user outcomesJoined up services meet needs of Fragmented services lacking strategiccommunities and delivering wider strategic coordination to deliver wider policy objectivesobjectives
Ensuring Council: different viewpoints• Public stewards: In house services give best opportunity to control costs and deliver value for money. Strategic advantages of in house provision. LAs need core capacity to help shape social economic and envt wellbeing.• Local Brokers: more open to different models of service delivery where can add real value. Sceptical about ability of voluntary sector to provide public services in long term.• Public Valuers: more focused on LA as community leader and democratic guarantor. Keen on empowering local communities to achieve socially just outcomes for all citizens. Favour more mixed economy.
The entrepreneurial state• Previously a picture has been painted of the state as “bureaucratic,” and “meddling”. Even described as “enemies of enterprise”. All that is required is to provide the conditions for innovation to flourish.• This view is challenged and it is proposed a far more proactive role is required. It is argued there is a need for a targeted, proactive, entrepreneurial state, able to take risks, harnessing the best of the private sector for the national good over a medium to long term time horizon.• The state as lead investor, and a creator of the knowledge economy.• The state defines new radical technologies rather than just reacts to them.• The state even takes on the most risky entrepreneurial risk taking and creates new types of economic dynamism
Civic Enterprise1. Becoming civic entrepreneurs: whole place leadership to replace managerialist hierarchical partnership approach. Roles for Councillors.2. Stimulating jobs, homes and good growth. Local govt creates conditions for enterprise. Invest in infrastructure and skills. Maybe TIF. Share risk and provide loan guarantees, municipal bonds.
Civic Enterprise contd.3. Establish 21st century infrastructure: eg ultrafast broadband, low carbon energy, cheaper fuel bills, housing for first time buyers and older people and transport systems. Multi use public service hubs.4. A new social contract. Collective action led by local government to support needs of older people families and children. Includes troubled families initiative.5. Solve the English Question. The Barnet Leader of Leeds formula should be reviewed. English City Council: Keith Wakefield devolution. City deals
Municipal Entrepreneurship• Increasing importance of commercial skills• New ideas and practices brought into implementation• “Catalysts” identify opportunities for innovation and transformation ( a key skill is listening to and engaging the workforce); “stewards” establish the collaborative arena and the interactions between stakeholders which enable creative thinking and innovation ( a key ability is to overcome silo thinking) ; “Mediators” manage and diffuse any potential conflicts in the process, arbitrating between different stakeholders
Ensuring Commissioning Political Perspectives Managerial Perspectives Civic entrepreneu Enabling Text EasyCo-operative Local Co- Perspectivesordinating Catalyst Source: University of Birmingham: A new Model for public services
The shape of local government by 2015.Ideal type council Core purpose Approach to Attitude to Councils that might services communities pursue this routeNeo traditional Community Mostly in house but Community N Mets + counties, leadership + reviewed for cost + engagement through districts not facing economic growth effectiveness democratic structures deep cutsPragmatic Varies- generally to Review on case by Varies on service by Bulk of local protect vulnerable in case basis with service basis government face of cuts varying degree of radicalismCommissioning Customer service Move to arms length Communities Southern Countiescouncils delivery, emphasis supported to rapidly on markets and take over divested choice servicesCo-operative Community Co-produced with Blurred line between Next generationcouncils development citizens taking on service provision and labour councils in more responsibility community activism London N West and parts of north EastSource: Future Councils, S Parker
Source: J Bourgon (2009) PUBLIC RESULTS Performance Emergence Societal System wide Networks Agency GOVERNMENT GOVERNANCE (AUTHORITY) (COLLECTIVE POWER) AND Provide services Empower Transparency/ Partner Enable Protect Tax/Spend Legislate Accountability Access Voice Choice Compliance Action Resilience DEMOCRATIC RESULTS Unpredictable Predictable
Source: J Bourgon (2009) PUBLIC RESULTS Performance Emergence Societal System wide Networks Agency GOVERNMENT GOVERNANCE (AUTHORITY) (COLLECTIVE POWER) AND Provide services Empower Transparency/ Partner Enable Protect Tax/Spend Legislate Accountability Access Voice Choice Compliance Action Resilience Predictable DEMOCRATIC RESULTS Unpredictable
Active Citizens• Councils shift public expectations. Instead of asking “what do you want?” and “what should the Council do?” ask “ what assets do all of us already have?” and “what can we all do to make things better?”• Provide citizens with advice, skills and confidence to be active• Role for Councillors• Build strong relationships with third sector
Behavioural economics How to influence individual decisions• Incentives: lower pricing structures/rewards• Framing; frames are powerful nudges• Spotlight effect: people think others are looking at them more than they are ( odd one out)• Priming: asking people in advance ( voting)• Defaults: pad the path of least resistance ( organ donation, continuous subscriptions)• Give feedback ( eg energy monitor)• Structure complex choices• Collaborative filtering ( eg Amazon)• Social influences and peer pressure
Network theory• Scale free networks• Small world networks• Random networks
Transformation Problem-solving (continuous improvement throughRuthless reflection ( hansei); and continuous improvement ( kaizen)) People and partners (respect, challenge and grow them) Process (eliminate waste) Philosophy Base mgt decisions on a long term philosophy Even at the expense of short term financial goals
Sources• Catalyst Councils: (Sept 2012) A new future for local public service delivery: Daniel Crowe, edited by Steven Howell. Foreword by Rt Hon Oliver Letwin MP Localis, Capita Symonds• The Entrepreneurial state: ( 2011) Mariana Mazzucato: Demos.• Unlocking Local Capacity: ( 2012) Why active citizens need active Councils . Rob Francis OPM• Future Councils: Life after the spending cuts ( Sept 2011) Simon Parker: NLGN• “Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth and Happiness” (2008) R Thaler and C Sunstein Yale University Press• No Stone unturned; In pursuit of growth (Oct 2012) Rt Hon Lord Hestletine of Thenford CH
Sources cont• Commission on the future of local government ( July 2012) Leeds, Glasgow and Cardiff Councils.• New Governance and Public Administration: Towards a Dynamic synthesis: (Feb 2009) Hon J Bourgon• The Ensuring Council : An alternative vision for the future of local government ( May 2012) APSE• A new model for public services? ( Oct 2012) discussion paper .University of Birmingham• Connected: the amazing power of social networks and how they shape our lives (2010) Nicholas Christakis and James Fowler. Harper Press• Positive Linking: How networks can revolutionise the world ( 2012) P. Ormerod Faber and Faber
Sources contd.• The Localist Manifesto (2012) Principal author Simon Parker. The final output of NLGN commission comprising R Behr ( Chair) I. Johar, P. John, S. Parker, Dr. A Povey and C Staite