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UNIT IV - Class 21
UNIT IV - Class 21
UNIT IV - Class 21
UNIT IV - Class 21
UNIT IV - Class 21
UNIT IV - Class 21
UNIT IV - Class 21
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UNIT IV - Class 21

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  • 1. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) <ul><li>Composed </li></ul><ul><li>Symphonies (9) </li></ul><ul><li>Concertos (especially for piano) </li></ul><ul><li>Overtures (and incidental music) </li></ul><ul><li>Opera (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Choral Music </li></ul><ul><li>Chamber Music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sonatas (especially piano, violin, and cello) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>String Quartets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piano Trios </li></ul>Born: Bonn (western Germany) Died: Vienna
  • 2. Beethoven’s Early Period <ul><li>Studies (a little) with Haydn in Vienna </li></ul><ul><li>Composes pieces which assimilate and perfect the “High Classical” style of Haydn and Mozart </li></ul><ul><li>Piano Sonatas </li></ul><ul><li>String Quartets (opus 18 – set of 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Symphonies (nos. 1 and 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Piano Concertos (nos. 1 and 2) </li></ul>
  • 3. Beethoven: Between Classical and Romantic <ul><li>Style Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Classical: </li></ul><ul><li>Use of inherited forms </li></ul><ul><li>Regular phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of established genres </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic: </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of forms </li></ul><ul><li>Greater intensity and expressivity </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonic and instrumentational innovations </li></ul>
  • 4. Apollonian vs. Dionysian Friederich Nietzsche (1844-1900) <ul><li>Apollonian: </li></ul><ul><li>Grounding in Classical tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity of form </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive working process </li></ul><ul><li>Dionysian: </li></ul><ul><li>Subjectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of expression </li></ul><ul><li>Expansiveness </li></ul>
  • 5. “ Heroic” Beethoven: The Middle Period <ul><li>Forces combine with genius to inspire artistic breakthroughs: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal struggle with deafness </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to Napoleon and the French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>“ Unlucky” in love </li></ul><ul><li>Major works: </li></ul><ul><li>Symphonies (3-8) </li></ul><ul><li>Piano Concertos (3-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Opera: Fidelio </li></ul><ul><li>Sonatas and String Quartets </li></ul><ul><li>Musical Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Greater intensity – louder dynamics, demanding instrumental writing, heavier scoring </li></ul><ul><li>Greater expressivity – longer, more strident melodies, dramatic contrasts of texture, dynamics, instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Expansiveness – longer movements in general, frequent use of slow introductions to fast movements, striking expansiveness to development sections and codas </li></ul>
  • 6. The Heiligenstadt Testament
  • 7. The Fifth Symphony (in C minor) <ul><li>First Movement (Allegro con brio) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast, stormy, sonata-form movement in C minor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Movement (Andante con moto) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double Theme and Variations, ingratiating, martial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Movement (Allegro) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes convoluted triple-meter, march-like movement in C minor – leads directly to: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fourth Movement (Allegro) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triumphant finale, sonata-form movement in C major </li></ul></ul>“ Fate, knocking on the door”

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