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UNIT IV - Class 21
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UNIT IV - Class 21

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  • 1. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
    • Composed
    • Symphonies (9)
    • Concertos (especially for piano)
    • Overtures (and incidental music)
    • Opera (1)
    • Sacred Choral Music
    • Chamber Music
      • Sonatas (especially piano, violin, and cello)
      • String Quartets
    • Piano Trios
    Born: Bonn (western Germany) Died: Vienna
  • 2. Beethoven’s Early Period
    • Studies (a little) with Haydn in Vienna
    • Composes pieces which assimilate and perfect the “High Classical” style of Haydn and Mozart
    • Piano Sonatas
    • String Quartets (opus 18 – set of 6)
    • Symphonies (nos. 1 and 2)
    • Piano Concertos (nos. 1 and 2)
  • 3. Beethoven: Between Classical and Romantic
    • Style Characteristics
    • Classical:
    • Use of inherited forms
    • Regular phrases
    • Acceptance of established genres
    • Romantic:
    • Expansion of forms
    • Greater intensity and expressivity
    • Harmonic and instrumentational innovations
  • 4. Apollonian vs. Dionysian Friederich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
    • Apollonian:
    • Grounding in Classical tradition
    • Clarity of form
    • Intensive working process
    • Dionysian:
    • Subjectivity
    • Intensity of expression
    • Expansiveness
  • 5. “ Heroic” Beethoven: The Middle Period
    • Forces combine with genius to inspire artistic breakthroughs:
    • Personal struggle with deafness
    • Relationship to Napoleon and the French Revolution
    • “ Unlucky” in love
    • Major works:
    • Symphonies (3-8)
    • Piano Concertos (3-5)
    • Opera: Fidelio
    • Sonatas and String Quartets
    • Musical Characteristics:
    • Greater intensity – louder dynamics, demanding instrumental writing, heavier scoring
    • Greater expressivity – longer, more strident melodies, dramatic contrasts of texture, dynamics, instrumentation
    • Formal Expansiveness – longer movements in general, frequent use of slow introductions to fast movements, striking expansiveness to development sections and codas
  • 6. The Heiligenstadt Testament
  • 7. The Fifth Symphony (in C minor)
    • First Movement (Allegro con brio)
      • Fast, stormy, sonata-form movement in C minor
    • Second Movement (Andante con moto)
      • Double Theme and Variations, ingratiating, martial
    • Third Movement (Allegro)
      • Sometimes convoluted triple-meter, march-like movement in C minor – leads directly to:
    • Fourth Movement (Allegro)
      • Triumphant finale, sonata-form movement in C major
    “ Fate, knocking on the door”