The Classical Concerto <ul><li>The Classical Concerto vs. The Baroque </li></ul><ul><li>Similarities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitting of soloist against larger ensemble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Movement (fast-slow-fast) Form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger orchestra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater dramatic weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater variety in relationship between soloist and orchestra: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soloist as Accompanist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statement-Response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More thematic material for soloist </li></ul></ul></ul>
Form in the Classical Concerto First Movement : A combination of traditional ritornello practices with the principles of Sonata Form Part I : Orchestra: Ritornello (somewhat like an orchestral exposition, but stays in tonic) Part II : Soloist: Exposition (modulates) Part III : Orchestra: Ritornello (in new key) Part IV : Soloist: Development Part V : Soloist: Recapitulation (all in tonic) – combines elements from opening ritornello and solo Part VI : Orchestra: Closing Ritornello (interrupted by soloist’s cadenza) Second Movement : Slow, same formal conventions available to symphonic slow movement Third Movement : Almost always in Rondo Form
Hausmusik : Chamber Music in the Classical Era Mozart Family Della Croce Changing social attitudes, and the influence of Enlightenment thought created a new environment for musical study and music making in the 18 th century Music lessons became a standard part of a child’s education, in aristocratic as well as middle-class families Reading and performing music became a regular activity within families across the continent Piano Sonata Violin Sonata Piano Trio String Quartet String Quintet Songs
The Classical Sonata <ul><li>Versus the Baroque Sonata: </li></ul><ul><li>The typical Baroque Sonata was a “ Trio Sonata ” (scored for two violins plus continuo) </li></ul><ul><li>Two sonata-types flourished in the Baroque: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sonata di chiesa (Church Sonata) – 3 or 4 movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sonata da camera ( Chamber Sonata ) – 4 or more movements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The popularity of continuo writing waned and the bass began to assert a more independent, melodic role, leading to the practice writing out keyboard parts </li></ul><ul><li>The Classical Sonata: </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumentation : Solo Keyboard or Violin and Keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Form : Three Movements (Fast[sonata-form]-Slow-Fast) </li></ul>
The String Quartet (Two Violins, Viola, Cello) A four-movement genre Movement 1 : Fast – Sonata Form Movement 2 : Slow – various forms Movement 3 : Minuet and Trio Movement 4 : Rondo/Sonata Form Originally the first violin dominated the texture, the other roles playing an accompanimental role Gradually, the genre evolved in the direction of greater equality amongst the parts – in particular, the cello emerges as a strong player
Formal Schemes for Multi-Movement Genres in the Classical Era Genres: Symphony Four Movements Concerto Three Movements Sonata Three Movements String Quartet (and Quintet) Four Movements Forms: Sonata Form First or last movements, also possible for slow movement Rondo Last movements Minuet and Trio Typical third movement of four- movement genre Possible middle or last movement of three-movement genre Theme and Variations Possible for any movement, especially first or last Wild Card Slow movement
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