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UNIT III - Class 18
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UNIT III - Class 18



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  • 1. The Classical Concerto
    • The Classical Concerto vs. The Baroque
    • Similarities:
      • Pitting of soloist against larger ensemble
      • Three Movement (fast-slow-fast) Form
    • Differences:
      • Larger orchestra
      • Greater dramatic weight
      • Greater variety in relationship between soloist and orchestra:
        • Soloist as Accompanist
        • Statement-Response
        • More thematic material for soloist
  • 2. Form in the Classical Concerto First Movement : A combination of traditional ritornello practices with the principles of Sonata Form Part I : Orchestra: Ritornello (somewhat like an orchestral exposition, but stays in tonic) Part II : Soloist: Exposition (modulates) Part III : Orchestra: Ritornello (in new key) Part IV : Soloist: Development Part V : Soloist: Recapitulation (all in tonic) – combines elements from opening ritornello and solo Part VI : Orchestra: Closing Ritornello (interrupted by soloist’s cadenza) Second Movement : Slow, same formal conventions available to symphonic slow movement Third Movement : Almost always in Rondo Form
  • 3. Hausmusik : Chamber Music in the Classical Era Mozart Family Della Croce Changing social attitudes, and the influence of Enlightenment thought created a new environment for musical study and music making in the 18 th century Music lessons became a standard part of a child’s education, in aristocratic as well as middle-class families Reading and performing music became a regular activity within families across the continent Piano Sonata Violin Sonata Piano Trio String Quartet String Quintet Songs
  • 4. The Classical Sonata
    • Versus the Baroque Sonata:
    • The typical Baroque Sonata was a “ Trio Sonata ” (scored for two violins plus continuo)
    • Two sonata-types flourished in the Baroque:
      • Sonata di chiesa (Church Sonata) – 3 or 4 movements
      • Sonata da camera ( Chamber Sonata ) – 4 or more movements
    • The popularity of continuo writing waned and the bass began to assert a more independent, melodic role, leading to the practice writing out keyboard parts
    • The Classical Sonata:
    • Instrumentation : Solo Keyboard or Violin and Keyboard
    • Form : Three Movements (Fast[sonata-form]-Slow-Fast)
  • 5. The String Quartet (Two Violins, Viola, Cello) A four-movement genre Movement 1 : Fast – Sonata Form Movement 2 : Slow – various forms Movement 3 : Minuet and Trio Movement 4 : Rondo/Sonata Form Originally the first violin dominated the texture, the other roles playing an accompanimental role Gradually, the genre evolved in the direction of greater equality amongst the parts – in particular, the cello emerges as a strong player
  • 6. Formal Schemes for Multi-Movement Genres in the Classical Era Genres: Symphony Four Movements Concerto Three Movements Sonata Three Movements String Quartet (and Quintet) Four Movements Forms: Sonata Form First or last movements, also possible for slow movement Rondo Last movements Minuet and Trio Typical third movement of four- movement genre Possible middle or last movement of three-movement genre Theme and Variations Possible for any movement, especially first or last Wild Card Slow movement