Functional Harmony Music’s Underlying Structure Due to its origins in vocal music, for centuries Western music prioritized matters of melody and counterpoint With the increasing importance of instrumental music, and the nature of certain “harmonic” instruments, composers began to respond to the structuring qualities of harmony Functional Harmony: Refers to the nature of certain chords to assert certain functions, so that a composition can be built out of the syntactic ordering and relationships amongst chords. Rather than simply resulting from the “correct” combination of multiple melodies, the vertical (or “harmonic”) aspect of music asserted a strong functional identity
Instrumental vs. Vocal William Hogarth A Chorus of Singers Three Female Musicians Anonymous
Giovanni Gabrieli (c. 1555-1612) San Marco, Venice By Pierre-Auguste Renoir
The Baroque Dance Suite <ul><li>A collection of stylized dances all in the same key </li></ul><ul><li>These were meant to be listened-to, but not danced </li></ul><ul><li>Often initiated with a “Prelude” or an “Overture” which have a dramatic, introductory or anticipatory quality </li></ul>Some Specific Baroque Dance-Types Dance Meter Tempo Rhythm allemande 4/4 moderate flowing motion courante 3/2 moderate 6/4 at times sarabande 3/4 slow accents beat 2 minuet 3/4 moderate straight rhythm gavotte 4/4 moderate double upbeat bourrée 2/2 rather fast short upbeat siciliana 12/8 moderate gently rocking gigue 6/8 fast short upbeat, lively
The Baroque Concerto <ul><li>Three movements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast-Slow-Fast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for virtuosic display </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic opposition between soloist(s) and orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>Ritornello Form: The typical form for fast movements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Features regular alternation of sections for full orchestra with sections for soloist(s) with light accompaniment </li></ul></ul>
Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) Ospedale della Pietà
More Dualisms <ul><li>Sacred/Secular </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental/Vocal </li></ul><ul><li>Public/Private </li></ul>A depiction of chamber music by Jules-Alexandre Grün
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