2006-10-16 U Wisconsin Seminar


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2006-10-16 U Wisconsin Seminar

  1. 1. Thoughts on Atmospheric Aerosols: Science, Air Quality and Informatics Rudolf B. Husar CAPITA, Washington University Seminar Presented at U. Wisconsin, Madison, WI, October 16, 2006
  2. 2. Aerosols as Indicators of Global Processes and Change Major Biogeochemical Processes/Flows Visualized by Aerosols: Volcanoes Dust storms Fires Anthropogenic pollution Radiative Climate Human Health Visibility Acid Rain…… As aerosols pass through the atmosphere, the effects include:
  3. 3. Complex Physico-Chemical Properties : Particle Size Particle Composition, Shape
  4. 4. Scientific Challenge: Characterization of Aerosols <ul><li>Gaseous concentration: g ( X, Y, Z, T ) </li></ul><ul><li>Aerosol concentration: a ( X, Y, Z, T , D, C, F, M ) </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘aerosol dimensions’ size D, composition C, shape F, and mixing M determine the impact on health, and welfare. </li></ul>Aerosol complexity is due multi-dimensionality Characterization requires 6-8 independent dimensions Dimension Abbr. Data Sources Spatial dimensions X, Y Satellites, dense networks Height Z Lidar, soundings Time T Continuous monitoring Particle size D Size-segregated sampling Particle Composition C Speciated analysis Particle Shape/Form F Microscopy Ext/Internal Mixture M Microscopy
  5. 5. Technical Challenge: Characterization <ul><li>PM characterization requires many different instruments and analysis tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Each sensor/network covers only a fraction of the 8-D PM data space . </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the 8D PM pattern is extrapolated from sparse measured data </li></ul>Satellites, integrate over height, size, composition, shape…dimensions These data need de-convolution of the integral measures Satellite-Integral
  6. 6. Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) Challenges: Integration of 6 (8) – Dimensional Multi-sensory Data and Models
  7. 7. Challenge: Vertical Distribution of Aerosols
  8. 8. Regulatory Challenges: Natural Aerosols <ul><li>Natural Conditions by 2064 </li></ul>Natural haze - windblown dust, biomass smoke and other natural processes Man-made haze - industrial activities AND man-perturbed smoke and dust emissions Man-made Emissions Eliminated
  9. 9. Just like the human eye, satellite sensors detect the total amount of solar radiation that is reflected from the earth’s surface ( R o ) and backscattered by the atmosphere from aerosol, pure air, and clouds. A simplified expression for the relative radiatioin detected by a satellite sensor (I/I o ) is: I / I o = R o e -  + (1- e -  ) P Satellite Detection of Aerosols Today, geo-synchronous and polar orbiting satellites can detect different aspects of aerosols over the globe daily. where  is the aerosol optical thickness and P the angular light scattering probability.
  10. 10. Satellite Remote Sensing Since 1972 <ul><li>First satellite aerosol paper, Francis Parmenter, 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative surface-satellite aerosol relationship shown, 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on regional ‘hazy blobs’, sulfate pollution </li></ul>Regional Haze Lyons W.A., Husar R.B. Mon. Weather Rev. 1976 SMS GOES June 30 1975
  11. 11. AVHRR satellite optical depth climatology over the oceans, 1988-90 Husar, Prospero, Stove, 1997 Surprise: Small Sulfate Plume, Spring, Summer Only
  12. 12. MISR Seasonal AOT (MISR Team) <ul><li>Major smoke emission regions by season </li></ul>
  13. 13. SeaWiFS AOT – Summer 60 Percentile 1 km Resolution
  14. 14. Satellite Data Increases Spatial Resolution PM25 Surface Conc. JJA SeaWiFS AOT. JJA SeaWiFS AOT. JJA, Terrain AOT in Valleys
  15. 15. Satellite Summary <ul><li>Satellite data have aided the science of Particulate Matter since the 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite data have supported PM air quality management since the 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>Past satellite data helped the qualitative description of PM spatial pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative satellite data use and fusion with surface data is still in infancy </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite data applications will require collaboration across disciplines </li></ul>
  16. 16. Aerosol Species Monitoring Growth (1999-03) <ul><li>Daily valid station counts for sulfate has increased from 50 to 350 </li></ul><ul><li>About 250 sites sample every 3 rd day, 350 sites every 6 th day </li></ul>IMPROVE + EPA Sulfate Nitrate Sulfate Sites 99-03
  17. 17. Origin of Fine Dust Events over the US Gobi dust in spring Sahara in summer Fine dust events over the US are mainly from intercontinental transport Fine Dust Events, 1992-2003 ug/m3
  18. 18. Asian Dust Cloud over N. America On April 27, the dust cloud arrived in North America. Regional average PM10 concentrations increased to 65  g/m 3 In Washington State, PM10 concentrations exceeded 100  g/m 3 Asian Dust 100  g/m 3 Hourly PM10
  19. 19. During the trans-Pacific transit the dust plume was also tracked independently by Washington University and University of Wisconsin using GMS-5 and GOES-9 geostationary satellites, respectively. GMS-5 Image of Dust over the Central Pacific on April 24 GOES-9 images of Dust over the Central Pacific on April 24
  20. 20. Supporting Evidence: Transport Analysis Satellite data (e.g. SeaWiFS) show Sahara Dust reaching Gulf of Mexico and entering the continent. The air masses arrive to Big Bend, TX form the east (July) and from the west (April)
  21. 21. Sahara PM10 Events over Eastern US <ul><li>The highest July, Eastern US, 90 th percentile PM10 occurs over the Gulf Coast ( > 80 ug/m3) </li></ul><ul><li>Sahara dust is the dominant contributor to peak July PM10 levels. </li></ul>Much previous work by Prospero, Cahill, Malm, Scanning the AIRS PM10 and IMPROVE chemical databases several regional-scale PM10 episodes over the Gulf Coast (> 80 ug/m3) that can be attributed to Sahara. June 30, 1993 July 5, 1992 June 21 1997
  22. 22. Seasonal Average Fine Soil (VIEWS database, 1992-2002) <ul><li>Fine soil concentration is highest in the summer over Mississippi Valley, lowest in the winter </li></ul><ul><li>In the spring, high concentrations also exists in the arid Southwest (Arizona and Texas) </li></ul><ul><li>Evidently, the summer Mississippi Valley peak is Sahara dust while the Spring peak is from local sources </li></ul>
  23. 23. Mystery Winter Haze: Natural? Nitrate/Sulfate? Stagnation? Mystery not Solved, too Complicated, Calls for Multidisciplinary Community Analysis Contributed by the FASNET Community, Sep. 2004 Correspondence to R Husar , R Poirot Coordination Support by Inter-RPO WG Fast Aerosol Sensing Tools for Natural Event Tracking, FASTNET NSF Collaboration Support for Aerosol Event Analysis NASA REASON Coop EPA -OAQPS AIRNOW PM25 - February
  24. 24. Midwest HazeCam Images Jan 27-Feb 3, 2005 <ul><li>The images were part of the Midwest HazeCam Console of FASTNET project. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Seasonal PM25 by Region
  26. 26. FRM PM25 Monthly Concentration <ul><li>Monthly average FRM PM25 are shown as circle and contour (Blue: 0; Red: 25  g/m 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>The Feb/Mar peak is clearly evident in the Midwest region; also in January </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, there is some deviation in peak location and time among the networks </li></ul>JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC EPA AIRS 1999-2002
  27. 27. Seasonal Nitrate, VIEWS 2000-2004 DEC FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV Eastern US Nitrate - Daily Average ‘ Nitrate Events’ JAN
  28. 28. Smoke over the Eastern US <ul><li>Major contributor to aerosol Events </li></ul><ul><li>Key tracers are aerosol organics </li></ul>
  29. 29. Kansas Agricultural Smoke, April 12, 2003 Fire Pixels PM25 Mass, FRM 65 ug/m3 max Organics 35 ug/m3 max Ag Fires SeaWiFS, Refl SeaWiFS, AOT Col AOT Blue
  30. 30. Informatics: The Researcher/Analyst’s Challenge “ The researcher cannot get access to the data; if he can, he cannot read them; if he can read them, he does not know how good they are; and if he finds them good he cannot merge them with other data.” Information Technology and the Conduct of Research: The Users View National Academy Press, 1989 These resistances can be overcome through a distributed system that catalogs and standardizes the data and provides tools for data manipulation and analysis.
  31. 31. Smoke Plumes over the Southeast <ul><li>Satellite detection yields the origin and location is the shape of smoke plumes </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of the smoke is to increase the reflectance ant short wavelength (0.4 mm) </li></ul><ul><li>At longer wavelength, the aerosol reflectance is insignificant. </li></ul>R 0.68  m G 0.55  m B 0.41  m 0.41  m 0.87  m
  32. 32. ‘ Natural’ Aerosols: Biomass Smoke Satellite data show numerous small fires in the Southeast The type of these fires is not known. Prescribed/agricultural burning? Wild fires? Issue: How does one space-time aggregate such a highly variable emission? PM2.5 conc., smoke pattern and SeaWiFS image of plumes originating from Kentucky, Nov 15, 1999. More details here here Nov 15, 1999 Oct 5, 1998 Oct 5, 1998 Smoke Plumes Smoke Plumes Regional Smoke?
  33. 33. Seasonal Pattern of Dust Baseline and Events <ul><li>The dust baseline concentration is has a 5x seasonal amplitude from 0.2 to 1 ug/m3 </li></ul><ul><li>The dust events (determined by the spike filter) occur in April/May and in July </li></ul><ul><li>The April/May and July dust peaks are due to the events </li></ul>