EPA Science Advisory Board First National Science Workshop on Environmental Protection Emerging Scientific Topics: Transbo...
The  BIG PICTURE <ul><li>How do humans perturb the atmospheric composition? </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities & Challenges <...
Atmospheric Residence Time Increases with Height <ul><li>Fine Particle residence time in the boundary layer, is  3-5 days ...
Particulate Matter and Ozone – Key Pollutants <ul><li>PM  Episodic impact </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone Raises the background </...
What is Particulate Matter and How does it Vary? <ul><li>What is Particulate Matter? </li></ul><ul><li>How Does PM Vary? <...
Aerosol Size Distribution and Morphology <ul><li>Purposes of the illustration : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size spectra over 4 ...
Properties of Particulate Matter <ul><li>Physical, Chemical and Optical Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Size Range of Particu...
Major Biogeochemical  Processes Producing Aerosols Windblown Dust Volcanic Emissions Industrial Aerosols What is the magni...
Regional Haze Goal: Attain natural conditions by 2064
Industrial Sulfur Emission Density <ul><li>The regional hot-spots for industrial sulfur emissions are in  </li></ul><ul><l...
MODIS AOT, 2002  MODIS Team <ul><li>Features of Global Smoke Emissions </li></ul>ATSR Fire Locations 1993
MISR Seasonal AOT  (MISR Team) <ul><li>Major smoke emission regions by season  </li></ul>
Pattern of Fires over N. America <ul><li>The number of ATSR satellite-observed fires peaks in warm season </li></ul><ul><l...
May 15, 1998 <ul><li>Fire locations detected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) sensor. </li></ul><ul>...
Smoke Aerosol and Ozone During the Smoke Episode – Inverse Relationship The surface ozone is generally depressed under the...
May-June 2003 Siberian Fires
Global Transport of Siberian Smoke
Aircraft Detection of Siberian Forrest Smoke near Seattle, WA Jaffe et. al., 2003
The Asian Dust Event of April 1998 On April 19, 1998 a major dust storm occurred over the Gobi Desert The dust cloud was s...
Asian Dust Cloud over N. America On April 27, the dust cloud arrived in North America. Regional average PM10 concentration...
Origin of Fine Dust Events over the US Gobi dust in spring Sahara in summer Fine dust events over the US are mainly from i...
Daily Average Concentration over the US <ul><li>Dust is seasonal with noise </li></ul><ul><li>Random short spikes added </...
Sahara and Local Dust Apportionment:  Annual and July <ul><li>The maximum annual Sahara dust contribution is about 1   g....
Supporting Evidence: Transport Analysis Satellite data (e.g. SeaWiFS) show Sahara Dust reaching Gulf of Mexico and enterin...
Seasonal Fine Aerosol Composition, E. US Upper Buffalo Smoky Mtn Everglades, FL Big Bend, TX
Sahara PM10 Events over Eastern US <ul><li>The highest July, Eastern US, 90 th  percentile PM10 occurs over the Gulf Coast...
Local, Regional, Global Pollution <ul><li>Before 1950s: </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke, Fly ash  </li...
The Climates of North America  ( Based on Bryson and Hare, 1974)
<ul><li>What kind of neighborhood is this anyway? </li></ul>May 9, 1998 A Really Bad Aerosol Day for N. America Asian Smok...
Cooperation: Monitoring, Impact, Actions  <ul><li>International </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North American transboundary transpo...
Seasonal cycle in mean afternoon surface O 3  over the US <ul><li>Based on the Harvard global model and surface observatio...
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2004-01-21 Continental-Scale Transport of Air Pollutants

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2004-01-21 Continental-Scale Transport of Air Pollutants

  1. 1. EPA Science Advisory Board First National Science Workshop on Environmental Protection Emerging Scientific Topics: Transboundary Air Pollutants Continental-Scale Transport of Air Pollutants Rudolf Husar Washington University, St. Louis, MO December 11, 2003 Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC
  2. 2. The BIG PICTURE <ul><li>How do humans perturb the atmospheric composition? </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities & Challenges </li></ul>
  3. 3. Atmospheric Residence Time Increases with Height <ul><li>Fine Particle residence time in the boundary layer, is 3-5 days . </li></ul><ul><li>Residence time in the free troposphere is weeks and the transport is hemispheric </li></ul>NASA Astronaut Limb Photo Troposphere Stratosphere Boundary Layer Aerosol Layers Clouds
  4. 4. Particulate Matter and Ozone – Key Pollutants <ul><li>PM Episodic impact </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone Raises the background </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropogenic - Natural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropogenic steady, seasonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly sporadic, seasonal </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What is Particulate Matter and How does it Vary? <ul><li>What is Particulate Matter? </li></ul><ul><li>How Does PM Vary? </li></ul><ul><li>The Influence of Emissions, Dilution and Transformations </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Links </li></ul>Contact: Rudolf Husar, rhusar @ mecf . wustl . edu
  6. 6. Aerosol Size Distribution and Morphology <ul><li>Purposes of the illustration : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size spectra over 4 decades, modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particle shapes, electron micrographs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical composition by size </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Properties of Particulate Matter <ul><li>Physical, Chemical and Optical Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Size Range of Particulate Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Distribution of PM vs. Size: PM10, PM2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Fine and Coarse Particles </li></ul><ul><li>Fine Particles - PM2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse Particle Fraction - PM10-PM2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Composition of PM vs. Size </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Properties of PM </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Links </li></ul>Contact: Rudolf Husar, rhusar @ mecf . wustl . edu
  8. 8. Major Biogeochemical Processes Producing Aerosols Windblown Dust Volcanic Emissions Industrial Aerosols What is the magnitude of the anthropogenic perturbation of natural processes? On global scale dust, smoke dominate the aerosol pattern. Industrial aerosols dominate regional hot-spots Smoke from Fires
  9. 9. Regional Haze Goal: Attain natural conditions by 2064
  10. 10. Industrial Sulfur Emission Density <ul><li>The regional hot-spots for industrial sulfur emissions are in </li></ul><ul><li>E. North America, </li></ul><ul><li>Europe and </li></ul><ul><li>E. Asia </li></ul>US SOx Emission
  11. 11. MODIS AOT, 2002 MODIS Team <ul><li>Features of Global Smoke Emissions </li></ul>ATSR Fire Locations 1993
  12. 12. MISR Seasonal AOT (MISR Team) <ul><li>Major smoke emission regions by season </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pattern of Fires over N. America <ul><li>The number of ATSR satellite-observed fires peaks in warm season </li></ul><ul><li>Fire onset and smoke amount is unpredictable </li></ul>Fire Pixel Count: Western US North America
  14. 14. May 15, 1998 <ul><li>Fire locations detected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) sensor. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke is detected by SeaWiFS and TOMS (green) satellites and surface visibility data, Bext </li></ul>Smoke from Central American Fires <ul><li>The smoke plume extends from Guatemala to Hudson May in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>The Bext values indicate that the smoke is present at the surface </li></ul>
  15. 15. Smoke Aerosol and Ozone During the Smoke Episode – Inverse Relationship The surface ozone is generally depressed under the smoke cloud Extinction Coefficient (visibility) Surface Ozone
  16. 16. May-June 2003 Siberian Fires
  17. 17. Global Transport of Siberian Smoke
  18. 18. Aircraft Detection of Siberian Forrest Smoke near Seattle, WA Jaffe et. al., 2003
  19. 19. The Asian Dust Event of April 1998 On April 19, 1998 a major dust storm occurred over the Gobi Desert The dust cloud was seen by SeaWiFS, TOMS, GMS, AVHRR satellites The transport of the dust cloud was followed on-line by an an ad-hoc international group China Mongolia Korea
  20. 20. Asian Dust Cloud over N. America On April 27, the dust cloud arrived in North America. Regional average PM10 concentrations increased to 65  g/m 3 In Washington State, PM10 concentrations exceeded 100  g/m 3 Asian Dust 100  g/m 3 Hourly PM10
  21. 21. Origin of Fine Dust Events over the US Gobi dust in spring Sahara in summer Fine dust events over the US are mainly from intercontinental transport
  22. 22. Daily Average Concentration over the US <ul><li>Dust is seasonal with noise </li></ul><ul><li>Random short spikes added </li></ul>Sulfate is seasonal with noise Noise is by synoptic weather VIEWS Aerosol Chemistry Database
  23. 23. Sahara and Local Dust Apportionment: Annual and July <ul><li>The maximum annual Sahara dust contribution is about 1  g.m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>In Florida, the local and Sahara dust contributions are about equal but at Big Bend, the Sahara contribution is < 25%. </li></ul>The Sahara and Local dust was apportioned based on their respective source profiles. <ul><li>In July the Sahara dust contributions are 4-8  g.m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the Southeast, the Sahara dust exceeds the local source contributions by w wide margin (factor of 2-4) </li></ul>Annual July
  24. 24. Supporting Evidence: Transport Analysis Satellite data (e.g. SeaWiFS) show Sahara Dust reaching Gulf of Mexico and entering the continent. The air masses arrive to Big Bend, TX form the east (July) and from the west (April)
  25. 25. Seasonal Fine Aerosol Composition, E. US Upper Buffalo Smoky Mtn Everglades, FL Big Bend, TX
  26. 26. Sahara PM10 Events over Eastern US <ul><li>The highest July, Eastern US, 90 th percentile PM10 occurs over the Gulf Coast ( > 80 ug/m3) </li></ul><ul><li>Sahara dust is the dominant contributor to peak July PM10 levels. </li></ul>Much previous work by Prospero, Cahill, Malm, Scanning the AIRS PM10 and IMPROVE chemical databases several regional-scale PM10 episodes over the Gulf Coast (> 80 ug/m3) that can be attributed to Sahara. June 30, 1993 July 5, 1992 June 21 1997
  27. 27. Local, Regional, Global Pollution <ul><li>Before 1950s: </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke, Fly ash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post- 2000s: </li></ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Change </li></ul></ul>1970s-1990s: Regional Acid Rain, Haze
  28. 28. The Climates of North America ( Based on Bryson and Hare, 1974)
  29. 29. <ul><li>What kind of neighborhood is this anyway? </li></ul>May 9, 1998 A Really Bad Aerosol Day for N. America Asian Smoke C. American Smoke Canada Smoke
  30. 30. Cooperation: Monitoring, Impact, Actions <ul><li>International </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North American transboundary transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inter-Agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EPA: Monitoring, impact assessment and management actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NASA: Satellite data and tools for documentation of transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOAA: Weather, satellite, model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inter-Disciplinary </li></ul>
  31. 31. Seasonal cycle in mean afternoon surface O 3 over the US <ul><li>Based on the Harvard global model and surface observations </li></ul>Regional pollution: 10-30 ppbv Hemisph. pollution: 5-15 ppbv Natural ozone: 15-25 ppbv Stratospheric ozone: 0-10 ppbv Fiore et al., JGR in prep.
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