0507 Event Analysis Reports Biomass Smoke Aerosol


Published on


Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

0507 Event Analysis Reports Biomass Smoke Aerosol

  1. 1. Biomass Smoke Aerosol: Spatial and Temporal Pattern over the US October 2005 [email_address]
  2. 2. Estimation of Smoke Mass <ul><li>The estimation of smoke mass from speciated aerosol data has eluded full quantification for many years </li></ul><ul><li>CIRA, Poirot and others have </li></ul><ul><li>While full quantification is still not in hand, a proposed approximate approach yields reasonably consistent results </li></ul><ul><li>The smoke quantification consists of two steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Carbon apportionment into Smoke and NonSmoke parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Applying factors to turn OCSmoke and OCNonSmoke into Mass </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Smoke Quantification using Chemical Data <ul><ul><li>Step 1: Carbon apportionment into Smoke and NonSmoke parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon (OC & EC) is assumed to have only two forms: smoke and non-smoke </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OC = OCS (Smoke) + OCNS (NonSmoke) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EC = ECS (Smoke) + ECNS (NonSmoke) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In each form, the EC/OC ratio is assumed to be constant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECS/OCS = rs (In smoke, EC/OC ratio rs =0.08) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECNS/OCNS = rns (In non-smoke, EC/OC ratio rns = 0.4) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With thes four equations, the value of the four unknowns can be calcualted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OCS = (rns*OC –EC)/(rns-rs) = (0.4*OC – EC)/0.32 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OCNS = OC-OCS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECS = 0.088*OCS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECNS = 0.4*OCNS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step2: Apply a factor to turn OC into Mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The smoke and non-smoke OC is scaled by a factor to estimate the mass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OCSmokeMass = OCS*1.5 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OCNonSmokeMass = OCNS*2.4 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Smoke Excess OC – EC Calibration of Smoke Composition <ul><li>Smoke (excess) PM25, EC and OC yields calibration </li></ul><ul><li>Ratios for Kansas, Big Bend and Quebec smoke are similar </li></ul><ul><li>Good news for OC apportionment </li></ul> PM25  EC  OC Smoke:  EC/  OC = 0.08  PM25/  OC = 1.5 EC/OC Ratio
  5. 5. OC–EC Non-Smoke Calibration by Iteration <ul><li>Non-smoke ratios are more difficult </li></ul><ul><li>EC/OC of about 0.2-0.4 is reasonable </li></ul><ul><li>Outside this range is not </li></ul>EC/OC Non-Smoke = 0.15 EC/OC Non-Smoke = 0.2 EC/OC Non-Smoke = 1 EC/OC Non-Smoke = 0.4 Negative Smoke – not Possible Maybe?? Maybe?? Too little non-smoke too much smoke Smoke OC Non Smoke OC
  6. 6. Measured and Reconstructed PM25 Mass <ul><li>Regional ‘calibration’ constants we applied to OC and Soil </li></ul>
  7. 7. OCS, OCNS and PM25 Seasonal Pattern Average over 2000-2004 period PM25Mass OCS Smoke OCNS NonSmoke Day of Year Mexican Smoke Agricultural Smoke Urban NonSmoke Carbon
  8. 8. OC Smoke Spatial Pattern Dec Jan Feb Sep Oct Nov Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
  9. 9. EC NonSmoke Dec Jan Feb Sep Oct Nov Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
  10. 10. PM2.5 (blue) and ‘SmokeMass’ (red) Smoke Events Kansas Ag Smoke
  11. 11. Example OC ‘Smoke’ Events Smoke Events
  12. 12. Seasonality of OC Percentiles <ul><li>IMPROVE/STN Inconsistencies Not shown here </li></ul>Great Smoky Mtn: Episodic OC in the Fall season Chattanooga:: Elevated and Persistent OC
  13. 13. GRSM Seasonal Pattern of Percentiles PM25 OC SO4 Soil Episodic Episodic OC in Fall dominates episodicity - Smoke Organics?
  14. 14. Monthly Maps of Fire Pixels <ul><li>Fire pixels are necessary but not sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Some Fire pixels produce more smoke aerosol than others …by at least factor of 5 </li></ul>NOAA HMS – S. Falke Jan Feb Mar Apr Aug Jun Jul May Sep Oct Nov Dec Smoke Kansas Ag Smoke No Smoke
  15. 15. Summary <ul><li>Developments (CIRA, Poirot, others) </li></ul><ul><li>OC and EC can be reasonably apportioned between Smoke and NonSmoke components </li></ul><ul><li>The reconstructed mass can be matched to the measured PM25 </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of OC Apportionment </li></ul><ul><li>Need to incorporate biogenic OC! </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVE and STN OC don’t match </li></ul><ul><li>Some coefficients may need regional/seasonal calibration </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.