0507 Event Analysis Reports Biomass Smoke Aerosol
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0507 Event Analysis Reports Biomass Smoke Aerosol







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0507 Event Analysis Reports Biomass Smoke Aerosol 0507 Event Analysis Reports Biomass Smoke Aerosol Presentation Transcript

  • Biomass Smoke Aerosol: Spatial and Temporal Pattern over the US October 2005 [email_address]
  • Estimation of Smoke Mass
    • The estimation of smoke mass from speciated aerosol data has eluded full quantification for many years
    • CIRA, Poirot and others have
    • While full quantification is still not in hand, a proposed approximate approach yields reasonably consistent results
    • The smoke quantification consists of two steps:
      • Step 1: Carbon apportionment into Smoke and NonSmoke parts
      • Step 2: Applying factors to turn OCSmoke and OCNonSmoke into Mass
  • Smoke Quantification using Chemical Data
      • Step 1: Carbon apportionment into Smoke and NonSmoke parts
        • Carbon (OC & EC) is assumed to have only two forms: smoke and non-smoke
        • OC = OCS (Smoke) + OCNS (NonSmoke)
        • EC = ECS (Smoke) + ECNS (NonSmoke)
        • In each form, the EC/OC ratio is assumed to be constant
        • ECS/OCS = rs (In smoke, EC/OC ratio rs =0.08)
        • ECNS/OCNS = rns (In non-smoke, EC/OC ratio rns = 0.4)
        • With thes four equations, the value of the four unknowns can be calcualted
        • OCS = (rns*OC –EC)/(rns-rs) = (0.4*OC – EC)/0.32
        • OCNS = OC-OCS
        • ECS = 0.088*OCS
        • ECNS = 0.4*OCNS
      • Step2: Apply a factor to turn OC into Mass
        • The smoke and non-smoke OC is scaled by a factor to estimate the mass
        • OCSmokeMass = OCS*1.5
        • OCNonSmokeMass = OCNS*2.4
  • Smoke Excess OC – EC Calibration of Smoke Composition
    • Smoke (excess) PM25, EC and OC yields calibration
    • Ratios for Kansas, Big Bend and Quebec smoke are similar
    • Good news for OC apportionment
     PM25  EC  OC Smoke:  EC/  OC = 0.08  PM25/  OC = 1.5 EC/OC Ratio
  • OC–EC Non-Smoke Calibration by Iteration
    • Non-smoke ratios are more difficult
    • EC/OC of about 0.2-0.4 is reasonable
    • Outside this range is not
    EC/OC Non-Smoke = 0.15 EC/OC Non-Smoke = 0.2 EC/OC Non-Smoke = 1 EC/OC Non-Smoke = 0.4 Negative Smoke – not Possible Maybe?? Maybe?? Too little non-smoke too much smoke Smoke OC Non Smoke OC
  • Measured and Reconstructed PM25 Mass
    • Regional ‘calibration’ constants we applied to OC and Soil
  • OCS, OCNS and PM25 Seasonal Pattern Average over 2000-2004 period PM25Mass OCS Smoke OCNS NonSmoke Day of Year Mexican Smoke Agricultural Smoke Urban NonSmoke Carbon
  • OC Smoke Spatial Pattern Dec Jan Feb Sep Oct Nov Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
  • EC NonSmoke Dec Jan Feb Sep Oct Nov Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
  • PM2.5 (blue) and ‘SmokeMass’ (red) Smoke Events Kansas Ag Smoke
  • Example OC ‘Smoke’ Events Smoke Events
  • Seasonality of OC Percentiles
    • IMPROVE/STN Inconsistencies Not shown here
    Great Smoky Mtn: Episodic OC in the Fall season Chattanooga:: Elevated and Persistent OC
  • GRSM Seasonal Pattern of Percentiles PM25 OC SO4 Soil Episodic Episodic OC in Fall dominates episodicity - Smoke Organics?
  • Monthly Maps of Fire Pixels
    • Fire pixels are necessary but not sufficient
    • Some Fire pixels produce more smoke aerosol than others …by at least factor of 5
    NOAA HMS – S. Falke Jan Feb Mar Apr Aug Jun Jul May Sep Oct Nov Dec Smoke Kansas Ag Smoke No Smoke
  • Summary
    • Developments (CIRA, Poirot, others)
    • OC and EC can be reasonably apportioned between Smoke and NonSmoke components
    • The reconstructed mass can be matched to the measured PM25
    • Problems of OC Apportionment
    • Need to incorporate biogenic OC!
    • IMPROVE and STN OC don’t match
    • Some coefficients may need regional/seasonal calibration