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The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
The Oxytocin Cell
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The Oxytocin Cell

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  • 1. OXYTOCIN: Is this NANO-PEPTIDE a chemical type of HUMAN “SUPER-GLUE” ? PRESENTATION by ERIC KEROACK, M.D. ---SOME PEOPLE WITHOUT BRAINS DO AN AWFUL LOT OF TALKING. ---THE SCARECROW
  • 2. THE BASICS of OXYTOCIN WHAT is it ?…and WHERE is it ? OXYTOCIN is a (9)-PEPTIDE HORMONE that is made by cells in the HYPOTHALAMUS The majority of OXYTOCIN is released in the POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND Once OXYTOCIN has entered THE BLOOD STREAM , the LARGE SIZE of the MOLECULE prevents it from passing through “ THE BLOOD:BRAIN BARRIER ”…and consequently, CIRCULATING LEVELS of OXYTOCIN cannot influence BRAIN ACTIVITY . This factor was the major reason that experts failed to recognize the PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE of OXYTOCIN for many decades. HYPOTHALAMUS
  • 3. THE BASICS of OXYTOCIN With advancements in BRAIN SCANNING TECHNOLOGY in the 1980s, it was discovered that OXYTOCIN CELLS had an array of DIRECT MIDBRAIN CONNECTIONS That allowed the hormone to be released directly into the brain tissues, thus by-passing the BLOOD:BRAIN BARRIER OXYTOCIN could now be viewed as a significant NEURO-MODULATOR and NEURO-TRANSMITTER in humans…as it was known to be in many other animal species. The role for OXYTOCIN in HUMAN BEHAVIOR was about to get blown wide open !!
  • 4. WHAT DOES OXYTOCIN DO IN HUMANS? --- Initiates the CONTRACTIONS of the uterus involved with LABOR and CHILD-BIRTH --- Initiates the RELEASE of MILK during BREAST-FEEDING IS OXYTOCIN RELEASED DURING ANY OTHER HUMAN ACTIVITIES? --- POSITIVE SOCIAL INTERACTIONS --- COMFORTING PHYSICAL CONTACT --- MASSAGE --- HUGS (scientifically known as “WARM BODY CONTACT”) --- HUMAN ENCOUNTERS INVOLVING “ TRUST ” --- SEXUAL FOREPLAY, SEXUAL INTERCOURSE, and ORGASM OXYTOCIN’S role in the PSYCHO-DYNAMICS of HUMAN BEHAVIOR was first discovered in the late 1980s…and most of this understanding was inspired by the study of some unusual animal species that display the natural activity of MONOGAMOUS MATING BEHAVIORS --- Involved with INTESTINAL CONTRACTIONS of PERISTALSIS and DIGESTION
  • 5. WHAT EFFECTS DOES OXYTOCIN HAVE In the PSYCHO-DYNAMIC SETTING of HUMAN BEHAVIOR ? --- REDUCES FEAR and ANXIETY RESPONSES that occur during SOCIAL INTERACTIONS 1. HUMAN BRAIN f-MRI STUDY (Germany): TESTS that replicate settings of SOCIAL ANXIETY and FEAR… ACTIVATE the AMYGDALA AMYGDALA = “FEAR CENTER” STUDY REVEALED  Use of OXYTOCIN SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED the activation of the AMYGDALA … compared to placebo. SUBJECTS REPORTED MUCH LESS ANXIETY + FEAR FEAR and ANXIETY OXYTOCIN REDUCES SOCIAL FEAR + ANXIETY SUBJECTS are MORE RELAXED and COMFORTABLE
  • 6. ADDITIONAL EFFECTS of OXYTOCIN in the PSYCHO-DYNAMIC SETTING of HUMAN BEHAVIOR --- INCREASES ABILITY TO EXPERIENCE “TRUST” and “TRUST-WORTHINESS” DURING INTER- PERSONAL INTERACTIONS 2a. HUMAN BEHAVIORAL EXPERIMENTS (Swiss): Interactions NOT requiring an individual “TO TRUST”  Interactions requiring an individual “ TO TRUST ”  NO OXYTOCIN elevation ELEVATED OXYTOCIN LEVEL Interaction provokes a sense of “ TRUSTWORTHINESS ”  Interaction provokes NO sense of “TRUSTWORTHINESS”  ELEVATED OXYTOCIN LEVEL NO OXYTOCIN elevation --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2b. DOUBLE-BLIND TEST of OXYTOCIN’S EFFECT ON HUMAN ABILITY “TO TRUST” (Swiss): --- Subjects given PLACEBO  NO CHANGE in ability to “TRUST” or “ FEEL TRUSTWORTHY” --- Subjects given OXYTOCIN prior to testing: MARKED INCREASE WILLINGNESS TO EXHIBIT TRUST IN INTER-PERSONAL INTERACTIONS …but not simply an increased willingness to engage in risky behaviors NOT involving a social component. OXYTOCIN ENHANCES ABILITY “ TO TRUST ” in SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS with others
  • 7. ADDITIONAL EFFECTS of OXYTOCIN in the PSYCHO-DYNAMIC SETTING of HUMAN BEHAVIOR --- REDUCES STRESS + PAIN and THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS associated with STRESS/PAIN in HUMANS MULTIPLE STUDIES in HUMANS: (done in various countries) 1. OXYTOCIN  REDUCES BLOOD CORTISOL LEVELS vs. PLACEBO in “STRESSFUL” settings 2. STUDY of WOMEN showed that “HUGS” (warm body contact with partner)  ELEVATED OXYTOCIN LEVELS and REDUCED ANXIETY LEVELS, LOWERED BLOOD PRESSURE, and LOWERED HEART RATES --- CAUSES “ SELECTIVE AMNESIA ”…also referred to as “ MEMORY AIR-BRUSHING ” 1. Studies of OXYTOCIN’s effects on MEMORY reveal that OXYTOCIN IMPROVES RECALL ABILITY of POSITIVE events … while REDUCING RECALL ABILITY of NEGATIVE events 2. STUDIES OF OXYTOCIN’s EFFECTS on MEMORY REVEAL that OXYTOCIN IMPROVES RECALL ABILITY of WORDS associated with SEXUAL / REPRODUCTIVE CONTENT--- STRONG IMPACT on “SEXUALLY-BASED” MEMORY IMPRINTING In my clinical experience as an OB/GYN, the concept of “SELECTIVE AMNESIA” needs absolutely no formal studying in order for it to be believed …THE FACT THAT WOMEN EVEN CONSIDER GOING THROUGH CHILD-BIRTH MORE THAN ONCE…IS “ ROCK-SOLID ” EVIDENCE of “ SELECTIVE AMNESIA ” caused by OXYTOCIN !!! <ul><li>OXYTOCIN  ELEVATES “PAIN THRESHHOLDS”…REDUCING </li></ul><ul><li>THE SENSATION of “PAIN” (emotional + physical) </li></ul>
  • 8. ADVERTIZERS ARE COUNTING ON THE POWERFUL “SEXUALLY-BASED” EFFECT THAT OXYTOCIN HAS ON THE HUMAN MEMORY… LEAVING A LONG-LASTING POSITIVE IMPRINT !!
  • 9. ADDITIONAL FINDINGS on the EFFECTS of OXYTOCIN --- MASSAGE  ELEVATES OXYTOCIN and LOWERS STRESS, REDUCES BLOOD PRESSURE, DECREASES ANXIETY, AND LOWERS PLASMA CORTISOL LEVELS --- OXYTOCIN MODULATES “SOCIAL BEHAVIOR” by DECREASING SOCIAL AGGRESSION, ENHANCING RECOGNITION of “SOCIAL CUES”, IMPROVING “SOCIAL MEMORY ABILITY” and DECREASING “SOCIALLY-INDUCED” STRESS RESPONSES TO DATE, SCIENTIFIC STUDIES in HUMANS STRONGLY SUGGEST that OXYTOCIN is DIRECTLY INVOLVED in: LOOKS LIKE THE FOUNDATION of a SOLID RELATIONSHIP OXYTOCIN PRODUCES THE FEELING of “TRUST” by MODULATING BRAIN ACTIVITY in THE AMYGDALA and THE HIPPOCAMPUS ( f-MRI Studies at N.I.H.)
  • 10. OXYTOCIN : ROLE in HUMAN RELATIONSHIP “ BONDING” --- MOTHER – NEWBORN “PAIR BONDING” : *************************************************************************************************************************************** MATERNAL LEVELS of OXYTOCIN remain fairly stable until just before delivery…at which point there is a sudden surge of OXYTOCIN that peaks about 30-MINUTES AFTER DELIVERY and rapidly subsides during the FIRST 2-3 POST-PARTUM HOURS  DELIVERY 30-min 3-hrs. Post-Partum Post-Partum OXYTOCIN LEVELS Until the late 1980’s, SCIENTISTS felt that this surge in OXYTOCIN LEVELS was solely to assist with the expulsion of the PLACENTA from the UTERUS by increasing the strength and tone of UTERINE MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS …thus preventing the possibility of excessive maternal Post-partum bleeding… However, studies comparing MATERNAL EXPERIENCES following spontaneous vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery revealed… IMPORTANT CLUES ABOUT MATERNAL  NEWBORN “BONDING” BEHAVIORS
  • 11. OXYTOCIN : ROLE in HUMAN “BONDING” --- MOTHERS THAT DELIVERED by C/S WERE TYPICALLY RESTRICTED FROM HAVING CONTACT WITH THEIR NEWBORNS UNTIL 6-12 HOURS AFTER DELIVERY (to allow for recovery from anesthesia and for post-operative stabilization.) --- Hospital Protocols usually dictated this activity. … meanwhile…WOMEN that had SPONTANEOUS VAGINAL DELIVERIES were being STRONGLY ENCOURAGED to initiate EARLY SKIN-TO-SKIN CONTACT with their NEWBORNS, as well as EARLY BREAST-FEEDING, and “ROOMING-IN” with their BABIES. THESE BEHAVIORS DRAMATICALLY INCREASED MATERNAL-NEWBORN CONTACT DURING THE HOURS of PEAK OXYTOCIN LEVELS. MANY STUDIES in the 1980’s FOUND: --- WOMEN that had C/S DELIVERIES  EXPERIENCED DIFFICULTY with “FEELING BONDED” with their BABIES --- THIS PROBLEM WITH “BONDING” COULD BE GREATLY REDUCED by ALLOWING EARLY “SKIN-TO-SKIN” CONTACT after C/S. --- STUDIES also REVEALED THAT “THE FIRST HOUR” AFTER DELIVERY HAD the MOST SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON ENHANCING THE FORMATION OF MOTHER:CHILD “PAIR-BONDING” --- WOMEN DELIVERING IN EMERGENCY CIRCUMSTANCES (under General Anesthesia) continued to experience problems With “BONDING” because of the “AMNESIA-INDUCING” EFFECTS of the types of ANESTHETICS used (MANY of these AGENTS were ANTAGONISTS of OXYTOCIN RECEPTORS in the MOTHER) When these agents were changed…and MOTHERS were Allowed to experience “EARLY CONTACT” with their BABIES … THE “BONDING” PROBLEMS WERE GREATLY REDUCED.
  • 12. OXYTOCIN : ROLE in HUMAN “BONDING” --- Further studies revealed that “MATERNAL BONDING” was STRONGLY ASSOCIATED with the activity of DIRECT SKIN-TO-SKIN TOUCHING between THE MOTHER and THE NEWBORN During the time-frames associated with PEAK OXYTOCIN LEVELS … CLEARLY SUGGESTING that OXYTOCIN and TOUCH are BOTH INVOLVED in the development of “ HUMAN RELATIONSHIP FORMATION” --- This concept was further supported by studies involving the role of BREAST-FEEDING in the enhancement of “MATERNAL-NEWBORN BONDING” BREAST-FEEDING definitely involved: ELEVATED OXYTOCIN LEVELS And… DIRECT SKIN-to SKIN TOUCHING between the PAIR Many scientific studies clearly showed that BREAST-FEEDING STRONGLY ENHANCED the development of “ MATERNAL-NEWBORN BONDING” In fact, many hospitals’ Post-partum care protocols were DRASTICALLY ALTERED in order to incorporate STRONG ENCOURAGEMENT of these “ BOND-PROMOTING” behaviors. I have often wondered IF this unique interaction between OXYTOCIN and DIRECT HUMAN TOUCH underlies THE UNUSUAL LEVEL of “BONDING” that is often seen between --- WOMEN  Their LABOR + DELIVERY NURSING TEAM ??? WOMEN  Their OB/GYN ??? The seeds of a new study???
  • 13. AT THIS POINT…WE CAN ADD SUPPORT TO THE THEORY THAT OXYTOCIN IS STRONGLY INVOLVED IN THE BUILDING OF THE SOLID FOUNDATION OF “ HUMAN RELATIONSHIP FORMATION” NOW…LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THERE ARE PROBLEMS WITHIN THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM
  • 14. OXYTOCIN : ROLE in HUMAN “BONDING” PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS and BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS ASSOCIATED with DYSFUNCTION in THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM --- STUDIES in HUMANS that suggest a POTENTIAL LINK Between SEVERAL BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS and DEFECTS in THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM <ul><li>ELEVATED BRAIN LEVELS of OXYTOCIN: </li></ul><ul><li> SEEN in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) </li></ul><ul><li> SEEN in OCD-variant of TOURETTE’S Syndrome </li></ul>Could this result in “EXCESSIVE BONDING” to one’s BEHAVIORS or ACTIVITIES ??? <ul><li>DECREASED OXYTOCIN Receptor Activity in the </li></ul><ul><li>AMYGDALA (fear + anxiety center of the Mid-brain): </li></ul><ul><li> SEEN in variations of “SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER” </li></ul><ul><li> SEEN in variations of “GENERAL ANXIETY DISORDER” </li></ul>Could this be the result of a DECREASE in the ABILITY of the OXYTOCIN released during “social interactions” to SUPPRESS the activity of THE AMYGDALA (as seen in the previously mentioned f-MRI study of “normal” subjects) ??? <ul><li>MARKED ELEVATION of the NUMBER of OXYTOCIN </li></ul><ul><li>RECEPTORS in THE AMYGDALA: </li></ul><ul><li> SEEN in an Extremely RARE Personality Disorder that is associated with “a Pathological Level of OVERLY TRUSTING BEHAVIOR” (Williams Syndrome) </li></ul>Could this be the result of a INCREASE in the ability of the OXYTOCIN released during “social interactions” to CREATE TOO STRONG of a “TRUST” response ???
  • 15. OXYTOCIN : ROLE in HUMAN “BONDING” PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS and BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS ASSOCIATED with DYSFUNCTION Within THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM <ul><li>LOW LEVELS of OXYTOCIN and ABNORMALITIES in the </li></ul><ul><li>OXYTOCIN Receptor System of the Mid-brain: </li></ul><ul><li> SEEN in Multiple Variations of AUTISM (both in Humans and in Primates) </li></ul>Could these various ABNORMALITIES of OXYTOCIN’s Ability to function PROPERLY be responsible for the --- Profound difficulties with “SOCIALIZATION” seen in many AUTISTIC individuals --- FAILURE to recognize and/or remember “SOCIAL CUES” seen in many AUTISTIC individuals --- HIGH LEVELS of “SOCIAL ANXIETY” and/or “SOCIAL AGGRESSION” seen in many AUTISTIC individuals --- POOR DEGREE of “Social Integration” (i.e. High Degree of Isolation / Internalization Behavior) that is seen in many AUTISTIC individuals ***VARIOUS ANIMAL MODELS that seem to REPLICATE the BEHAVIORAL DISTURBANCES of HUMAN AUTISM*** <ul><li>THE “OXYTOCIN KNOCK-OUT MOUSE” (OTKO Mouse) </li></ul><ul><li>--- A “GENETICALLY ENGINEERED” MOUSE SPECIES </li></ul><ul><li>that LACKS the GENE for PRODUCING OXYTOCIN , but </li></ul><ul><li>is OTHERWISE 100% Genetically Similar to the “WILD </li></ul><ul><li>TYPE” Original species. </li></ul><ul><li>THE MOUNTAIN VOLE </li></ul><ul><li>--- A Naturally occurring VOLE species that LACKS the </li></ul><ul><li>GENE for PRODUCING BRAIN OXYTOCIN RECEPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>but is 99.9% Genetically Similar to its Prairie Vole Cousin </li></ul>
  • 16. THE “OXYTOCIN KNOCK-OUT MOUSE” ***OTKO MOUSE*** GENETICALLY ALTERED MOUSE SPECIES That LACKS the GENE for PRODUCING OXYTOCIN INTERESTING SOCIAL TRAITS: --- PROMISCUOUS MATING BEHAVIOR --- AGGRESSIVE SOCIAL INTERACTIONS --- POOR “SOCIAL” RECALL, POOR RECOGNITION of SOCIAL CUES --- RAPID WEANING of PUPS (MINIMAL “BONDING” during BREAST- FEEDING) --- POOR PARENTING SKILLS (MINIMAL MATERNAL-NEWBORN BONDING ABILITIES) --- HIGH “ANXIETY” AND “SOCIAL FEAR” CHARACTERISTICS OXYTOCIN O NOW… WE have a MOUSE with OXYTOCIN THE OXYTOCIN-TREATED MOUSE Has the following “SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS” --- LESS PROMISCUOUS MATING BEHAVIOR --- LESS AGGRESSIVE, MORE “SOCIALLY APPROPRIATE” INTERACTIONS with OTHER MICE --- IMPROVED PARENTING SKILLS, LATER WEANING of PUPS --- IMPROVED “SOCIAL RECALL and RECOGNITION” --- LESS “SOCIAL ANXIETY and FEAR” OXYTOCIN  IMPROVES “SOCIAL BONDING”
  • 17. OXT IF WE THEN STUDY THE “ WILD-TYPE” (or naturally occurring) MOUSE SPECIES… WE FIND NORMAL LEVELS of CIRCULATING OXYTOCIN THIS “NORMAL” MOUSE DISPLAYS the FOLLOWING BEHAVIORAL TRAITS: --- NON-PROMISCUOUS MATING ACTIVITY --- MINIMAL SOCIAL AGGRESSION --- NORMAL SOCIAL MEMORY AND “SOCIAL CUE RECOGNITION” --- NORMAL MATERNAL-PUP WEANING ACTIVITY --- NORMAL PARENTING SKILLS IF THIS MOUSE IS THEN GIVEN AN INJECTION OF THE “OXYTOCIN BLOCKING ANTAGONIST” called ATOSIBAN …which ACTS by BLOCKING ALL of the RECEPTOR SITES for OXYTOCIN…essentially PREVENTING the Mouse from using its OWN OXYTOCIN OXT ATOSIBAN WE END UP “CREATING” AN EXACT REPLICA OF THAT “MEAN OLE” OXYTOCIN-KNOCKOUT MOUSE !!! BLOCKING THE OXYTOCIN—BLOCKS BONDING
  • 18. PRAIRIE VOLE MOUNTAIN VOLE LIVES in COMPLEXLY INTER-TWINED TUNNEL SYSTEM DESIGNED for INTRICATE SOCIAL BEHAVIOR LIVES in ISOLATED TUNNEL SYSTEM, with FEW CONNECTIONS, DESIGNED for LIMITED SOCIAL BEHAVIOR HIGHLY MONOGAMOUS MATING BEHAVIORS; MATE for LIFE HIGHLY PROMISCUOUS in MATING BEHAVIORS; MULTIPLE MATES HIGHLY COOPERATIVE SHARING of PARENTING RESPONSIBILITIES NO COOPERATIVE SHARING of PARENTING RESPONSIBILITIES PROLONGED PERIOD of MOTHER:PUP SUCKLING; LATE WEANING of PUPS BRIEF PERIOD of MOTHER:PUP SUCKLING; RAPID WEANING of PUPS
  • 19. PRAIRIE VOLE MOUNTAIN VOLE RELEASES LARGE AMOUNT of OXYTOCIN During COPULATION RELEASES LARGE AMOUNT of OXYTOCIN During COPULATION RELEASES LARGE AMOUNT of ENDORPHIN During COPULATION RELEASES LARGE AMOUNT of ENDORPHIN During COPULATION POWERFUL EFFECT of OXYTOCIN on BEHAVIORAL INTERACTIONS; ESPECIALLY in MATING MINIMAL EFFECT of OXYTOCIN on BEHAVIORAL INTERACTIONS; ESPECIALLY in MATING
  • 20. PRAIRIE VOLE EXPERIMENTS that DEMONSTRATE the EFFECTS of OXYTOCIN on “BONDING” BEHAVIORS ____________________________________________________ OXT MALE FEMALE in HEAT X ____________________________________________________ THE NEXT DAY X MULTIPLE FEMALES In HEAT MALE with OXYTOCIN O O
  • 21. ANOTHER EXPERIMENT On the EFFECT of OXYTOCIN in PRAIRIE VOLES MALE FEMALE in HEAT BLOOD SAMPLING REVEALS that BOTH MALE and FEMALE PRAIRIE VOLES RELEASE LARGE AMOUNTS of OXYTOCIN DURING COPULATION…AND SO…IN THEORY…BOTH PRAIRIE VOLES SHOULD HAVE DEVELOPED OXYTOCIN-BASED “ PAIR-BONDING” BEHAVIORS OXT
  • 22. IF WE THEN PLACE “BO” and “ND” into A CAGE THAT IS CROWDED WITH OTHER MALE VOLES and FEMALE VOLES (in heat)…WE CAN OBSERVE WHETHER OR NOT THEIR OXYTOCIN – BASED PAIR-BONDING BEHAVIOR is LASTING and REPRODUCABLE THE OXYTOCIN – BASED PAIR-BONDING BEHAVIOR IS INDEED REPRODUCABLE ***IT CAN ALSO BE DISRUPTED BY INJECTING THE VOLES WITH ATOSIBAN PRIOR TO COPULATION…THUS BLOCKING THE OXYTOCIN EFFECT !!! EVEN MORE PROOF THAT OXYTOCIN CREATES STRONG AND LASTING “PAIR-BONDING” OXT
  • 23. RESULTS of the SAME TWO EXPERIMENTS… with SIMILARLY TESTED MOUNTAIN VOLES EXPERIMENT # 1: MALE MOUNTAIN VOLE is GIVEN INJECTION of OXYTOCIN , THEN INTRODUCED to CAGED FEMALE (in heat) RESULT on NEXT DAY  RANDOM MATING ACTION NO BOND is FORMED !! EXPERIMENT # 2: MALE and FEMALE MOUNTAIN VOLES are ALLOWED TO COPULATE…BLOOD SAMPLES DEMONSTRATE SIMILAR LEVELS of OXYTOCIN are RELEASED RESULT on NEXT DAY  RANDOM MATING ACTION NO BOND is FORMED !! CONCLUSION: THE MOUNTAIN VOLE’S PAUCITY of OXYTOCIN RECEPTORS PREVENTS THE FORMATION of the OXYTOCIN – BASED “ PAIR-BONDING” BEHAVIOR
  • 24. IN ORDER TO FURTHER SUBSTANTIATE THE IMPORTANT ROLE of OXYTOCIN in THE FORMATION OF “PAIR-BONDING” BEHAVIOR within THE PRAIRIE VOLE …and also in THE ABSENCE of “PAIR-BONDING” BEHAVIOR within THE MOUNTAIN VOLE --- A FASCINATING EXPERIMENT involving GENETIC TRANSFER WAS CARRIED OUT BETWEEN THE TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF VOLES. INITIALLY, THE GENE FOR THE OXYTOCIN RECEPTOR WAS ISOLATED FROM within THE D.N.A. of THE PRAIRIE VOLE THEN…THIS GENE for The OXYTOCIN RECEPTOR Had to be TRANSFERRED into A VIRAL TRANSPORT UNIT… PRAIRIE VOLE
  • 25. NOW…THIS NEWLY CREATED “ VIRAL GENE TRANSFER UNIT” had to be “INFECTED” into A MOUNTAIN VOLE WELL…LET’S TEST IT OUT… HOW WILL THIS “GENETICALLY ALTERED” MOUNTAIN VOLE with OXYTOCIN RECEPTORS BEHAVE IN THE PRIOR EXPERIMENTS??? IN BOTH EXPERIMENTS, IT RESPONDED EXACTLY LIKE A PRAIRIE VOLE by FORMING STRONG and LASTING “PAIR-BONDS” after OXYTOCIN INJECTION and after COPULATION…and since the ONLY CHANGE WAS ITS ABILITY to USE MORE OXYTOCIN … OXYTOCIN MUST BE THE CHEMICAL FORCE BEHIND “PAIR-BONDING” FORMATION !!!! NOW THAT THE MOUNTAIN VOLE CAN UTILIZE ITS OXYTOCIN (because it has OXYTOCIN RECEPTORS )… “PAIR-BONDING” OCCURS
  • 26. Through Observation of the Abnormalities seen in Human Behavioral Disorders…and How these Changes seem to be associated with Corresponding Abnormalities and Dysfunctions within THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM … COMBINED with the studies of HOW OXYTOCIN FUNCTIONS in these unusual animal models Even MORE SUPPORT can now be added to the Theory that THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM is a MAJOR part of the “ FOUNDATION” of “HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
  • 27. OXYTOCIN : SEXUAL BEHAVIOR and ABSTINENCE IS OXYTOCIN INVOLVED IN “ SEX and LOVE”
  • 28. OXYTOCIN : SEXUAL BEHAVIOR and ABSTINENCE THE “CHEMISTRY” of SEXUAL ACTIVITY SEXUAL BEHAVIOR in HUMANS RELEASES a VAST ARRAY of CHEMICAL SIGNALS: --- NOR-EPINEPHRINE ...increases --- energy, focus muscle tension, heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and EXCITEMENT --- DOPAMINE …increases --- PLEASURE, Happiness, “fun”, and ENJOYMENT JUST like COCAINE --- ENDORPHINS (natural OPIATES)…creates Euphoria, “High” sensation, eliminates “pain”, dilates blood vessels JUST like HEROIN --- SEROTONIN …creates CALM, Relaxation Comfortable feelings, Warm flushes of Skin, as Serotonin decreases  HUNGER JUST like MARIJUANA NOW YOU CAN SEE WHY “SEXUAL ADDICTION” is SO DIFFICULT to OVERCOME !!
  • 29. Understanding some BASIC TERMS used in describing ADDICTIVE RESPONSES TOLERANCE --- PROLONGED EXPOSURE to a SUBSTANCE LEADS to a DECLINE in the RESPONSE ACHIEVED “per Unit” of the SUBSTANCE  CAUSED by “DOWN-REGULATION” of the TARGET CELL’S SURFACE RECEPTORS for the SUBSTANCE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 BALLS INITIAL RESPONSE = 8/8 100% WEEK #1 --- 6/8  75% Will need 125% of Initial Dose WEEK #2 --- 4/8  50% Will need 200% of Initial dose WEEK # 3 --- 2/8  25% Will need 400% of Initial dose
  • 30. Understanding some BASIC TERMS used in describing ADDICTIVE RESPONSES DEPENDANCE --- PROLONGED EXPOSURE to SUBSTANCE causes the Exposed CELL to undergo an array of INTRA-CELLULAR BIO-CHEMICAL CHANGES in an effort to ADAPT to the PERSISTANT PRESENCE of the SUBSTANCE…ONCE THESE ADAPTATIONS have occurred…the Cell begins to REQUIRE the ON-GOING EXPOSURE to the SUBSTANCE in order to maintain “ NORMAL” cellular functioning. In fact…IF the “ DEPENDANT” CELL is forced to experience a decreased level of exposure to the SUBSTANCE…the cell will begin to function improperly…the results of this DYSFUNCTION are termed “WITHDRAWAL REACTIONS” within the cell’s biology. IN ESSENCE…THE CELL’S INITIAL EXPOSURE TO THIS SUBSTANCE CAUSES    ABNORMAL REACTIONS WITHIN THE CELL… HOWEVER…DURING THE TIME OF PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO THE SUBSTANCE… THE CELL “LEARNS” HOW TO ADAPT TO THE ON-GOING PRESENCE OF THE SUBSTANCE WITHIN IT’S ENVIRONMENT … EVENTUALLY …THE CELL ACTUALLY COMES TO “NEED” THE FOREIGN SUBSTANCE IN ORDER TO REMAIN “NORMAL” … and THEN ANY ATTEMPTS TO “REMOVE” THE SUBSTANCE WILL GENERATE A NEW SET OF ABNORMALITIES known as “WITHDRAWAL SYNDROMES” THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT of DEPENDANCE… ABNORMAL becomes NORMAL…AND VICE VERSA !!!
  • 31. OXYTOCIN : SEXUAL BEHAVIOR and ABSTINENCE TYPES of BEHAVIORS seen WHEN “ NON-PATHOLOGICAL” SEXUAL BEHAVIOR begins to APPROACH the CHEMICAL RESPONSES experienced in “ADDICTIVE-TYPE” REACTIONS : --- “ SEXUAL BOREDOM ”…INDIVIDUALS begin to experience LOWER LEVELS of CHEMICAL RESPONSIVENESS after each “USE” of these “DRUGS”…SO the “highs” become LESS and LESS “high” over time.  CAUSED by DRUG TOLERANCE --- WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS …INDIVIDUALS may begin to experience a variety of DIFFERENT Internal Feelings that seem to create “PRESSURE” for them to engage in HIGHER RISK Behaviors…such as --- MORE “CREATIVE” SEXUAL ACTIVITY --- ACTIVITY that LINKS SEX to OTHER BEHAVIORS that PRODUCE “HIGHS” (Fear, Violence, Pornography, Fetishes) --- DESIRE to find (or quite possibly even engage in the use of) A NEW DRUG (Spouse Swapping, Affairs, “Clubbing”) --- IRRITABLE when access to sex is limited CAUSED by CHEMICAL DEPENDENCE IT SEEMS SAFE TO SAY THAT IF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IS ALLOWED TO OPERATE AT THE LEVEL OF “ NEAR-ADDICTION”… THEN IT WOULD BECOME QUITE AN OBSTACLE TO MAINTAINING SUCCESSFUL LONG-TERM RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PEOPLE !!
  • 32. OXYTOCIN : SEXUAL BEHAVIOR and ABSTINENCE SO…WHY DOESN’T EVERYONE DEVELOP “ SEXUAL ADDICTION” …and/or THESE DESTRUCTIVE “NEAR-ADDICTIVE” BEHAVIORS In their RELATIONSHIPS??? YOU GUESSED IT… HUMAN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR RELEASES LARGE AMOUNTS of OXYTOCIN !! STUDIES REVEAL THAT SEXUAL BEHAVIOR and ORGASM can cause an INCREASE in OXYTOCIN LEVELS between 400 – 800 % ABOVE NORMAL LEVELS !! JUST HOW DOES OXYTOCIN WORK in THE PREVENTION of the DEVELOPMENT of THIS PROCESS of “CHEMICAL ADDICTION” during SEXUAL ACTIVITY ?? --- HUMAN and MULTIPLE ANIMAL STUDIES have shown that OXYTOCIN has DIRECT and SUBSTANTIAL EFFECTS on the DEVELOPMENT of CHEMICAL TOLERANCE and in the EMERGENCE of CHEMICAL DEPENDENCE 1. OXYTOCIN CAN PREVENT THE DEVELOPMENT of OPIATE TOLERANCE within the ENDORPHIN SYSTEM 2. OXYTOCIN CAN PREVENT THE DEVELOPMENT of TOLERANCE to COCAINE (Nor-Epinephrine + Dopamine Systems) 3. OXYTOCIN CAN PREVENT THE DEVELOPMENT of TOLERANCE to ETHANOL (Opiate, GABA, Nor-Epinephrine, Serotonin and Dopamine Systems) OXYTOCIN PREVENTS CHEMICAL TOLERANCE !!
  • 33. OXYTOCIN : SEXUAL BEHAVIOR and ABSTINENCE 4. OXYTOCIN also REDUCES the effect of CHEMICAL DEPENDANCE within THE OPIATE SYSTEM 5. OXYTOCIN also ATTENUATES the SYMPTOMS of WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME within THE OPIATE SYSTEM AND SO…THE RELEASE of this LARGE AMOUNT of OXYTOCIN during sexual activity MAY HELP to PREVENT THE DEVELOPMENT of ADDICTIVE RESPONSES to THE MULTIPLE “ADDICTIVE” CHEMICALS INVOLVED in HUMAN SEXUAL ACTIVITY OXYTOCIN MAY TURN SEXUAL ACTIVITY into ONE of the MOST INFLUENTIAL BEHAVIORS in the Creation of “BONDING” in Human Relationships because: HUMAN SEXUAL ACTIVITY “IDEALLY” INVOLVES: --- “Warm Body Contact” (aka “hugs”)   OXYTOCIN --- Positive Social Interactions   OXYTOCIN --- An Opportunity for “Trust” and “ Trust-worthiness” to occur   OXYTOCIN AND… --- Skin-to-Skin Contact  ALLOWS AND… OXYTOCIN to work --- A Chemical “ Triple Drug High ”  Cocaine; Heroin and Marijuana That doesn’t develop into ADDICTION because THE OXYTOCIN  PREVENTS Tolerance and Dependence As you get “High”… You just keep BONDING and BONDING and BONDING …
  • 34. WHEN RELATIONSHIPS FAIL… INJURING THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM RELATIONSHIP FAILURE can produce a significant reaction involving a MULTITUDE of EMOTIONAL responses --- “PAIN”  Sadness, Sorrow, Regret, Humiliation, --- “ANGER”  Resentment, Revenge, Abandonment --- “DEPRESSION”  “Internalized Anger”, Loneliness, Grief --- “BETRAYAL”  Violated Trust, Loss of Self-Esteem FAILURE involving Sexual Relationships seems to worsen many of these NEGATIVE EMOTIONAL responses… Which all involve “ experiencing PAIN ” on some level Just like all HUMAN EMOTIONS…these “feelings” occur as the result of complex CHEMICAL REACTIONS within the BRAIN’S NEURO-TRANSMITTER SYSTEM Experiencing EMOTIONAL PAIN causes the brain to RELEASE “NATURAL PAIN KILLERS” known as ENDORPHINS , which have a PROFOUND IMPACT on The OXYTOCIN System ENDORPHINS (naturally occurring Human Opiates) : --- INHIBIT PRODUCTION of OXYTOCIN by the cell AND… --- PREVENT RELEASE of OXYTOCIN from the cell ***WHEN CIRCULATING LEVELS of ENDORPHINS are ELEVATED …THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM is SIGNIFICANTLY LESS ACTIVE…IT BECOMES DYSFUNCTIONAL !!!***
  • 35. OPIATES and THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM : MULTIPLE STUDIES in HUMANS and ANIMALS: --- MORPHINE reduces OXYTOCIN in Breast-feeding Mothers 1. Studies report lower levels of lactation ability ( less OXT ) 2. Studies suggest Opiate use adversely affects Maternal- Newborn “Bonding” during Breast-feeding ( less OXT ) --- OPIATES reduce OXYTOCIN during Childbirth Labor: 1. Morphine (and other synthetic narcotics) can stop Uterine contractions in early Human Labor by reducing Maternal OXYTOCIN levels 2. Opiate use for Pain Management (epidural use included) prior to the Transitional Phase of Labor can result in the need for Pitocin (synthetic medical Oxytocin) Augmentation of Uterine Contractions because of reduced levels of Maternal OXYTOCIN 3. Beta-Endorphin levels increase during Uterine Contractions causing Maternal OXYTOCIN levels to decline …allowing for the “rest period” between Labor Contractions. As the Pain subsides, the Endorphin levels decline …leading to “ permission” for the OXYTOCIN to be produced again. Similar findings are seen in Pigs, Cows, Monkeys, and Rodents …Opiates interfere with Labor by reducing Maternal OXYTOCIN Related Animal Findings: --- Opiates reduce Milk Production in Milking Cows ( less OXT ) --- Morphine impairs Maternal-pup care-giving in rodents ( less OXT ) --- Opiates lead to rapid weaning of pups in rodents ( less OXT ) HIGH LEVELS of CIRCULATING OPIATES RESULT in REDUCED PRODUCTION of OXYTOCIN IN LABOR and during BREAST-FEEDING
  • 36. --- OPIATES suppress the OXYTOCIN release of Orgasm in both males and females in study settings (when Opiates were given prior to masturbation) --- similar findings are seen in multiple Animal Models (rodents, sheep, monkeys, Higher Primates) OPIATES and THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM : --- OPIATES injected into Brain Tissue (rodents, sheep, monkeys) cause a reduction in Brain OXYTOCIN levels 1. Opiates impair social interactions and social recognition behavior ( less OXT ) 2. Opiates increase social aggression and diminish social skills ( less OXT ) SO…at least in Animal Models, the ability of OPIATES to reduce OXYTOCIN LEVELS seems to have Ramifications during “SOCIAL BONDING” as well. DO OPIATES HAVE AN IMPACT on OXYTOCIN PRODUCTION / RELEASE DURING HUMAN SEXUAL ACTIVITY ?? IMPORTANT QUESTIONS: --- HOW DOES THIS OPIATE INDUCED SUPPRESSION of THE OXYTOCIN RESPONSE AFFECT SEXUALLY- RELATED “BONDING” BEHAVIOR ? (ANIMAL MODELS) --- DOES THE “TIMING” OF OPIATE EXPOSURE DURING SEXUAL ACTIVITY PLAY A ROLE IN ITS INFLUENCE ON THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM ? (ANIMAL MODELS, INDIRECT OBSERVATION STUDY IN WOMEN) --- SINCE SEXUAL ACTIVITY RELEASES LARGE LEVELS of ENDORPHINS at ORGASM…WOULDN’T THESE OPIATES BE EXPECTED TO INTERFERE WITH OXYTOCIN’S RELEASE DURING SEX…AND THUS CREATE A DILEMMA WHEREBY “SEX INHIBITS OXYTOCIN-BASED BONDING” BY REDUCING THE AVAILABLE OXYTOCIN ?
  • 37. H.B.O. for MICE : SEX IN THE CITY TIMING of OPIATE EXPOSURE  EFFECT on OXYTOCIN and SEXUAL BEHAVIORS MORPHINE GIVEN to MALE MOUSE (3 intervals): DAILY for 3-DAYS BEFORE SEX AFTER SEX DURING SEX SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED OXYTOCIN LEVELS MODESTLY REDUCED OXYTOCIN LEVELS NO EFFECT ON OXYTOCIN SEEKS + INITIATES SEXUAL ACTIVITY  SAME as before LOSES INTEREST during SEX + FAILS to COMPLETE act of COPULATION MARKED REDUCTION in MATE“BONDING” …DOES NOT show any preference to Female the next day EVIDENCE of LOWER OXYTOCIN SEEKS + INITIATES SEXUAL ACTIVITY  with SOME partner preference bias LOSES SOME INTEREST during SEX + COMPLETES act of COPULATION MORE QUICKLY MILD REDUCTION in MATE“BONDING” …DOES show SOME preference for Female the next day EVIDENCE of MOD. LOWER OXYTOCIN NO CHANGE IN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR prior to OR during SEXUAL ACTIVITY PREFERS SAME FEMALE as MATE the next day – BONDS FULL OXYTOCIN BONDING EFFECTS are seen
  • 38. IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN COMPARISONS of these observations in Mice SCENARIO # 1: --- An individual in “ chronic emotional pain” could mimic the state of ELEVATED ENDORPHINS prior to engaging in Sexual Behaviors (Mouse experiment #1) <ul><li>Continues to SEEK sexual activity (keeps bar-hopping) </li></ul><ul><li>Initiates Sexual Behavior as before (gets partner into the bed) </li></ul><ul><li>Bored with activity before it even ends (Beige…Beige) </li></ul><ul><li>Fails to develop “bonds” with partner (still looking for Mr. Right) </li></ul>SCENARIO # 2: --- An individual in “ modest emotional pain” could mimic the state of ELEVATED ENDORPHINS while engaging in Sexual Behaviors (Mouse experiment #2) <ul><li>SEEK sexual activity with some partner bias (slows bar-hopping) </li></ul><ul><li>Initiates Sexual Behavior as before (gets partner into the bed) </li></ul><ul><li>Bored with activity but manages to complete it (Faster…Faster) </li></ul><ul><li>Partially develops “bonds” with partner (could this be Mr. Right ?) </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually develops “Withdrawal + Tolerance” Behaviors which </li></ul><ul><li>contribute to Relationship Failure (It just wasn’t meant to be) </li></ul>SCENARIO # 3: --- An individual in “ no emotional pain” could mimic the state of ELEVATED ENDORPHINS after engaging in Sexual Behaviors (Mouse experiment #3) <ul><li>SEEKS sexual activity ONLY with same partner (no bar-hopping) </li></ul><ul><li>Initiates Sexual Behavior ONLY with same partner (Bonded) </li></ul><ul><li>Remains Engaged in Sexual activity (Slower…Slower) </li></ul><ul><li>Develops “bonds” with partner (this is Mr. Right ) </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually develops “Intimacy” Behaviors which </li></ul><ul><li>contribute to Relationship Success (Together Forever) </li></ul>OXYTOCIN released BEFORE opiates  Prevents “ADDICTION” responses of Tolerance and Withdrawal
  • 39. HUMANS: RELATIONSHIP FAILURE, OXYTOCIN , and BONDING  A STUDY of WOMEN in CALIFORNIA OXYTOCIN RESPONSES in (3) SETTINGS: SETTING GROUP A GROUP B 1. MASSAGE  OXYTOCIN  OXYTOCIN <ul><li>(+) STIMULI  OXYTOCIN  OXYTOCIN </li></ul><ul><li>on Relationships </li></ul>3. (-) STIMULI  OXYTOCIN  OXYTOCIN on Relationships <ul><li>Group A Characteristics: (+) OXT Response  “Bonding” </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal History of “Failed Relationships” </li></ul><ul><li>Normal Self-Esteem, Normal Self-Confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed Relationships as “a good thing”, “safe”, “desired” </li></ul><ul><li>Were likely to be involved in Stable, Long-term Relationships, were “happy” in Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Basically could be viewed as “UN-INJURED” by prior Relationship Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Group B Characteristics: NO OXT Response  “NO Bonding” </li></ul><ul><li>Significant History of “Failed Relationships” </li></ul><ul><li>LOW Self-Esteem, LOW Self-Confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed Relationships as “a RISKY thing”, “UN-safe”, “desired, but also skeptical of possible success” </li></ul><ul><li>Were likely to be involved in either NO Relationship or an UN-stable, Long-term Relationships, were </li></ul><ul><li>“ UN-happy” in Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Basically could be viewed as “INJURED” by prior Relationship Experiences </li></ul>
  • 40. HUMANS: RELATIONSHIP FAILURE, OXYTOCIN , and BONDING  A STUDY of WOMEN in CALIFORNIA INFERENCE of this STUDY: RELATIONSHIP FAILURE PAIN ELEVATED ENDORPHINS LOWER OXYTOCIN LESS ABILITY TO BOND DRUG TOLERANCE PAIN SEEK RELIEF of PAIN SEX for COMFORT CHEMICAL “ NEAR-ADDICTION” REACTION with SEX (Boredom + Withdrawal) 1 2 1-2 FAIL VICIOUS CYCLES of FAILURE …and its in the CHEMISTRY
  • 41. We can now surmise that the OPIATE RESPONSE seen in “CHRONIC EMOTIONAL PAIN” can seriously disrupt the development of the OXYTOCIN-BASED FOUNDATION of “ HUMAN RELATIONSHIP BONDING”
  • 42. ACUTELY RELEASED OPIATES  REDUCE OXYTOCIN PRODUCTION… but does not affect OXYTOCIN RELEASE OPIATES and OXYTOCIN CHRONIC OPIATE EXPOSURE  allows OXYTOCIN Production … BUT PREVENTS RELEASE of OXYTOCIN OPIATE EFFECT ON THE BODY… AFTER OXYTOCIN RELEASE  … CONTINUES TO HAVE FULL OPIATE POTENCY because OXT prevents the development of OPIATE Tolerance (down-regulation) by CELLS involved Let’s look at this relationship between OPIATES and OXYTOCIN Within the context of CHILDBIRTH LABOR… FACTS: OXYTOCIN  UTERINE CONTRACTIONS CONTRACTIONS  PAIN PAIN  OPIATE RELEASE (Endorphins)
  • 43. OXYTOCIN CONTRACTION PAIN OPIATE RELEASE “ Δ ”+ “ Κ ” Opiate Receptors REDUCE OXYTOCIN Production DIMINISHES CONTRACTION REDUCES PAIN LESS OXYTOCIN For RELEASE STOPS OPIATE RELEASE OXYTOCIN Production RESUMES MORE OXYTOCIN FOR RELEASE
  • 44. NOW…LET’S SEE ABOUT OXYTOCIN and OPIATES in the CONTEXT of a RELATIONSHIP POSITIVE SOCIAL CONTACT HUGS + SEXUAL ACTIVITY (IN EARLY STAGES OF THE RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPMENT) RELEASE OXYTOCIN IMPROVES TRUST REDUCES ANXIETY LESS FEAR LOWER STRESS MEMORY Air-Brush RAPID RELATIONSHIP BONDING EVENTUAL EXPOSURE of POOR RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPMENT PAIN OPIATE RELEASE “ Δ ” + “ Κ ” Opiate Receptors REDUCE OXYTOCIN Production LESS OXYTOCIN For RELEASE LESS OXYTOCIN LESS TRUST MORE FEAR MORE ANXIETY HIGHER STRESS LESS BONDING RELATIONSHIP FAILURE
  • 45. IF THIS CYCLE of RELATIONSHIP FAILURE repeats often enough…and you continue to use “attempts at soothing your pain through Sexual Behavior that does not produce enough OXYTOCIN…then… REPEATED RELATIONSHIP FAILURE CHRONIC EMOTIONAL PAIN CHRONIC OPIATE RELEASE “ μ ” Receptors Suppress OXYTOCIN RELEASE NO OXYTOCIN RELEASED <ul><li>LOSE ABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>to TRUST </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t BOND </li></ul><ul><li>More Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>More Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Less Socially </li></ul><ul><li>Secure </li></ul>Chemicals of SEX Become “addictive” --- Tolerance --- Dependence --- Withdrawal DEVELOP BEHAVIORS That Damage your Relationships…causing Them to fail again
  • 46. LESS OXYTOCIN for RELEASE REDUCES OXYTOCIN Production RELEASES OPIATES PAIN TIME To HEAL <ul><li>Address Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>that created Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Recover from loss </li></ul><ul><li>of Trust + Betrayal </li></ul><ul><li>Change “relief – </li></ul><ul><li>seeking” activity </li></ul><ul><li>Work to lower the </li></ul><ul><li>risk of repeat pain </li></ul><ul><li>Grow-up spiritually </li></ul><ul><li>+ emotionally </li></ul>MORE TIME <ul><li>Restore areas of Healthy </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bonding” in your life </li></ul><ul><li>Make / Keep Commitments </li></ul>ELIMINATE OPIATES REPAIR OXYTOCIN SYSTEM  Resume Production + Allow Release again ABLE TO BOND ONCE AGAIN
  • 47. In Summary…we can see that the many studies of Humans, rodents, primates, and other mammals suggest that… OXYTOCIN <ul><li>Exists at HIGHER LEVELS during the crucial times of establishing relationships that are KEY to the survival of the species involved: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>at the point of Delivery of a newborn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>during the Breast-feeding of a newborn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>during Mating Activity and Mate selection behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>during activities involving Parenting of offspring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Exists in HIGHER LEVELS during interactions that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are designed to solidify the basic foundational elements of relationships: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to enhance TRUST and TRUST-WORTHINESS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to reduce STRESS, FEAR, and ANXIETY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to enhance POSITIVE MEMORY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to reduce Social Aggression and Isolation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to enhance Relationship “BONDING” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Exists at HIGHER LEVELS during the most intimate and most vulnerable points within the development of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inter-personal relations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>during Sexual Activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>during Orgasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>during Post-sex mating selection activity </li></ul></ul></ul>OXYTOCIN appears to be intimately linked to many of the behaviors that lead to the development of: STRONG…SECURE…TRUSTING…INTIMATE…SAFE… CARING…POSITIVE…LONG-LASTING…and “BONDED” RELATIONSHIPS
  • 48. FURTHERMORE…it appears equally clear that conditions that result in the creation of PAIN … whether Physical or Emotional… SEVERELY DISRUPT the ability of THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM to function in its ability to establish “ BONDED RELATIONSHIPS”… regardless of the species involved in the discussion If we are to see any type of real improvement in our present trend towards an ever-increasing level of RELATIONSHIP FAILURE and DYSFUNCTION… Then we must strive to address the behaviors that seem clearly associated with the risk of creating unnecessary and unwanted physical or emotional PAIN in our lives and in our relationships. ABSTINENCE from Sexual Activity until Marriage offers a clear choice that serves to reduce the level of risk associated with participating in Sexually-Charged behavior during the instability of non-committed relationships
  • 49. ABSTINENCE from Sexual Activity until Marriage may not offer a “perfect solution” for the Pain associated with Relationship Failure… BUT… ABSTINENCE from Sexual Activity until Marriage does allow for --- <ul><li>Clearer assessment of the stability of a Relationship BEFORE releasing the CHEMICAL BONDING effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of OXYTOCIN that are associated with Sexual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of the HIGHER LEVELS of Emotional PAIN that are OFTEN associated with RELATIONSHIP FAILURE in the context of on-going Sexual Activity </li></ul><ul><li>(where one is more likely to experience Shame, Rejection, Betrayal, and Guilt) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of the HIGHER LEVELS of Physical and/or Emotional RISK that are OFTEN associated with the HIGHER RISK of acquiring an STD or experiencing an UNWANTED PREGNANCY in the context of a “casual” relationship involving on-going Sexual Activity --- These experiences are TYPICALLY associated with the development of Physical or Emotional PAIN for the people involved </li></ul><ul><li>EXPERIENCING LESS PAIN </li></ul><ul><li> FEWER OPIATES RELEASED </li></ul><ul><li> LESS INTERFERENCE with OXYTOCIN FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>LESS DISTURBANCE in your ability TO BOND !! </li></ul><ul><li>MORE SUCCESSFUL LONG-TERM RELATIONSHIPS </li></ul>
  • 50. WHEN IT COME TO THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM The familiar saying of “No Pain…No Gain” should be altered to say… NO PAIN… GREAT GAIN !!! OXT PROTECT YOUR “BONDING” !!! AVOID CASUAL SEX !!!
  • 51. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO HAVE A CD-ROM COPY of this POWER-POINT PRESENTATION on OXYTOCIN and BONDING … PLEASE SEND: 1. YOUR FULL NAME 2. YOUR U.S.P.S. MAILING ADDRESS And 3. YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS TO: U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MAILING ADDRESS ERIC KEROACK, M.D. 103 BROADWAY REVERE, MA. 02151 OR EMAIL ADDRESS (case sensitive)--- [email_address]
  • 52. A SIMPLE and EFFECTIVE WAY to DEMONSTRATE THE “OXYTOCIN THEORY” … THE “DUCT TAPE ROUTINE” ALL YOU NEED IS: (1)--- A STRIP OF SILVER “DUCT TAPE” (2)--- A “HAIRY” HUMAN ARM WELL…MAYBE NOT QUITE THIS HAIRY…BUT YOU GET THE POINT !! LET’S GET STARTED…
  • 53. (1) …TEAR OFF A STRIP OF DUCT TAPE…and then ---EXPLAIN THAT---THE DUCT TAPE REPRESENTS YOUR BRAIN… ---AND THE STICKY SIDE REPRESENTS THE OXYTOCIN …WHICH CAN “BOND” YOU TO WHATEVER YOU CHOOSE TO CONNECT TO <ul><li>… PRESS THE TAPE ONTO THE “HAIRY” FOREARM… </li></ul><ul><li>WHICH REPRESENTS “BONDING” THROUGH THE </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL CONTACT OF SEXUAL ACTIVITY. </li></ul>THEN…ASK THE PERSON… WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF YOU LEAVE THIS TAPE ON THERE FOR GOOD??? ANSWER---IT WILL EVENTUALLY FELL LIKE IT HAS “ BECOME” A PART OF YOU…YOU WILL BEGIN TO ACT LIKE YOU AND THE TAPE ARE NOW “ ONE ENTITY”…WHICH IS THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF SUCCESSFUL RELATIONSHIPS
  • 54. (3) --- THEN EXPLAIN THAT IF THE RELATIONSHIP FAILS…AND YOU NEED TO BREAK-UP…YOU WILL NEED TO “RIP” THE TAPE OFF OF YOUR HAIRY ARM OUCH !! (4) --- OUCH !!...THIS WILL SURELY CAUSE PAIN… BUT IT DOES SO MUCH MORE… <ul><li>--- THE TORN OFF HAIRS REMAIN ATTACHED </li></ul><ul><li> TO THE TAPE…THUS REPRESENTING THE </li></ul><ul><li> “ PERMANENT IMPRINT” OF THIS PERSON </li></ul><ul><li> IN YOUR BRAIN’S MEMORY </li></ul>B. --- SOME OF THE TAPE’S “STICKINESS” WILL BE GONE…SO IT WON’T “BOND” AS WELL WHEN YOU ATTEMPT TO USE IT AGAIN… C. --- THE ATTACHED HAIRS (THE MEMORY THAT IMPRINTED) WILL BECOME A PART OF YOUR NEXT “BOND”…AND THEY WILL INTERFERE WITH THIS “BONDING” PROCESS.
  • 55. EVENTUALLY…AFTER A SERIES OF FAILED RELATIONSHIPS…YOUR “TAPE” WILL HAVE LOST ALMOST ALL OF ITS ABILITY TO STICK…WHICH REPRESENTS THE LOSS OF YOUR ABILITY TO “ SUCCESSFULLY BOND” IN FUTURE RELATIONSHIPS AND…YOUR “TAPE” WILL BE COVERED WITH ALL KINDS of HAIRS…REPRESENTING AN OVER-LOAD of “MEMORY IMPRINTS”…THAT WILL FURTHER AFFECT YOUR ABILITY TO “SUCCESSFULLY BOND” IN FUTURE RELATIONSHIPS… BASICALLY, YOU WILL END UP DAMAGING YOUR BRAIN’S ABILITY TO USE THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM AS A CHEMICAL MECHANISM THAT SERVES TO HELP YOU “ SUCCESSFULLY BOND” IN FUTURE RELATIONSHIPS… THE RESULTING DAMAGE TO YOUR BRAIN’S OXYTOCIN BONDING SYSTEM CAN CREATE A NEVER-ENDING CYCLE OF RELATIONSHIP FAILURES and OTHER TYPES of HEART-ACHES THAT CAN SERIOUSLY LIMIT YOUR ABILITY TO BE HAPPY IN YOUR LIFE FURTHERMORE, THE “CHRONIC PAIN” CREATED BY THE REPEATED FAILURE OF RELATIONSHIPS WILL “KICK IN” YOUR “ENDORPHIN / OPIATE SYSTEM”…WHICH WILL ALSO CONTRIBUTE TO DAMAGING YOUR BRAIN’S ABILITY TO UTILIZE YOUR CHEMICAL OXYTOCIN BONDING SYSTEM
  • 56. RECEPTORS AXON SYNAPTIC JUNCTION   OXYTOCIN CELL BODY
  • 57. OXYTOCIN FACTORY OXYTOCIN gets PREPARED for TRANSPORT DOWN the AXON OXYTOCIN CELL
  • 58. OXYTOCIN THEN TRAVELS DOWN AXONAL TUBULES STORED at AXONAL FOOT in PACKETS AWAITING A “RELEASE” SIGNAL AXONAL ARM AXONAL FOOT TRANSPORT TUBULES 
  • 59. SYNAPTIC JUNCTION A X O N RECEPTOR CELL OXYTOCIN
  • 60. THE UNIQUE NATURE of EACH INDIVIDUAL RECEPTOR SITE ALLOWS VARIOUS CHEMICALS to INFLUENCE the OXYTOCIN CELL THE OXYTOCIN CELL’S ACTIVITY Is AFFECTED by A LARGE NUMBER Of CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES EACH CHEMICAL HAS ITS OWN UNIQUE RECEPTOR SITE OXYTOCIN CELL
  • 61. BRIEF LIST of THINGS that are KNOWN to INFLUENCE the ACTIVITY of THE OXYTOCIN CELL <ul><li>INHIBIT PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>or RELEASE of </li></ul><ul><li>OXYTOCIN </li></ul><ul><li>ENDORPHINS </li></ul><ul><li>NARCOTICS:OPIATES </li></ul><ul><li>NOR-EPINEPHRINE </li></ul><ul><li>CORTISOL; ACTH </li></ul><ul><li>TESTOSTERONE </li></ul><ul><li>G.A.B.A. </li></ul><ul><li>SEROTONIN </li></ul>MOST of the PEPTIDES, NEURO-TRANSMITTERS, HORMONES, and OTHER CHEMICALS NEEDED for the PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE to STRESS or to PAIN TEND to ACT to SUPPRESS the RELEASE or PRODUCTION of OXYTOCIN in HUMANS <ul><li>ENHANCE PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>or RELEASE of </li></ul><ul><li>OXYTOCIN </li></ul><ul><li>DOPAMINE </li></ul><ul><li>ESTROGEN </li></ul><ul><li>PROGESTERONE </li></ul><ul><li>WARM/SOOTHING </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL TOUCH </li></ul><ul><li>APOMORPHINE </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL CONTACT </li></ul><ul><li>TRUST </li></ul>MOST of the CHEMICALS that are INVOLVED with BEHAVIORS that are NON-STRESSFUL and/or PLEASURABLE TEND to ACT to STIMULATE The RELEASE or PRODUCTION of OXYTOCIN in HUMANS
  • 62. SUMMARY of FUNCTIONAL MECHANISMS of the OXYTOCIN CELL <ul><li> SITE OF OXYTOCIN </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION “FACTORY” </li></ul><ul><li>  “ PREP SITE” of OXYTOCIN </li></ul><ul><li>to be TRANSPORTED </li></ul>  OXYTOCIN then TRANSPORTED DOWN AXON OXYTOCIN STORED AWAITING RELEASE RECEPTORS on OXYTOCIN CELL for CHEMICALS THAT INFLUENCE OXYTOCIN PRODUCTION and RELEASE PRODUCTION PHASE TRANSPORT PHASE
  • 63. OXYTOCIN : ROLE in HUMAN “BONDING” PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS and BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS ASSOCIATED with DYSFUNCTION Within THE OXYTOCIN SYSTEM Before we examine these Animal Models in detail… Here are some additional examples of OXYTOCIN”s Potential Role in the Dynamics of Developmental Psycho-Pathology <ul><li>Chronic Exposure of Mice to PCP creates EXTREME </li></ul><ul><li>DISTURBANCES in “Social Interaction” (i.e. similar to those seen in Schizophrenia in Humans) </li></ul><ul><li> CREATES Marked DECREASE in OXYTOCIN Production </li></ul><ul><li> CREATES Marked DISTURBANCE in OXYTOCIN Receptor </li></ul><ul><li>Binding in The AMYGDALA </li></ul>ALL of these Abnormalities can be REVERSED by the Injection of OXYTOCIN into the mouse’s Brain <ul><li>COCAINE USE in the 24-hour period before giving birth </li></ul><ul><li>DECREASED OXYTOCIN LEVELS in Women (this is also </li></ul><ul><li>seen in multiple animal models): </li></ul><ul><li> INCREASED MATERNAL Hostility </li></ul><ul><li> INCREASED MATERNAL Social Avoidance + Depressed Mood </li></ul><ul><li> INCREASED MATERNAL Neglect of Newborn </li></ul><ul><li>ABERRANT CHILD-REARING ENVIRONMENTS (involving </li></ul><ul><li>extreme neglect of Care-giving) RESULTS in MAJOR </li></ul><ul><li>and PERVASIVE Disturbances in Mid-brain OXYTOCIN </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEM: </li></ul><ul><li> ASSOCIATED with PROFOUND Social and Emotional </li></ul><ul><li> Disturbances (Poor Socialization, Overt Anxiety + Fear </li></ul><ul><li> in Social Settings, Autistic-level Isolation responses, </li></ul><ul><li> Social Aggression, OCD, Self-destructive Behaviors, </li></ul><ul><li> Inability to Trust or “Bond”. (Rhesus Monkeys; Humans) </li></ul>
  • 64. HOW OPIATES INFLUENCE THE OXYTOCIN CELL INTERNAL OPIATES  ENDORPHINS RELEASED BY --- PAIN, STARVATION, STRENUOUS EXERCISE, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, SPICEY FOODS, ORGASM, … as well as OTHER THINGS EXTERNAL OPIATES  NARCOTICS EXAMPLES --- MORPHINE, HEROIN, CODEINE OXYCONTIN, PERCOCET, …as well as MANY OTHERS OPIATES ACT THROUGH BINDING WITH VARIOUS RECEPTORS ON THE SURFACE OF THE OXYTOCIN CELL THERE ARE (3) SPECIFIC TYPES OF OPIATE RECEPTORS ON THE SURFACE OF THE OXYTOCIN CELL --- DELTA --- INHIBITS OXYTOCIN PRODUCTION --- KAPPA --- INHIBITS OXYTOCIN PRODUCTION --- Mu --- INHIBITS OXYTOCIN RELEASE THE CONCEPT of OPIATE TOLERANCE PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE in the FUNCTIONING of THE OXYTOCIN CELL
  • 65. OPIATE TOLERANCE OPIATE MOLECULE ACTING at DELTA or KAPPA RECEPTOR OPIATES that ACT on DELTA and KAPPA SITES “TELL” THE CELL to STOP PRODUCING OXYTOCIN --- WITHOUT THIS STOP SIGNAL , THE CELL WOULD INHERENTLY CONTINUE PRODUCING OXYTOCIN to SEND DOWN the AXON for STORAGE at the FOOT EVENTUALLY, MOST of THE DELTA and KAPPA OPIATE RECEPTORS WILL GET BROKEN OFF (a process known as receptor “down-regulation”)…SO THE OPIATES WILL NO LONGER BE ABLE TO STOP the PRODUCTION of OXYTOCIN in this way THE OPIATE HAS NO WAY TO ENTER THE CELL…SO NOW IT CANNOT STOP THE PRODUCTION of OXYTOCIN
  • 66. SO…DESPITE THE CONTINUED PRESENCE of OPIATES in its ENVIRONMENT… THE OXYTOCIN CELL will Return to state of PRODUCING OXYTOCIN And PREPARING it for TRANSPORT DOWN The axon…where it can Then be RELEASED. BECAUSE of the effects of OPIATE TOLERANCE, These OPIATES can no longer SUPPRESS the Production of OXYTOCIN by the Cell’s factory But…something amazing then occurs in the cell under the influence of this CHRONIC OPIATE EXPOSURE … The “ DOWN REGULATION ” of the Delta and Kappa receptors…stimulates the emergence of a NEW OPIATE RECEPTOR…the MU receptor… OXT OXT OXT OXT
  • 67. And these new “MU RECEPTORS” begin to “sprout up” along the AXONAL ARM…through a process known as “ UP-REGULATION” This creates a new RECEPTOR SITE for the existing OPIATES to land on…and to create a whole new type of INFLUENCE…OPIATES WILL NOW BLOCK THE TRANSPORT of THE PRODUCED OXYTOCIN down the axonal arm…
  • 68. As the OXYTOCIN begins to be Transported down the AXONAL ARM… The Chronically Existing OPIATES will land on these new “MU” RECEPTORS… AND STOP THE OXYTOCIN FROM BEING MOVED INTO ITS RELEASE SPOT AT THE FOOT THE OPIATES PREVENT THE OXYTOCIN RELEASE

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