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Measurements
 

Measurements

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    Measurements Measurements Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Physical or Chemical? A physical change does not alter the composition or identity of a substance. A chemical change alters the composition or identity of the substance(s) involved. 1.6 ice melting sugar dissolving in water hydrogen burns in air to form water
    • An extensive property of a material depends upon how much matter is being considered. An intensive property of a material does not depend upon how much matter is is being considered.
      • mass
      • length
      • volume
      • density
      • temperature
      • color
      Extensive and Intensive Properties 1.6
      • Mixtures
      • Heterogeneous mixtures are not uniform throughout.
      • Homogeneous mixtures are uniform throughout.
      • Homogeneous mixtures are called solutions.
      • Separation of Mixtures
      • Mixtures can be separated if their physical properties are different.
      • Solids can be separated from liquids by means of filtration .
      • The solid is collected in filter paper, and the solution, called the filtrate, passes through the filter paper and is collected in a flask.
      Properties of Matter
      • Separation of Mixtures
      • Homogeneous liquid mixtures can be separated by distillation .
      • Distillation requires the different liquids to have different boiling points.
      • In essence, each component of the mixture is boiled and collected.
      • The lowest boiling fraction is collected first.
      Properties of Matter
    • Separation of Mixtures
      • Separation of Mixtures
      • Chromatography can be used to separate mixtures that have different abilities to adhere to solid surfaces.
      • The greater the affinity the component has for the surface (paper) the slower it moves.
      • The greater affinity the component has for the liquid, the faster it moves.
      • Chromatography can be used to separate the different colors of inks in a pen.
      Properties of Matter
    •  
    • CHEMISTRY is…
      • C –come on!
      • H – hahahaha…
      • E – energy and electrons?
      • M – matter and molecules?
      • I – international system of units and ionic bond?
      • S – scientific method and significant figures ?
      • T- they are just
      • R – relaxing topics!!!
      • Y – yahooo… 
      Dioneda, Ingua, de Mesa
      • SI Units
      • There are two types of units:
        • fundamental (or base) units;
        • derived units.
      • There are 7 base units in the SI system.
      Units of Measurement
    • 1.7
    • 1.7
    • Volume – SI derived unit for volume is cubic meter (m 3 ) 1 L = 1000 mL = 1000 cm 3 = 1 dm 3 1 mL = 1 cm 3 1.7
    • Density – SI derived unit for density is kg/m 3 1 g/cm 3 = 1 g/mL = 1000 kg/m 3 1.7 m = d x V = 21.5 g/cm 3 x 4.49 cm 3 = 96.5 g density = mass volume d = m V A piece of platinum metal with a density of 21.5 g/cm 3 has a volume of 4.49 cm 3 . What is its mass? d = m V
    • K = 0 C + 273.15 1.7 273 K = 0 0 C 373 K = 100 0 C 32 0 F = 0 0 C 212 0 F = 100 0 C 0 F = x 0 C + 32 9 5
    • Convert 172.9 0 F to degrees Celsius. 1.7 0 F = x 0 C + 32 9 5 0 F – 32 = x 0 C 9 5 x ( 0 F – 32) = 0 C 9 5 0 C = x ( 0 F – 32) 9 5 0 C = x (172.9 – 32) = 78.3 9 5
    • 1.8 Scientific Notation 6.022 x 10 23 1.99 x 10 -23 N x 10 n N is a number between 1 and 10 n is a positive or negative integer The number of atoms in 12 g of carbon: 602,200,000,000,000,000,000,000 The mass of a single carbon atom in grams: 0.0000000000000000000000199
    • Scientific Notation 1.8 568.762 n > 0 568.762 = 5.68762 x 10 2 0.00000772 n < 0 0.00000772 = 7.72 x 10 -6 Addition or Subtraction
      • Write each quantity with the same exponent n
      • Combine N 1 and N 2
      • The exponent, n , remains the same
      4.31 x 10 4 + 3.9 x 10 3 = 4.31 x 10 4 + 0.39 x 10 4 = 4.70 x 10 4 move decimal left move decimal right
    • Significant Figures 1.8
      • Any digit that is not zero is significant
        • 1.234 kg 4 significant figures
      • Zeros between nonzero digits are significant
        • 606 m 3 significant figures
      • Zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit are not significant
        • 0.08 L 1 significant figure
      • If a number is greater than 1, then all zeros to the right of the decimal point are significant
        • 2.0 mg 2 significant figures
      • If a number is less than 1, then only the zeros that are at the end and in the middle of the number are significant
        • 0.00420 g 3 significant figures
    • How many significant figures are in each of the following measurements? 24 mL 2 significant figures 3001 g 4 significant figures 0.0320 m 3 3 significant figures 6.4 x 10 4 molecules 2 significant figures 560 kg 2 significant figures 1.8
    • Significant Figures 1.8 Addition or Subtraction The answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal point than any of the original numbers. 89.332 1.1 + 90.432 round off to 90.4 one significant figure after decimal point 3.70 -2.9133 0.7867 two significant figures after decimal point round off to 0.79
    • Significant Figures 1.8 Multiplication or Division The number of significant figures in the result is set by the original number that has the smallest number of significant figures 4.51 x 3.6666 = 16.536366 = 16.5 6.8 ÷ 112.04 = 0.0606926 = 0.061 3 sig figs round to 3 sig figs 2 sig figs round to 2 sig figs
    • Significant Figures 1.8 Exact Numbers Numbers from definitions or numbers of objects are considered to have an infinite number of significant figures The average of three measured lengths; 6.64, 6.68 and 6.70? Because 3 is an exact number 6.64 + 6.68 + 6.70 3 = 6.67333 = 6.67 = 7
    • Accuracy – how close a measurement is to the true value Precision – how close a set of measurements are to each other accurate & precise precise but not accurate not accurate & not precise 1.8
    • 1.9 Dimensional Analysis Method of Solving Problems
      • Determine which unit conversion factor(s) are needed
      • Carry units through calculation
      • If all units cancel except for the desired unit(s), then the problem was solved correctly.
      1 L = 1000 mL How many mL are in 1.63 L? 1L 1000 mL 1.63 L x = 1630 mL 1L 1000 mL 1.63 L x = 0.001630 L 2 mL
    • The speed of sound in air is about 343 m/s. What is this speed in miles per hour? 1 mi = 1609 m 1 min = 60 s 1 hour = 60 min meters to miles seconds to hours 1.9 343 m s x 1 mi 1609 m 60 s 1 min x 60 min 1 hour x = 767 mi hour
    • QUIZ 1
      • Classify each of the following as a pure substance or a mixture; if a mixture, indicate whether it is homogenous or heterogeneous: a. seawater; b. magnesium; c. sand
      • A solid white substance A is heated strongly in the absence of air. It decomposes to form a new white substance B and a gas C. The gas has exactly the same properties as the product obtained when carbon is burned in oxygen. What can we say about whether solids A and B and the gas C are elements or compounds?
      • Carry out the following operations: a. 1.24056 + 75.80; b. 123.1 x 1.01; c. 6.600 x 10 2 /3.3 x 10 4