• The creation of the paper battery drew from a diverse pool of
disciplanes, requiring expertise in materials science, energy
storage and chemistry.
• In august 2007, a research team at Rensselear polytechnic
Institute led by Drs. Robert Linhardt, the Ann and John H.Broad
Bent, senior constellation professors of bio catalysis and
Metabolic engineering at Rensselaer, the Pulickel M.Ajayan,
Professor of materials science and engineering AND Omkaram
Nalamasu, professor of chemistry with a joint appointment in
Material science and engineering developed the paper battery,
also known as nano composite paper.
Electrochemical reaction - a chemical reaction
between elements which creates electrons.
Oxidation occurs on the metals (“electrodes”),
which creates the electrons.
Electrons are transferred down the pile via the
saltwater paper (the “electrolyte”).
A charge is introduced at one pole, which builds
as it moves down the pile.
Recharge-ability & the
Recharge-ability: basically, when the direction
of electron discharge (negative to positive) is
reversed, restoring power.
The Memory EffectMemory Effect: (generally) When a
battery is repeatedly recharged before it has
discharged more than half of its power, it will
“forget” its original power capacity.
Cadmium crystals are the culprit! (NiCd)
Lithium (Ion) Battery
In the 1970’s, Lithium metal was used but its
instability rendered it unsafe and impractical.
Lithium-cobalt oxideLithium-cobalt oxide and graphitegraphite are
now used as the lithium-Ion-moving
The Lithium-Ion battery has a slightly lower
energy density than Lithium metal, but is
much safer. Introduced by Sony in 1991.
Advantages of Using
POWERPOWER – High energy density means greater
power in a smaller package.
160% greater than NiMH
220% greater than NiCd
HIGHER VOLTAGEHIGHER VOLTAGE – a strong current allows it to
power complex mechanical devices.
LONG SHELF-LIFELONG SHELF-LIFE – only 5% discharge loss per
10% for NiMH, 20% for NiCd
Disadvantages of Li-Ion
EXPENSIVEEXPENSIVE -- 40% more than NiCd.
DELICATEDELICATE -- battery temp must be monitored
from within (which raises the price), and
sealed particularly well.
REGULATIONSREGULATIONS -- when shipping Li-Ion
batteries in bulk (which also raises the price).
Class 9 miscellaneous hazardous material
UN Manual of Tests and Criteria (III, 38.3)
Environmental Impact of
Rechargeable batteries are often recyclable.
Oxidized Lithium is non-toxic, and can be
extracted from the battery, neutralized, and
used as feedstock for new Li-Ion batteries.
• It is a hybrid energy storage device
that combines characteristics of batteries
and super capacitors.
• It takes the high energy storage capacity
of the battery and the high energy density
of the super capacitor which producing
bursts of extreme power.
What is Nanocomposite
Materials and Description
This energy storage device is based on two basic,
inexpensive materials: carbon nanotubes and cellulose.
Also an ionic liquid provides the third component:
electrolyte. Engineered together, they form nanocomposite
paper. It is as thin and flexible as a piece of paper—it can
be twisted, folded, rolled and cut to fit any space without
losing any of its energy. The paper battery can also be
stacked to boost the total power output.
How it is made
• To create this paper we have to first dissolve
the cellulose in the ionic liquid and then
infiltrate the cellulose paper with aligned carbon
nanotubes which form the uniform film.
• Then it is solidified on dry ice, after this
it is soaked in ethonal to remove the ionic liquid
and dried in a vacume, which gives us our final
product: Nanocomposite paper.
A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and
production device formed by combining carbon nanotube s with
a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper.
A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and
super capacitor , combining two components that are separate
in traditional electronics .
This combination allows the battery to provide both long-term,
steady power production and bursts of energy. Non-toxic,
flexible paper batteries have the potential to power the next
generation of electronics, medical devices and hybrid vehicles,
allowing for radical new designs and medical technologies.
WHAT IS A CARBON NANOTUBE?
• A carbon nanotube is a tube-shaped material, made
of carbon, having a diameter measuring on the
• A nanometer is one billionth of the meter or about
one ten-thousandth the thickness of the human hair.
• The graphite layer appears somewhat like a rolled-
up chicken wire with a continuous unbroken
hexagonal mesh and carbon molecules at the
apexes of the hexagons.
• Carbon Nanotubes have many structures, differing in
length, thickness, and in the type of helicity and
number of layers.
• Although they are formed from essentially the same
graphite sheet, their electrical characteristics differ
depending on these variations, acting either as
metals or as semiconductors.
• As a group, Carbon Nanotubes typically have
diameters ranging from <1 nm up to 50 nm. Their
lengths are typically several microns, but recent
advancements have made the nanotubes much
longer, and measured in centimeters.
• . They are among the stiffest and strongest fibers
known, and have remarkable electronic properties
and many other unique characteristics.
• Carbon Nanotubes can be categorized by their
Single-wall Nanotubes (SWNT)
Multi-wall Nanotubes (MWNT)
Double-wall Nanotubes (DWNT)
How Does Nanocyl Produce Carbon
• Nanocyl uses the "Catalytic Carbon Vapour
Deposition" method for producing Carbon
• It involves growing nanotubes on substrates,
thus enabling uniform, large-scale production
of the highest-quality carbon nanotubes
• This proven industrial process is well known
for its reliability and scalability.
What are the Properties of a
• The intrinsic mechanical and transport properties of
Carbon Nanotubes make them the ultimate carbon
• The following tables compare these properties to
other engineering materials. Mechanical properties of
engineering fibers are:
Energy Strength Strain at
1.3 to 2 1 10 to 60 10
1.7 to 2 0.2 to 0.6 1.7 to 5 0.3 to2.4
2 to 2.2 0.4 to 0.96 2.2 to 3.3 0.27 to 0.6
Glass 2.5 0.07/0.08 2.4/4.5 4.8
Kelvar*49 1.4 0.13 3.6 to 4.1 2.8
• Transport properties of conductive materials are:
Carbon nanotube >3000 106 to 107
Copper 400 6*107
1000 2 to 8.5*106
Carbon fiber-PAN 8 to 105 6.5 to 14*106
• Overall, Carbon Nanotubes show a unique combination of
stiffness, strength, and tenacity compared to other fiber materials
which usually lack one or more of these properties.
• Thermal and electrical conductivity are also very high, and
comparable to other conductive materials.
• While a conventional battery contains a number of separate
components, the paper battery integrates all of the battery
components in a single structure, making it more energy
efficient, Integrated devices.
• "The warm up time, power loss, component malfunction; you don't
get those problems with integrated devices. When you transfer
power from one component to another you lose energy. But you
lose less energy in an integrated device."
• You can implant a piece of paper in the body and blood would
serve as an electrolyte.
• The battery contains carbon nanotubes, each about one millionth
of a centimeter thick, which act as an electrode. The nanotubes are
embedded in a sheet of paper soaked in ionic liquid electrolytes,
which conduct the electricity.
How a paper battery works?
• Electricity is the flow of electrical power or electrons
• Batteries produce electrons through a chemical reaction
between electrolyte and metal in the traditional battery.
• Chemical reaction in the paper battery is between
electrolyte and carbon nanotubes.
• Electrons collect on the negative terminal of the battery and
flow along a connected wire to the positive terminal.
• Electrons must flow from the negative to the positive
terminal for the chemical reaction to continue.
• The flexible battery can function even if it is rolled up,
folded or cut.
• Although the power output is currently modest,
increasing the output is easy.
• "If we stack 500 sheets together in a ream, that's 500
times the voltage. If we rip the paper in half we cut
power by 50%. So we can control the power and voltage
• Because the battery consists mainly of paper and
carbon, it could be used to power pacemakers within the
body where conventional batteries pose a toxic threat.
• “We wouldn't want the ionic liquid electrolytes in our
body, but it works without them that is we can implant a
piece of paper in the body and blood would serve as an
• Reaction with water:
• The hydration reaction of sulfuric acid is highly exothermic.
• One should always add the acid to the water rather than the
water to the acid. Because the reaction is in an equilibrium that
favors the rapid protonation of water, addition of acid to the
water ensures that the acid is the limiting reagent.
• This reaction is best thought of as the formation of hydronium
• H2SO4 + H2O → H3O+ + HSO4−
• HSO4− + H2O → H3O+ + SO42−
• Because the hydration of sulfuric acid is thermodynamically
favorable, sulfuric acid is an excellent dehydrating agent.
Reaction with others:
• Concentrated sulfuric acid reacts with sodium chloride, and gives
hydrogen chloride gas and sodium bisulfate:
• NaCl + H2SO4 NaHSO4 + HCl→
• Dilute H2SO4 attacks iron, aluminium, zinc, manganese,
magnesium and nickel, but reactions with tin and copper require
the acid to be hot and concentrated.
• Lead and tungsten, however, are resistant to sulfuric acid.
• The reaction with iron shown below is typical for most of these
metals, but the reaction with tin produces sulfur dioxide rather than
• Fe (s) + H2SO4 (aq) H2 (g) + FeSO4 (aq)→
• Sn (s) + 2 H2SO4 (aq) SnSO4 (aq) + 2 H2O (l) + SO2 (g)→
• These reactions may be taken as typical: the hot concentrated acid
generally acts as an oxidizing agent whereas the dilute acid acts a
• Hence hot concentrated acid reacts with tin, zinc and copper to
produce the salt, water and sulfur dioxide, whereas the dilute acid
reacts with metals high in the reactivity series to produce a salt
• Concentrated sulfuric acid has a very strong affinity for water. It is
sometimes used as a drying agent and can be used to dehydrate
(chemically remove water from) many compounds, e.g., carbohydrates.
• When the concentrated acid mixes with water, large amounts of heat are
• Dilute sulfuric acid is a strong acid and a good electrolyte; it is highly
ionized, much of the heat released in dilution coming from hydration of
the hydrogen ions.
• The dilute acid has most of the properties of common strong acids. It
turns blue litmus red.
• It reacts with many metals (e.g., with zinc), releasing hydrogen gas, H2,
and forming the sulfate of the metal.
• It reacts with most hydroxides and oxides, with some carbonates and
sulfides, and with some salts. Since it is dibasic (i.e., it has two
replaceable hydrogen atoms in each molecule).
• The Fe3+ produced can be precipitated as the hydroxide or hydrous
• Fe3+ (aq) + 3 H2O Fe(OH)3 (s) + 3 H+→
• In case of the lead-acid batteries, the RAYON serves as an
electrolyte. But the rayon is made with sulphuric acid. It
contains 33% of H2SO4 and with specific gravity 1.25, and is
commonly called battery acid.
• As the sulphuric acid is a strong acid and a good electrolyte, it
acts a one of the electrolytes in the manufacture of the paper
• Due to its better properties that is physical and chemical
properties and the reactions with water and with other reagents,
keeping all this in consideration, the sulphuric acid is used as
one of electrolytes of the paper battery.
• Thus in case of other ionic liquid also, we must consider all
these properties, to make it use for the purpose of making
The paper battery combined with the structure of the nanotubes
embedded within gives them their light weight and low cost, making
them attractive for portable electronics, aircraft, automobiles and
toys (such as model aircraft), medical devices such as pacemakers.
The medical uses are particularly attractive because they do not
contain any toxic materials and can be biodegradable, a major
drawback of chemical cells.
However, there is a caution that commercial applications may be
a long way away, because nanotubes are still relatively expensive
to fabricate. Currently, they are making devices a few inches in
In order to be commercially viable, they would like to be able to
make them newspaper size, a size which taken all together would
be powerful enough to power a car.
Cosmetic path: paper battery is set in iontophoresis patch for whitening
Medical path: paper battery is set in iontophoresis patch. It helps to
deliver functional drug i.e., local anesthesia, antichloristic,
anodyne, etc.. Into skin.
RFID tag: paper battery is useful to use as a power source of active
Functional card: paper battery is possible to use as a power source of
melody and display card.
Micro processor; paper battery supply power to micro processor.
Paper battery offers future power
The black piece of paper can power a small light.
Flexible paper batteries could meet the energy demands of
the next generation of gadgets.
The ambition is to produce reams of paper that could one day
power a car.
The paper battery was a glimpse into the future of power
The versatile paper, which stores energy like a conventional
battery, can also double as a capacitor capable of releasing
sudden energy Bursts for high-power applications.
• This energy storage device is cost-effective because
the device can be able to be used in the smallest and
most diversly designed electronics. Such as cell phones,
mp3 players and medical equipment.
• The reasearchers say that it can also be used in
automobiles and aircraft. But it has a poor
processibility, being that it is particularly insoluble of
infuseble. Lastly, the use of ionic liquid makes the
device environmentally friendly; a major concern in